Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-7d684dbfc8-jr2wd Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-09-27T18:12:10.533Z Has data issue: false Feature Flags: { "corePageComponentGetUserInfoFromSharedSession": true, "coreDisableEcommerce": false, "coreDisableSocialShare": false, "coreDisableEcommerceForArticlePurchase": false, "coreDisableEcommerceForBookPurchase": false, "coreDisableEcommerceForElementPurchase": false, "coreUseNewShare": true, "useRatesEcommerce": true } hasContentIssue false

Innovating Democracy?

The Means and Ends of Citizen Participation in Latin America

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  13 April 2023

Thamy Pogrebinschi
Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung


Since democratization, Latin America has experienced a surge in new forms of citizen participation. Yet there is still little comparative knowledge on these so-called democratic innovations. This Element seeks to fill this gap. Drawing on a new dataset with 3,744 cases from 18 countries between 1990 and 2020, it presents the first large-N cross-country study of democratic innovations to date. It also introduces a typology of twenty kinds of democratic innovations, which are based on four means of participation, namely deliberation, citizen representation, digital engagement, and direct voting. Adopting a pragmatist, problem-driven approach, this Element claims that democratic innovations seek to enhance democracy by addressing public problems through combinations of those four means of participation in pursuit of one or more of five ends of innovations, namely accountability, responsiveness, rule of law, social equality, and political inclusion.
Get access
Online ISBN: 9781108690010
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication: 27 April 2023

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Abers, R. (1998). From clientelism to cooperation: Local government, participatory policy, and civic organizing in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Politics & Society, 26(4), 511537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Abers, R., & Keck, M. E. (2013). Practical Authority: Agency and Institutional Change in Brazilian Water Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Abramovay, P. (2017). Sistemas deliberativos e processo decisório congressual: Um estudo sobre a aprovação do Marco Civil da Internet. Doctoral Dissertation. Rio de Janeiro: Instituto de Estudos Sociais e Políticos of the State University of Rio de Janeiro.Google Scholar
Aitamurto, T., & Landemore, H. E. (2015). Five design principles for crowdsourced policymaking. Journal of Social Media for Organizations, 2(1),119.Google Scholar
Alsina, V., & Martí, J. L. (2018). The birth of the CrowdLaw movement: Tech-based citizen participation, legitimacy and the quality of lawmaking. Analyse & Kritik, 40(2), 337358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Altman, D. (2011). Direct Democracy Worldwide. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Altschuler, D., & Corrales, J. (2013). The Promise of Participation: Experiments in Participatory Governance in Honduras and Guatemala. London: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ansell, C. (2011). Pragmatist Democracy. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Arendt, H. (1970). On Violence. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.Google Scholar
Armada, F., Muntaner, C., Chung, H., Williams-Brennan, L., & Benach, J. (2009). Barrio Adentro and the reduction of health inequalities in Venezuela. International Journal of Health Services, 39(1), 161187.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Avritzer, L. (2002). Democracy and the Public Space in Latin America. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Avritzer, L. (2009). Participatory Institutions in Democratic Brazil. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Avritzer, L. (2017). The Two Sides of Institutional Innovation: Promises and Limits of Democratic Participation in Latin America. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baiocchi, G. (2003). Radicals in Power: The Workers’ Party and Experiments in Urban Democracy in Brazil. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
