Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Should You Stay Away from Strangers?

Should You Stay Away from Strangers?

  • Experiments on the Political Consequences of Intergroup Contact
  • Ethan Busby

Harmonious relationships between groups are critical for democracy, and intergroup contact presents an appealing way to encourage this harmony. However, what kinds of contact work best? Ethan Busby reviews existing studies of contact, propose a framework for studying the political consequences of contact, and discusses four experiments following these recommendations. These studies focus on equal status contact and rely on different samples and contexts. Busby finds that equal-status does not promote more political support for racial and ethnic outgroups and can reduce outgroup support. The Element is concluded by discussing the implications of these findings for the study of contact generally.

  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Buy the Element
  • Copyright

  • COPYRIGHT: © Ethan Busby 2021

References

Hide all
Bobo, Lawrence D., and Hutchings, Vincent L.. 1996. “Perceptions of Racial Group Competition: Extending Blumer’s Theory of Group Position to a Multiracial Social Context.” American Sociological Review 61: 951–972. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Cakal, Huseyin, Hewstone, Miles, Schwär, Gerhard, and Heath, Anthony. 2011. “An Investigation of the Social Identity Model of Collective Action and the ‘Sedative’ Effect of Intergroup Contact among Black and White Students in South Africa.” British Journal of Social Psychology 50 (4): 606–627. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Chanley, Virginia. 1994. “Commitment to Political Tolerance: Situational and Activity-Based Differences.” Political Behavior 16 (3): 343–363. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Danbold, Felix, and Huo, Yuen J.. 2015. “No Longer ‘All-American’? Whites’ Defensive Reactions to Their Numerical Decline.” Social Psychological and Personality Science 6 (2): 210–218. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Craig, Maureen A., and Richeson, Jennifer A.. 2014a. “On the Precipice of a ‘Majority-Minority’ America: Perceived Status Threat from the Racial Demographic Shift Affects White Americans’ Political Ideology.” Psychological Science 25 (6): 1189–1197. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Dawson, Michael C. 1995. Behind the Mule: Race and Class in African-American Politics. Princeton: Princeton University Press. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Deutsch, Morton, and Collins, Mary Evans. 1951. Interracial Housing: A Psychological Evaluation of a Social Experiment. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Google Scholar
    Emery, Nathan J. 2000. “The Eyes Have It: The Neuroethology, Function and Evolution of Social Gaze.” Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 24 (6): 581–604. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Alvídrez, Salvador, Piñeiro-Naval, Valeriano, Marcos-Ramos, María, and Rojas-Solís., José Luis 2015. “Intergroup Contact in Computer-Mediated Communication: The Interplay of a Stereotype-Disconfirming Behavior and a Lasting Group Identity on Reducing Prejudiced Perceptions.” Computers in Human Behavior 52 (November): 533–540. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Barth, Jay, Overby, L. Marvin, and Huffmon, Scott H.. 2009. “Community Context, Personal Contact, and Support for an Anti-Gay Rights Referendum.” Political Research Quarterly 62 (2): 355–365. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Cohen, Elizabeth G., and Lotan, Rachel A.. 1995. “Producing Equal-Status Interaction in the Heterogeneous Classroom.” American Educational Research Journal 32 (1): 99–120. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Dixon, John, Durrheim, Kevin, and Tredoux, Colin. 2005. “Beyond the Optimal Contact Strategy: A Reality Check for the Contact Hypothesis.” American Psychologist 60 (7): 697–711. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Barber, Benjamin R. 1984. Strong Democracy: Participatory Politics for a New Age. Berkeley: University of California Press. Google Scholar
    Berinsky, Adam J., Huber, Gregory A., and Lenz, Gabriel S.. 2012. “Evaluating Online Labor Markets for Experimental Research: Amazon.com’s Mechanical Turk.” Political Analysis 20 (3): 351–368. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Blinder, Scott, Ford, Robert, and Ivarsflaten, Elisabeth. 2013. “The Better Angels of Our Nature: How the Antiprejudice Norm Affects Policy and Party Preferences in Great Britain and Germany.” American Journal of Political Science 57 (4): 841–857. Google Scholar