Baiocchi, G., & Ganuza, E. (2017). Popular Democracy. The Paradox of Participation. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Balderacchi, C. (2015). Participatory mechanisms in Bolivia, Ecuador and Venezuela: Deepening or undermining democracy? Government and Opposition, 52(1), 131161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bohman, J. (1998). Survey article: The coming of age of deliberative democracy. The Journal of Political Philosophy, 6(4), 400425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Breuer, A. (2007). Institutions of direct democracy and accountability in Latin America’s presidential democracies. Democratization, 14(4), 554579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Breuer, A., & Welp, Y. (2014). Digital trends in Latin American politics (1990–2012). In Breuer, A. and Welp, Y., eds., Digital Technologies for Democratic Governance in Latin America: Opportunities and Risks. London: Routledge, pp. 116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cameron, M. A., Hershberg, E., & Sharpe, K. (2012). New Institutions for Participatory Democracy in Latin America. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Canel, E. (2010). Barrio Democracy in Latin America: Participatory Decentralization and Community Activism in Montevideo. University Park: Penn State University Press.Google Scholar
Cinara. (2014). Levantamiento de línea base, sistematización y evaluación de los proyectos seleccionados de Ideas para el Cambio 2012. Cali: Universidad del Valle.Google Scholar
Coelho, V. S. P. (2007). Brazilian health councils: Including the excluded? In Cornwall, A. & Coelho, V. S. P. eds., Spaces for Change? London: Zed Books, 3354.Google Scholar
Collado, A. (2018). Las políticas públicas de participación ciudadana en Chile. Revista Estudios de Políticas Públicas, 4(1), 7998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Collier, D., & Levitsky, S. (2009). Conceptual hierarchies in comparative research: The case of democracy. In Collier, D. and Gerring, J., eds., Concepts and Method in Social Science: The Tradition of Giovanni Sartori. London: Routledge, 269288.Google Scholar
Collier, D., LaPorte, J., & Seawright, J. (2008). Putting typologies to work: Concept formation, measurement, and analytic rigor. Political Research Quarterly, 65(1), 217232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cornwall, A., & Coelho, V. S. (2007). Spaces for Change? The Politics of Citizen Participation in New Democratic Arenas, Vol. 4. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
Dagnino, E. (2010). Civil society in Latin America: Participatory citizens or service providers? In H. Moksnes and M. Melin, eds., Power to the People? (Con-)tested Civil Society in Search of Democracy. Uppsala: Uppsala University, 2339.Google Scholar
Dagnino, E., Olvera, A., & Panfichi, A. (2008). Democratic innovation in Latin America: A first look at the democratic participatory project. In D. Evelina, O. Alberto, and P. Aldo, eds., Democratic Innovation in the South. Buenos Aires: Consejo Latinoamericano de Ciencias Sociales, 2746.Google Scholar
Dewey, J. (1939). The Public and its Problems. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Donaghy, M. M. (2013). Civil Society and Participatory Governance: Municipal Councils and Social Housing Programs in Brazil. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dryzek, J. S. (2007). Theory, evidence, and the tasks of deliberation. In Rosenberg, S., ed., Deliberation, Participation and Democracy. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 237250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Durán-Martínez, A. (2012). Presidents, parties, and referenda in Latin America. Comparative Political Studies, 45(9), 11591187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Elstub, S., & Escobar, O. (2019). Defining and typologising democratic innovations. In S. Elstub and O. Escobar, eds., Handbook of Democratic Innovation and Governance. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 1131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Falleti, T. G., & Cunial, S. L. (2018). Participation in Social Policy: Public Health in Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Falleti, T. G., & Riofrancos, T. (2018). Endogenous participation: Strengthening prior consultation in extractive economies. World Politics, 70(1), 86121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
FAO [Food and Agriculture Organization], IFAD [International Fund for Agricultural Development] & WFP [World Food Programme]. (2013). The State of Food Insecurity in the World: The Multiple Dimensions of Food Security. Rome: FAO.Google Scholar
Fiorini, E. (2015). COPISA in Ecuador: Participation that Wasn’t. Master’s Thesis. Tucson: Graduate College of Latin American Studies, University of Arizona.Google Scholar
Flemmer, R., & Schilling‐Vacaflor, A. (2016). Unfulfilled promises of the consultation approach: The limits to effective indigenous participation in Bolivia’s and Peru’s extractive industries. Third World Quarterly, 37(1), 172–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frega, R. (2019). Pragmatism and the Wide View of Democracy. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fung, A. (2003). Recipes for public spheres: Eight institutional design choices and their consequences. Journal of Political Philosophy, 1(3), 338–67.Google Scholar
Fung, A. (2006). Varieties of participation in complex governance. Public Administration Review, 66(1), 6675.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fung, A. (2011). Reinventing democracy in Latin America. Perspective on Politics, 9(4), 857–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fung, A. (2012). Continuous institutional innovation and the pragmatic conception of democracy. Polity, 44(4), 609624.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fung, A. (2015). Putting the public back into governance: The challenges of citizen participation and its future. Public Administration Review, 75(4), 513–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fung, A., & Wright, R. O. (2003). Deepening Democracy: Institutional Innovations in Empowered Participatory Governance. London: Verso.Google Scholar
Ganuza, E., & Baiocchi, G. (2012). The power of ambiguity: How participatory budgeting travels the globe. Journal of Public Deliberation, 8(2), 112.Google Scholar
García-Guadilla, M. (2008). La praxis de los consejos comunales en Venezuela. Revista Venezolana de Economía y Ciencias Sociales, 14(1), 125–51.Google Scholar
Geissel, B. (2012). Impacts of democratic innovations in Europe: Findings and desiderata. In B. Geissel and K. Newton, eds., Evaluating Democratic Innovations: Curing the Democratic Malaise? London: Routledge, 163–83.Google Scholar
Geissel, B. (2013). Introduction: On the Evaluation of Participatory Innovations - A Preliminary Framework. In Geissel, B., & Joas, M. eds. Participatory democratic innovations in Europe: Improving the quality of democracy? Verlag Barbara Budrich.Google Scholar
Goldfrank, B. (2006). Los procesos de “presupuesto participativo” en América Latina: Éxito, fracaso y cambio. Revista de Ciencia Política (Santiago), 26(2), 328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goldfrank, B. (2011). Deepening Local Democracy in Latin America. Philadelphia: Pennsylvania State University Press.Google Scholar
Goldfrank, B. (2012). The World Bank and the globalization of participatory budgeting. Journal of Public Deliberation, 8(2), 118.Google Scholar
Habermas, J. (1996). Between Facts and Norms. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hall, P. A., & Thelen, K. (2009). Institutional change in varieties of capitalism. Socio-economic review, 7(1), 734.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hawkins, K. A. (2010). Who mobilizes? Participatory democracy in Chávez’s Bolivarian revolution. Latin American Politics and Society, 52, 3166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heller, P., & Rao, V. (2015). Deliberation and Development. Washington, DC: World Bank.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Helmke, G., & Levitsky, S. (2004). Informal institutions and comparative politics: A research agenda. Perspectives on Politics, 2(4), 725740.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Helvetas & UNICEF. (2018). El primer Programa de Saneamiento Total Liderado por la Comunidad (SANTOLIC) en Guatemala, Scholar
Hendriks, C. (2016). Coupling citizens and elites in deliberative systems: The role of institutional design. European Journal of Political Research, 55(1), 4360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Herrera, V. (2017). From participatory promises to partisan capture: Local democratic transitions and Mexican water politics. Comparative Politics, 49(4), 479499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
He, B., & Warren, M. E. (2011). Authoritarian Deliberation: The Deliberative Turn in Chinese Political Development. Perspectives on Politics, 9(2), 269289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hevia, F. J., & Isunza Vera, E. (2012). Participación acotada: Consejos consultivos e incidencia en políticas públicas en el ámbito federal mexicano. In M. A. Cameron, E. Hershberg and K. E. Sharp, eds., Nuevas instituciones de democracia participativa en América Latina: La voz y sus consecuencias. Mexico City: Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales, pp. 105–36.Google Scholar