    Bodenhausen, Galen V., Kang, Sonia K., and Peery, Destiny. 2012. “Social Categorization and the Perception of Social Groups.” In Sage Handbook of Social Cognition, edited by Fiske, Susan T. and Macrae, C. Neil, 311–329. Los Angeles: Sage. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Brewer, Marilynn B. 1999. “The Psychology of Prejudice: Ingroup Love and Outgroup Hate?” Journal of Social Issues 55 (3): 429–444. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Christ, Oliver, Schmid, Katharina, Lolliot, Simon, Swart, Hermann, Stolle, Dietlind, Tausch, Nicole, Al Ramiah, Ananthi, Wagner, Ulrich, Vertovec, Steven, and Hewstone, Miles. 2014. “Contextual Effect of Positive Intergroup Contact on Outgroup Prejudice.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111 (11): 3996–4000. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Cohen, Elizabeth G., Lockheed, Marlaine E., and Lohman, Mark R.. 1976. “The Center for Interracial Cooperation: A Field Experiment.” Sociology of Education 49 (1): 47–58. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Ellemers, Naomi, Doosje, Bertjan, Van Knippenberg, Ad, and Wilke, Henk. 1992. “Status Protection in High Status Minority Groups.” European Journal of Social Psychology 22 (2): 123–140. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Berinsky, Adam J., and Kinder, Donald R.. 2006. “Making Sense of Issues Through Media Frames: Understanding the Kosovo Crisis.” The Journal of Politics 68 (3): 640–656. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Berkowitz, Leonard, and Donnerstein, Edward. 1982. “External Validity Is More than Skin Deep: Some Answers to Criticisms of Laboratory Experiments.” American Psychologist 37 (3): 245–257. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Broockman, David, and Kalla, Joshua. 2016. “Durably Reducing Transphobia: A Field Experiment on Door-to-Door Canvassing.” Science 352 (6282): 220–224. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Druckman, James N., and Leeper, Thomas J.. 2012. “Learning More from Political Communication Experiments: Pretreatment and Its Effects.” American Journal of Political Science 56 (4): 875–896. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Enos, Ryan D. 2014. “Causal Effect of Intergroup Contact on Exclusionary Attitudes.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111 (10): 3699–3704. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Balliet, Daniel, Wu, Junhui, and De Dreu, Carsten K. W.. 2014. “Ingroup Favoritism in Cooperation: A Meta-Analysis.” Psychological Bulletin 140 (6): 1556–1581. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Danyluck, Chad, and Page-Gould., Elizabeth 2018. “Intergroup Dissimilarity Predicts Physiological Synchrony and Affiliation in Intergroup Interaction.” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 74 (January): 111–120. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Barth, Jay, and Parry, Janine. 2009. “2 > 1 + 1? The Impact of Contact with Gay and Lesbian Couples on Attitudes about Gays/Lesbians and Gay-Related Policies.” Politics & Policy 37 (1): 31–50. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Blalock, Hubert M. 1967. Toward a Theory of Minority-Group Relations. New York: Wiley. Google Scholar
    Blumer, Herbert. 1958. “Race Prejudice as a Sense of Group Position.” The Pacific Sociological Review 1 (1): 3–7. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Cuddy, Amy J. C., Fiske, Susan T., and Glick, Peter. 2008. “Warmth and Competence as Universal Dimensions of Social Perception: The Stereotype Content Model and the BIAS Map.” In Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Vol. 40, edited by Zanna, Mark P., 61–149. San Diego: Elsevier. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Enos, Ryan D. 2016. “What the Demolition of Public Housing Teaches Us about the Impact of Racial Threat on Political Behavior.” American Journal of Political Science 60 (1): 123–142. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Ellison, Christopher G., Shin, Heeju, and Leal, David L.. 2011. “The Contact Hypothesis and Attitudes Toward Latinos in the United States.” Social Science Quarterly 92 (4): 938–958. Google Scholar
    Alter, Adam L., and Oppenheimer, Daniel M.. 2009. “Uniting the Tribes of Fluency to Form a Metacognitive Nation.” Personality and Social Psychology Review 13 (3): 219–235. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Bettencourt, B., Charlton, Kelly, Dorr, Nancy, and Hume, Deborah L.. 2001. “Status Differences and In-Group Bias: A Meta-Analytic Examination of the Effects of Status Stability, Status Legitimacy, and Group Permeability.” Psychological Bulletin 127 (4): 520–542. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Chambers, John R., Baron, Robert S., and Inman, Mary L.. 2006. “Misperceptions in Intergroup Conflict: Disagreeing About What We Disagree About.” Psychological Science 17 (1): 38–45. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Dixon, John, Tropp, Linda R., Durrheim, Kevin, and Tredoux, Colin. 2010. “‘Let Them Eat Harmony’ Prejudice-Reduction Strategies and Attitudes of Historically Disadvantaged Groups.” Current Directions in Psychological Science 19 (2): 76–80. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Druckman, James N., and Kam, Cindy D.. 2011. “Students as Experimental Participants: A Defense of the ‘Narrow Data Base.’” In Cambridge Handbook of Experimental Political Science, edited by Druckman, James N., Green, Donald P, Kuklinski, James H., and Lupia, Arthur, 41–57. New York: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Bagci, Sabahat C., and Turnuklu, Abbas. 2019. “Intended, Unintended, and Unknown Consequences of Contact: The Role of Positive–Negative Contact on Outgroup Attitudes, Collective Action Tendencies, and Psychological Well-Being.” Social Psychology 50 (1): 7–23. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Arceneaux, Kevin, and Johnson, Martin. 2013. Changing Minds or Changing Channels? Partisan News in an Age of Choice. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Blanken, Irene, van de Ven, Niels, and Zeelenberg, Marcel. 2015. “A Meta-Analytic Review of Moral Licensing.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 41 (4): 540–558. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Brown, Kendrick T., Brown, Tony N., Jackson, James S., Sellers, Robert M., and Manuel, Warde J.. 2003. “Teammates On and Off the Field? Contact With Black Teammates and the Racial Attitudes of White Student Athletes.” Journal of Applied Social Psychology 33 (7): 1379–1403. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Cohen, Elizabeth G., and Roper, Susan S.. 1972. “Modification of Interracial Interaction Disability: An Application of Status Characteristic Theory.” American Sociological Review 37 (6): 643–657. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Bobo, Lawrence D. 2000. “Race and Beliefs about Affirmative Action: Assessing the Effects of Interests, Group Threat, Ideology, and Racism.” In Racialized Politics: The Debate about Racism in America, edited by Sears, David O., Bobo, Lawrence, and Sidanius, Jim, 137–164. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Google Scholar
    Brannon, Laura A., Tagler, Michael J., and Eagly, Alice H.. 2007. “The Moderating Role of Attitude Strength in Selective Exposure to Information.” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 43 (4): 611–617. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Chambers, Simone. 2003. “Deliberative Democratic Theory.” Annual Review of Political Science 6 (1): 307–326. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Dahl, Robert A. 1989. Democracy and Its Critics. New Haven: Yale University Press. Google Scholar
    Bachrach, Peter, and Baratz, Morton S.. 1962. “Two Faces of Power.” The American Political Science Review 56 (4): 947–952. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    DiPrete, Thomas A., Gelman, Andrew, McCormick, Tyler, Teitler, Julien, and Zheng, Tian. 2011. “Segregation in Social Networks Based on Acquaintanceship and Trust.” American Journal of Sociology 116 (4): 1234–1283. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Abrajano, Marisa, and Hajnal, Zoltan L.. 2015. White Backlash: Immigration, Race, and American Politics. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Google Scholar
    Bishoff, Kendra, and Reardon, Sean F.. 2014. “Residential Segregation by Income, 1970–2009.” In The Lost Decade? Social Change in the U.S. after 2000, edited by Logan, John R., 208–234. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. Google Scholar
    Achen, Christopher H., and Bartels, Larry M.. 2016. Democracy for Realists: Why Elections Do Not Produce Responsive Government. Princeton: Princeton University Press. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Barlow, Fiona Kate, Paolini, Stefania, Pedersen, Anne, Hornsey, Matthew J., Radke, Helena R. M., Harwood, Jake, Rubin, Mark, and Sibley, Chris G.. 2012. “The Contact Caveat Negative Contact Predicts Increased Prejudice More Than Positive Contact Predicts Reduced Prejudice.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 38 (12): 1629–1643. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Binder, Jens, Zagefka, Hanna, Brown, Rupert, Funke, Friedrich, Kessler, Thomas, Mummendey, Amelie, Maquil, Annemie, Demoulin, Stephanie, and Leyens, Jacques-Philippe. 2009. “Does Contact Reduce Prejudice or Does Prejudice Reduce Contact? A Longitudinal Test of the Contact Hypothesis among Majority and Minority Groups in Three European Countries.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 96 (4): 843–856. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Coppock, Alexander. 2018. “Generalizing from Survey Experiments Conducted on Mechanical Turk: A Replication Approach.” Political Science Research and Methods 7 (3): 613–628. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Devine, Patricia G. 1989. “Stereotypes and Prejudice: Their Automatic and Controlled Components.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 56 (1): 5–18. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Eller, Anja, and Abrams, Dominic. 2004. “Come Together: Longitudinal Comparisons of Pettigrew’s Reformulated Intergroup Contact Model and the Common Ingroup Identity Model in Anglo-French and Mexican-American Contexts.” European Journal of Social Psychology 34 (3): 229–256. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Bracic, Ana, Israel-Trummel, Mackenzie, and Shortle, Allyson F.. 2019. “Is Sexism for White People? Gender Stereotypes, Race, and the 2016 Presidential Election.” Political Behavior 41 (2): 281–307. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Caughey, Devin, Dafoe, Allan, and Seawright, Jason. 2017. “Nonparametric Combination (NPC): A Framework for Testing Elaborate Theories.” The Journal of Politics 79 (2): 688–701. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Craig, Maureen A., and Richeson, Jennifer A. 2014b. “More Diverse Yet Less Tolerant? How the Increasingly Diverse Racial Landscape Affects White Americans’ Racial Attitudes.