International, IDEA. (2021). Global State of Democracy Report 2021, Scholar
Jann, W., & Wegrich, K. (2007). Theories of the Policy Cycle. In F. Fischer, G. J. Miller and M. S. Sidney, eds., Handbook of Public Policy Analysis. New York: Routledge, 4362.Google Scholar
Knight, J., & Johnson, J. (2011). The Priority of Democracy: Political Consequences of Pragmatism. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Knill, C., & Tosun, J. (2012). Public Policy: A New Introduction. London: Macmillan International Higher Education.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Latinobarómetro Corporation. (2021). Latinobarómetro Report 2021, Scholar
Levitsky, S., & Loxton, J. (2013). Populism and competitive authoritarianism in the Andes. Democratization, 20(1), 107–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Levitsky, S., & Murillo, M. V. (2009). Variation in institutional strength. Annual Review of Political Science, 12, 115–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lissidini, A. (2010). Democracia directa en América Latina: Riesgos y oportunidades. Buenos Aires: Prometeo.Google Scholar
López Maya, M. (2011). Los consejos comunales en Caracas vistos por sus participantes: una exploración. Política & Sociedad, 10(18), 187222.Google Scholar
Mainwaring, S. (2012). From Representative Democracy to Participatory Competitive Authoritarianism: Hugo Chávez and Venezuelan Politics. Perspectives on Politics, 10(4), 955967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mansbridge, J. (2015). A minimalist definition of deliberation. In P. Heller and V. Rao, eds., Deliberation and Development. Washington, DC: World Bank, 2749.Google Scholar
Mansbridge, J., Bohman, J., Chambers., S. et al. (2012). A systemic approach to deliberative democracy. In J. Parkinson and J. Mansbridge, eds., Deliberative Systems. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 126.Google Scholar
Margetts, H., John, P., Hale, S., & Yasseri, T. (2015). Political Turbulence: How Social Media Shape Collective Action. Princeton: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mayka, L. (2019). Building Participatory Institutions in Latin America: Reform Coalitions and Institutional Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McAdam, D., Tarrow, S., & Tilly, C. (2001). The Dynamics of Contention. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McNulty, S. L. (2019). Democracy from Above? The Unfulfilled Promise of Nationally Mandated Participatory Reforms. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Merkel, W. (2011). Volksabstimmungen: Illusion und Realität. Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte, 44(45), 4755.Google Scholar
Morlino, L. (2011). Changes for Democracy: Actors, Structures, Processes. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Muntaner, C., Armada, F., Chung, H., et al. (2008). “Barrio Adentro” en Venezuela: Democracia participativa, cooperación sur-sur y salud para todos. Medicina Social, 3(4), 306–22.Google Scholar
Murillo, M. V. (2020). Elections and Protests in Latin America: Covid-19’s Impact. Items, Insights from the Social Science, Scholar
Murillo, M. V. (2021). Protestas, descontento y democracia en América Latina. Nueva Sociedad (294), Scholar
Noveck, B. S. (2018). CrowdLaw: Collective intelligence and lawmaking. Analyse & Kritik, 40, 359–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
O’Donnell, G., & Schmitter, P. C. (1986). Transitions from Authoritarian Rule: Tentative Conclusions about Uncertain Democracies. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University.Google Scholar
O’Donnell, G. (1993). On the state, democratization and some conceptual problems: A Latin American view with glances at some postcommunist countries. World Development, 21(8), 13551369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
O’Donnell, G. (2004). The quality of democracy: Why the rule of law matters. Journal of Democracy, 4, 3246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
OECD. (2020). Innovative Citizen Participation and New Democratic Institutions: Catching the Deliberative Wave. Paris: OECD Publishing. Scholar
Paredes, J. P. (2011). Ciudadanía, participación y democracia: Deuda y déficit en los 20 años de “democracia” en Chile. Polis, Revista de la Universidad Bolivariana, 10(20), 473499.Google Scholar
Parkinson, J. (2012). Democratizing deliberative systems. In J. Parkinson and J. Mansbridge, eds., Deliberative Systems. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 151–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pateman, C. (2012). Participatory democracy revisited. Perspectives on Politics, 10(1), 719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Peixoto, T., & Sifry, M. L. (2017). Civic Tech in The Global South: Assessing Technology for the Public Good. Washington, DC: World Bank Personal Democracy Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pitkin, H. F. (1967). The Concept of Representation. Berkeley: University of California Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pogrebinschi, T. (2013).The Pragmatic Turn of Democracy in Latin America. FES Studies. Berlin: Friedrich-Erbert-Stiftung.Google Scholar
Pogrebinschi, T. (2018). Experimenting with participation and deliberation in Latin America: Is democracy turning pragmatic? In Falleti, T. and Parrado, E., eds., Latin America Since the Left Turn. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 241263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pogrebinschi, T. (2020). Might social intelligence save Latin America from its governments in times of Covid-19? Open Democracy, Scholar
Pogrebinschi, T. (2021a). LATINNO Dataset on Democratic Innovations in Latin America. Version 1.0.0. WZB Berlin Social Science Center. Dataset, DOI: Scholar
Pogrebinschi, T. (2021b). Codebook for the LATINNO Dataset. Berlin: WZB Berlin Social Science Center.Google Scholar
Pogrebinschi, T. (2021c). Thirty Years of Democratic Innovations in Latin America. Berlin: WZB Berlin Social Science Center.Google Scholar
Pogrebinschi, T. & Acosta, F. A. (2023). The Impact of Democratic Innovations in Latin America. In: Jacquet, V., Ryan, M., & van der Does, R. (Eds.). The impact of democratic innovations. Colchester: ECPR Press, 2023.Google Scholar
Pogrebinschi, T., & Ross, M. (2019). Democratic innovations in Latin America. In S. Elstub and O. Escobar, eds., Handbook of Democratic Innovation and Governance. Massachusetts, USA: Edward Elgar, 389403.Google Scholar
Pogrebinschi, T., & Samuels, D. (2014). The impact of participatory democracy: Evidence from Brazil’s national public policy conference. Comparative Politics, 46(3), 313332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pogrebinschi, T., & Santos, F. (2011). Participação como representação: O impacto das conferências nacionais de políticas públicas no Congresso Nacional. Dados, 54(3), 259305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pogrebinschi, T., & Tanscheit, T. (2017a). Moving Backwards: What Happened to Citizen Participation in Brazil? Open Democracy, Scholar
Pogrebinschi, T., & Ventura, T. (2017b). Mais participação, maior responsividade? Dados, 60(1), 743.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rich, J. A., Mayka, L., & Montero, A. P. (2019). The politics of participation in Latin America: New actors and institutions. Latin American Politics and Society, 61(2), 120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roberts, K. M. (1998). Deepening Democracy? The Modern Left and Social Movements in Chile and Peru. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Roberts, K. M. (2016). (Re)Politicizing inequalities: Movements, parties, and social citizenship in Chile. Journal of Politics in Latin America, 8(3), 125–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ryan, M. (2021). Why Citizen Participation Succeeds or Fails: A Comparative Analysis of Participatory Budgeting. Bristol: Bristol University Press.Google Scholar
Sartori, G. (1970). Concept misformation in comparative politics. American Political Science Review, 64(4), 1033–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sartori, G. (2009 [1975]). The tower of Babel. In Collier, D. and Gerring, J., eds., Concepts and Method in Social Science: The Tradition of Giovanni Sartori. London: Routledge, 97150.Google Scholar
Selee, A., & Peruzzotti, E. (eds.) (2009). Participatory Innovation and Representative Democracy in Latin America. Baltimore: Woodrow Wilson Center PressCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, G. (2009). Democratic Innovations: Designing Institutions for Citizen Participation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shenk, J. (2022). Comparative Politics, Volume 55, Number 1, October 2022, pp. 122(22).Google Scholar