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 40 (6): 750–761. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Durrant, Gabriele B., Groves, Robert M., Staetsky, Laura, and Steele, Fiona. 2010. “Effects of Interviewer Attitudes and Behaviors on Refusal in Household Surveys.” Public Opinion Quarterly 74 (1): 1–36. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Finseraas, Henning, and Kotsadam, Andreas. 2017. “Does Personal Contact with Ethnic Minorities Affect Anti-Immigrant Sentiments? Evidence from a Field Experiment.” European Journal of Political Research 56 (March): 703–722. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Enos, Ryan D., and Celaya, Christopher. 2018. “The Effect of Segregation on Intergroup Relations.” Journal of Experimental Political Science 5 (1): 26–38. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Allport, Gordon W. 1954. The Nature of Prejudice. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Google Scholar
    Fiske, Susan T. 2015. “Intergroup Biases: A Focus on Stereotype Content.” Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences 3 (June): 45–50. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Kinder, Donald R., and Sears, David O.. 1981. “Prejudice and Politics: Symbolic Racism versus Racial Threats to the Good Life.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 40 (3): 414–431. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Greenwald, Anthony G., and Pettigrew, Thomas F.. 2014. “With Malice toward None and Charity for Some: Ingroup Favoritism Enables Discrimination.” American Psychologist 69 (7): 669–684. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Hopkins, Daniel J. 2010. “Politicized Places: Explaining Where and When Immigrants Provoke Local Opposition.” American Political Science Review 104 (1): 40–60. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    King, Desmond S., and Smith, Rogers M. 2014. “‘Without Regard to Race’: Critical Ideational Development in Modern American Politics.” The Journal of Politics 76 (04): 958–971. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Knobloch-Westerwick, Silvia, and Meng, Jingbo. 2009. “Looking the Other Way: Selective Exposure to Attitude-Consistent and Counterattitudinal Political Information.” Communication Research 36 (3): 426–448. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Lakens, Daniël. 2017. “Equivalence Tests: A Practical Primer for t Tests, Correlations, and Meta-Analyses.” Social Psychological and Personality Science 8 (4): 355–362. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Loewenstein, G. F., Weber, E. U., Hsee, C. K., and Welch, N.. 2001. “Risk as Feelings.” Psychological Bulletin 127 (2): 267–286. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Mendes, Wendy Berry, Jim Blascovich, Sarah B. Hunter, Brian Lickel, and John T. Jost, . 2007. “Threatened by the Unexpected: Physiological Responses during Social Interactions with Expectancy-Violating Partners.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 92 (4): 698–716. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Gaertner, Samuel L., Mann, Jeffrey A., Dovidio, John F., Murrell, Audrey J., and Pomare, Marina. 1990. “How Does Cooperation Reduce Intergroup Bias?” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 59 (4): 692–704. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Grice, Herbert P. 1975. “Logic and Conversation.” In Speech and Semantics, Vol. 3, Speech Acts, edited by Cole, Peter and Morgan, Jerry L., 41–58. New York: Academic Press. Google Scholar
    Halevy, Nir, Weisel, Ori, and Bornstein, Gary. 2012. “‘In-Group Love’ and ‘Out-Group Hate’ in Repeated Interaction Between Groups.” Journal of Behavioral Decision Making 25 (2): 188–195. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Kirwan institute for the study of race and ethnicity. 2010. “Talking about Race: Toward a Transformative Agenda.” The Ohio State University. www.intergroupresources.com/rc/TAR%20notebook.pdf. Google Scholar
    Mansbridge, Jane J., Bohman, James, Chambers, Simone, Christiano, Thomas, Fung, Archon, Parkinson, John, Thompson, Dennis F., and Warren, Mark E.. 2012. “A Systemic Approach to Deliberative Democracy.” In Deliberative Systems, edited by Parkinson, John and Mansbridge, Jane, 1–26. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar
    Meegan, Daniel V. 2010. “Zero-Sum Bias: Perceived Competition Despite Unlimited Resources.” Frontiers in Psychology 1:191. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Key, Valdimer Orlando. 1949. Southern Politics in a State and Nation. New York: A.A. Knopf. Google Scholar
    Lelkes, Yphtach, and Westwood, Sean J.. 2017. “The Limits of Partisan Prejudice.” The Journal of Politics 79 (2): 485–501. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Mullinix, Kevin J., Leeper, Thomas J., Druckman, James N., and Freese, Jeremy. 2015. “The Generalizability of Survey Experiments.” Journal of Experimental Political Science 2 (2): 109–138. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Nisbett, Richard E., and Cohen, Dov. 1996. Culture Of Honor: The Psychology Of Violence In The South. New Directions in Social Psychology: Self, Cognition & Collectives. New York: Routledge. Google Scholar