Smith, G. (2019). Reflections on the theory and practice of democratic innovations. In S. Elstub and O. Escobar, eds., Handbook of Democratic Innovation and Governance. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 572582.Google Scholar
Spada, P., & Ryan, M. (2017), The failure to examine failures in democratic innovations. PS: Political Science & Politics, 50(3), 772778.Google Scholar
Statista. (2021). Number of internet users in selected Latin American countries 2021 (in millions). Statista Inc. Scholar
Strandberg, K., & Grönlund, K. (2018). Online deliberation. In : A. Bächtiger, J. S. Dryzek, J. Mansbridge and M. E. Warren, eds., The Oxford Handbook of Deliberative Democracy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 365377.Google Scholar
Tapia, A. and Hernandez, M. (2016). La situación de los defensores de Derechos Humanos en Colombia. Cuadernos Deusto de Derechos Humanos, 82.Google Scholar
Touchton, M., & Wampler, B. (2014). Improving social well-being through new democratic institutions. Comparative Political Studies, 47(10), 14421469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
UNDP Honduras. (2019). Avances en municipios con los Observatorios Municipales de Convivencia y Seguridad Ciudadana (OMCSC). Retrieved from Scholar
UNDP. (2009). Guatemala: hacia un estado para el desarollo humano. Informe nacional de desarrollo humano 2009/2010. Scholar
UNDP. (2014). Devolución del Diálogo Nacional sobre VIH y el derecho: Un proceso participativo de consulta sobre los retos en Guatemala.Google Scholar
Unger, R. (1998). Democracy Realized. London: Verso.Google Scholar
Urbinati, N., & Warren, M. E. (2008). The concept of representation in contemporary democratic theory. Annual Review of Political Science, 11, 387412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Velásquez, F. E. (2011). La institucionalización de la participación en Colombia. Política & Sociedade, 10(18), 155186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
von Bülow, M., & Donoso, S. (2017). Introduction: Social movements in contemporary Chile. In S. Donoso and M. von Bülow, eds., Social Movements in Chile: Organization, Trajectories, and Political Consequences. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wampler, B. (2007). Participatory Budgeting in Brazil: Contestation, Cooperation, and Accountability. University Park: Penn State University Press.Google Scholar
Wampler, B., & Goldfrank, B. (2022). The Rise, Spread, and Decline of Brazil’s Participatory Budgeting. The Arc of a Democratic Innovation, Cham, Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wampler, B., McNulty, S., & Touchton, M. (2021). Participatory Budgeting in Global Perspective. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wampler, B., Sugiyama, N. B., & Touchton, M. (2019). Democracy at Work: Pathways to Well-Being in Brazil. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Warren, M. E. (2008). Citizen representatives. In Warren, M. and Pearse, H., eds., Designing Deliberative Democracy: The British Columbia Citizens’ Assembly. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 5069.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Warren, M. E. (2009). Governance driven democratization. Critical Policy Studies, 3(3), 313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Warren, M. E. (2017). A Problem-based approach to democratic theory. American Political Science Review, 111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Welp, Y. (2018). Recall referendum around the world. In L. Morel and M. Qvortrup, eds., The Routledge Handbook to Referendums and Direct Democracy. New York: Routledge, 451463.Google Scholar
Zaremberg, G., Guarneros-Meza, V., & Lavalle, A. G. (2017). Intermediation and Representation in Latin America. London: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Save element to Kindle

To save this element to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Innovating Democracy?
  • Thamy Pogrebinschi, Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung
  • Online ISBN: 9781108690010
Available formats

Save element to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Innovating Democracy?
  • Thamy Pogrebinschi, Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung
  • Online ISBN: 9781108690010
Available formats

Save element to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Innovating Democracy?
  • Thamy Pogrebinschi, Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung
  • Online ISBN: 9781108690010
Available formats