    Jackman, Mary R. 1978. “General and Applied Tolerance: Does Education Increase Commitment to Racial Integration?” American Journal of Political Science 22 (2): 302–324. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Jackman, Mary R., and Crane, Marie. 1986. “‘Some of My Best Friends Are Black … ’: Interracial Friendship and Whites’ Racial Attitudes.” The Public Opinion Quarterly 50 (4): 459–486. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    McDermott, Rose. 2002. “Experimental Methodology in Political Science.” Political Analysis 10 (4): 325–342. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Newman, Benjamin J. 2014. “My Poor Friend: Financial Distress in One’s Social Network, the Perceived Power of the Rich, and Support for Redistribution.” The Journal of Politics 76 (1): 126–138. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Hamilton, Alexander, Madison, James, and Jay, John. 2014. The Federalist Papers. New York: Courier Corporation. Google Scholar
    Jackman, Mary R. 1996. “Individualism, Self-Interest, and White Racism.” Social Science Quarterly 77 (4): 760–767. Google Scholar
    Kam, Cindy D., and Kinder, Donald R.. 2012. “Ethnocentrism as a Short-Term Force in the 2008 American Presidential Election.” American Journal of Political Science 56 (2): 326–340. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Major, Brenda, Blodorn, Alison, and Blascovich, Gregory Major. 2018. “The Threat of Increasing Diversity: Why Many White Americans Support Trump in the 2016 Presidential Election.” Group Processes & Intergroup Relations 21 (6): 931–940. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Gibson, James L. 2013. “Measuring Political Tolerance and General Support for Pro–Civil Liberties Policies Notes, Evidence, and Cautions.” Public Opinion Quarterly 77 (S1): 45–68. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Hawley, George. 2011. “Political Threat and Immigration: Party Identification, Demographic Context, and Immigration Policy Preference.” Social Science Quarterly 92 (2): 404–422. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Howe, Lauren C., and Krosnick, Jon A.. 2017. “Attitude Strength.” Annual Review of Psychology 68 (1): 327–351. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-122414–033600. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Moskos, Charles, and Butler, John Sibley. 1996. All That We Can Be: Black Leadership And Racial Integration The Army Way. New York: Basic Books. Google Scholar
    Gilens, Martin. 2000. Why Americans Hate Welfare: Race, Media, and the Politics of Antipoverty Policy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Google Scholar
    King, Desmond S., and Smith, Rogers M.. 2011. Still a House Divided: Race and Politics in Obama’s America. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Google Scholar
    Lick, David J., and Johnson, Kerri L.. 2015. “The Interpersonal Consequences of Processing Ease: Fluency as a Metacognitive Foundation for Prejudice.” Current Directions in Psychological Science 24 (2): 143–148. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Lukes, Steven. 1974. Power: A Radical View. London: Macmillan. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Mutz, Diana C. 2018. “Status Threat, Not Economic Hardship, Explains the 2016 Presidential Vote.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 115 (19): e4330-e4339. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Harber, Kent D., Yeung, Douglas, and Iacovelli, Anthony. 2011. “Psychosocial Resources, Threat, and the Perception of Distance and Height: Support for the Resources and Perception Model.” Emotion 11 (5): 1080–1090. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Huddy, Leonie, and Feldman, Stanley. 2009. “On Assessing the Political Effects of Racial Prejudice.” Annual Review of Political Science 12: 423–447. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Jardina, Ashley. 2019. White Identity Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Leighley, Jan E., and Vedlitz, Arnold. 1999. “Race, Ethnicity, and Political Participation: Competing Models and Contrasting Explanations.” Journal of Politics 61 (4): 1092–1114. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Martin, Judith N., and Hecht, Michael L.. 1994. “Conversational Improvement Strategies for Interethnic Communication: African American and European American Perspectives.” Communication Monographs 61 (3): 236–255. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Mason, Lilliana. 2018. Uncivil Agreement: How Politics Became Our Identity. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Gluszek, Agata, and Dovidio, John F.. 2010. “The Way They Speak: A Social Psychological Perspective on the Stigma of Nonnative Accents in Communication.” Personality and Social Psychology Review 14 (2): 214–237. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Gibson, James L. 2006. “Enigmas of Intolerance: Fifty Years after Stouffer’s Communism, Conformity, and Civil Liberties.” Perspectives on Politics 4 (1): 21–34. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Koudenburg, Namkje, Postmes, Tom, and Gordijn, Ernestine H.. 2013. “Conversational Flow Promotes Solidarity.” PLOS ONE 8 (11): e78363. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Hajnal, Zoltan L. 2001. “White Residents, Black Incumbents, and a Declining Racial Divide.” American Political Science Review 95 (3): 603–618. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Iyengar, Shanto, Sood, Gaurav, and Lelkes, Yphtach. 2012. “Affect, Not Ideology A Social Identity Perspective on Polarization.” Public Opinion Quarterly 76 (3): 405–431. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Leonardelli, Geoffrey J., Pickett, Cynthia L., and Brewer, Marilynn B.. 2010. “Optimal Distinctiveness Theory: A Framework for Social Identity, Social Cognition, and Intergroup Relations.” In Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Vol. 43, edited by Zanna, Mark P. and Olson, James M., 63–113. New York: Elsevier. Google Scholar
    Macrae, C. Neil, and Quadflieg, Susanne. 2010. “Perceiving People.” In Handbook of Social Psychology, edited by Fiske, Susan T., Gilbert, Daniel T., and Lindzey, Gardner, 5th ed., 428–463. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. Google Scholar
    Hopkins, Daniel J. 2014. “One Language, Two Meanings: Partisanship and Responses to Spanish.” Political Communication 31 (3): 421–445. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Jost, John T., Napier, Jaime L., Thorisdottir, Hulda, Gosling, Samuel D., Palfai, Tibor P., and Ostafin, Brian. 2007. “Are Needs to Manage Uncertainty and Threat Associated with Political Conservatism or Ideological Extremity?” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 33 (7): 989–1007. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Kinder, Donald R, and Kalmoe, Nathan P.. 2017. Neither Liberal Nor Conservative: Ideological Innocence in the American Public. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Google Scholar
    Fiske, Susan T., Cuddy, Amy J. C., Glick, Peter, and Jun, Xu. 2002. “A Model of (Often Mixed) Stereotype Content: Competence and Warmth Respectively Follow from Perceived Status and Competition.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 82 (6): 878–902. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Gaines, Brian J., and Kuklinski, James H.. 2011. “Experimental Estimation of Heterogeneous Treatment Effects Related to Self-Selection.” American Journal of Political Science 55 (3): 724–736. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Husnu, Senel, and Crisp, Richard John. 2011. “Enhancing the Imagined Contact Effect.” The Journal of Social Psychology 151 (1): 113–116. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Kinder, Donald R., and Kam, Cindy D.. 2009. Us against Them: Ethnocentric Foundations of American Opinion. Chicago Studies in American Politics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Klar, Samara. 2013. “The Influence of Competing Identity Primes on Political Preferences.” The Journal of Politics 75 (4): 1108–1124. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Krogstad, Jens Manuel, and Lopez, Mark Hugo. 2016. “Hillary Clinton Wins Latino Vote, but Falls below 2012 Support for Obama.” Pew Research Center, November 9, 2016. www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/11/09/hillary-clinton-wins-latino-vote-but-falls-below-2012-support-for-obama/. Google Scholar
    Glasford, Demis E., and Calcagno, Justine. 2012. “The Conflict of Harmony: Intergroup Contact, Commonality and Political Solidarity between Minority Groups.” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 48 (1): 323–328. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    MacInnis, Cara C., and Page-Gould., Elizabeth 2015. “How Can Intergroup Interaction Be Bad If Intergroup Contact Is Good? Exploring and Reconciling an Apparent Paradox in the Science of Intergroup Relations.” Perspectives on Psychological Science 10 (3): 307–327. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Mansbridge, Jane J., Bohman, James, Chambers, Simone, Estlund, David, Føllesdal, Andreas, Fung, Archon, Lafont, Cristina, Manin, Bernard, et al. 2010. “The Place of Self-Interest and the Role of Power in Deliberative Democracy.” Journal of Political Philosophy 18 (1): 64–100. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Mendelberg, Tali. 2001. The Race Card: Campaign Strategy, Implicit Messages, and the Norm of Equality. Princeton: Princeton University Press. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Goren, Paul, Schoen, Harald, Reifler, Jason, Scotto, Thomas, and Chittick, William. 2016. “A Unified Theory of Value-Based Reasoning and U.S. Public Opinion.” Political Behavior 38 (4): 977–997. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Motyl, Matt, Iyer, Ravi, Oishi, Shigehiro, Trawalter, Sophie, and Nosek, Brian A.. 2014. “How Ideological Migration Geographically Segregates Groups.” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 51: 1–14. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Oppenheimer, Daniel M. 2008. “The Secret Life of Fluency.” Trends in Cognitive Sciences 12 (6): 237–241. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Schwartz, Shalom H., Caprara, Gian Vittorio, Vecchione, Michele, Bain, Paul, Bianchi, Gabriel, Caprara, Maria Giovanna, Cieciuch, Jan, et al. 2014. “Basic Personal Values Underlie and Give Coherence to Political Values: A Cross National Study in 15 Countries.” Political Behavior 36 (4): 899–930. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Sullivan, John L., Piereson, James, and Marcus, George E.. 1982. Political Tolerance and American Democracy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Google Scholar
    Voci, Alberto, and Hewstone, Miles. 2003. “Intergroup Contact and Prejudice toward Immigrants in Italy: The Mediational Role of Anxiety and the Moderational Role of Group Salience.” Group Processes & Intergroup Relations 6 (1): 37–54. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    White, Fiona A., Harvey, Lauren J., and Abu-Rayya, Hisham M.. 2015. “Improving Intergroup Relations in the Internet Age: A Critical Review.” Review of General Psychology 19 (2): 129–139. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Paluck, Elizabeth Levy, Green, Seth A., and Green, Donald P.. 2019. “The Contact Hypothesis Re-Evaluated.” Behavioural Public Policy 3 (2): 129–158. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Pearson, Adam R., and Dovidio, John F.. 2014. “Intergroup Fluency: How Processing Experiences Shape Intergroup Cognition and Communication.” In Social Cognition and Communication, edited by Forgas, Joseph P., Vincze, Orsoyla, and Laszlo, Janos, 101–120. The Sydney Symposium of Social Psychology. New York: Psychology Press. Google Scholar
    Riordan, Cornelius. 1978. “Equal-Status Interracial Contact: A Review and Revision of the Concept.” International Journal of Intercultural Relations 2 (2): 161–185. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Senju, Atsushi, and Johnson, Mark H.. 2009. “The Eye Contact Effect: Mechanisms and Development.” Trends in Cognitive Sciences 13 (3): 127–134. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Steakin, Will, and Scott, Rachel. 2019. “Vice President Pence Rolls out ‘Latinos for Trump,’ Slams Democrats Ahead of Debate.” ABC News, June 25, 2019. https://abcnews.go.com/Politics/trump-rolling-coalition-aimed-courting-hispanic-voters/story?id=63841872. Google Scholar
    Pesarin, Fortunato, and Salmaso, Luigi. 2010. Permutation Tests for Complex Data: Theory, Applications and Software. 1st ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Oliver, J. Eric. 2010. The Paradoxes of Integration: Race, Neighborhood, and Civic Life in Multiethnic America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Pettigrew, Thomas F., and Tropp, Linda R.. 2006. “A Meta-Analytic Test of Intergroup Contact Theory.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 90 (5): 751–783. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Quillian, Lincoln. 1995. “Prejudice as a Response to Perceived Group Threat: Population Composition and Anti-Immigrant and Racial Prejudice in Europe.” American Sociological Review 60 (4): 586–611. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Rabinowitz, Joshua L., Sears, David O., Sidanius, Jim, and Krosnick, Jon A.. 2009. “Why Do White Americans Oppose Race-Targeted Policies? Clarifying the Impact of Symbolic Racism.” Political Psychology 30 (5): 805–828. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Tuch, Steven A., and Hughes, Michael. 2011. “Whites’ Racial Policy Attitudes in the Twenty-First Century: The Continuing Significance of Racial Resentment.” The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 634 (1): 134–152. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Weir, Margaret. 1992. “Ideas and the Politics of Bounded Innovation.” In Structuring Politics: Historical Institutionalism in Comparative Analysis, edited by Steinmo, Sven, Thelen, Kathleen Ann, and Longstreth, Frank, 188–216. Cambridge Studies in Comparative Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Paolini, Stefania, Harwood, Jake, Rubin, Mark, Husnu, Shenel, Joyce, Nicholas, and Hewstone, Miles. 2014. “Positive and Extensive Intergroup Contact in the Past Buffers against the Disproportionate Impact of Negative Contact in the Present.” European Journal of Social Psychology 44 (6): 548–562. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Riek, Blake M., Mania, Eric W., and Gaertner, Samuel L.. 2006. “Intergroup Threat and Outgroup Attitudes: A Meta-Analytic Review.” Personality and Social Psychology Review 10 (4): 336–353. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Robinson, Jerry W., and Preston, James D.. 1976. “Equal-Status Contact and Modification of Racial Prejudice: A Reexamination of the Contact Hypothesis.” Social Forces 54 (4): 911–924. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Oliver, J. Eric, and Mendelberg, Tali. 2000. “Reconsidering the Environmental Determinants of White Racial Attitudes.” American Journal of Political Science 44 (3): 574–589. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Soss, Joe, Fording, Richard C., and Schram, Sanford. 2011. Disciplining the Poor: Neoliberal Paternalism and the Persistent Power of Race. Chicago Studies in American Politics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Stringer, Maurice, Irwing, P., Giles, M., McClenahan, C., Wilson, R., and Hunter, J. A.. 2009. “Intergroup Contact, Friendship Quality and Political Attitudes in Integrated and Segregated Schools in Northern Ireland.” British Journal of Educational Psychology 79 (2): 239–257. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Toosi, Negin R., Babbitt, Laura G., Ambady, Nalini, and Sommers, Samuel R.. 2012. “Dyadic Interracial Interactions: A Meta-Analysis.” Psychological Bulletin 138 (1): 1–27. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Rubin, Mark, Paolini, Stefania, and Crisp, Richard J.. 2010. “A Processing Fluency Explanation of Bias against Migrants.” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 46 (1): 21–28. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Shook, Natalie J., and Fazio, Russell H.. 2008. “Interracial Roommate Relationships An Experimental Field Test of the Contact Hypothesis.” Psychological Science 19 (7): 717–723. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Swart, Hermann, Hewstone, Miles, Christ, Oliver, and Voci, Alberto. 2011. “Affective Mediators of Intergroup Contact: A Three-Wave Longitudinal Study in South Africa.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 101 (6): 1221–1238. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Taylor, Charles. 1994. “The Politics of Recognition.” In Multiculturalism, edited by Guttmann, Amy, 99–103. Princeton: Princeton University Press. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Valentino, Nicholas A., Neuner, Fabian G., and Matthew Vandenbroek, L.. 2018. “The Changing Norms of Racial Political Rhetoric and the End of Racial Priming.” The Journal of Politics 80 (3): 757–771. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Wilner, Daniel M., Walkley, Rosabelle Price, and Cook, Stuart W.. 1955. Human Relations in Interracial Housing: A Study of the Contact Hypothesis. 1st ed. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Google Scholar
    Nygaard, Lynne C., and Lunders, Erin R.. 2002. “Resolution of Lexical Ambiguity by Emotional Tone of Voice.” Memory & Cognition 30 (4): 583–593. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Oeberst, Aileen, and Moskaliuk, Johannes. 2016. “Classic Conversational Norms in Modern Computer-Mediated Collaboration.” Journal of Educational Technology & Society 19 (1): 187–198. Google Scholar
    Pearson, Adam R., West, Tessa V., Dovidio, John F., Powers, Stacie Renfro, Buck, Ross, and Henning, Robert. 2008. “The Fragility of Intergroup Relations: Divergent Effects of Delayed Audiovisual Feedback in Intergroup and Intragroup Interaction.” Psychological Science 19 (12): 1272–1279. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Perrett, D. I., Smith, P. A. J., Potter, D. D., Mistlin, A. J., Head, A. S., Milner, A. D., and Jeeves, M. A.. 1985. “Visual Cells in the Temporal Cortex Sensitive to Face View and Gaze Direction.” Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences 223 (1232): 293–317. Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Pettigrew, Thomas F. 1998. “Intergroup Contact Theory.” Annual Review of Psychology 49 (1): 65–85. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Pettigrew, Thomas F., and Tropp, Linda R. 2011. When Groups Meet: The Dynamics of Intergroup Contact. Essays in Social Psychology. New York: Psychology Press. Google Scholar
    Schwarz, Norbert. 2004. “Meta-Cognitive Experiences in Consumer Judgment and Decision Making.” Journal of Consumer Psychology 14 (4): 332–348. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar, and Frølund Thomsen, Jens Peter. 2015. “Contextualizing Intergroup Contact Do Political Party Cues Enhance Contact Effects?” Social Psychology Quarterly 78 (1): 49–76. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Tajfel, Henri. 1978. Differentiation between Social Groups: Studies in the Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations. London: Academic Press. Google Scholar
    Thompson, Dennis F. 2008. “Deliberative Democratic Theory and Empirical Political Science.” Annual Review of Political Science 11 (1): 497–520. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Xiao, Y. Jenny, and Van Bavel, Jay J.. 2012. “See Your Friends Close and Your Enemies Closer: Social Identity and Identity Threat Shape the Representation of Physical Distance.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 38 (7): 959–972. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Paolini, Stefania, Harwood, Jake, and Rubin, Mark. 2010. “Negative Intergroup Contact Makes Group Memberships Salient: Explaining Why Intergroup Conflict Endures.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 36 (12): 1723–1738. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Pearson-Merkowitz, Shanna, Filindra, Alexandra, and Dyck, Joshua J.. 2016. “When Partisans and Minorities Interact: Interpersonal Contact, Partisanship, and Public Opinion Preferences on Immigration Policy.” Social Science Quarterly 97: 311–324. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Riordan, Cornelius, and Ruggiero, Josephine. 1980. “Producing Equal-Status Interracial Interaction: A Replication.” Social Psychology Quarterly 43 (1): 131–136. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Sigelman, Lee, Bledsoe, Timothy, Welch, Susan, and Combs, Michael W.. 1996. “Making Contact? Black-White Social Interaction in an Urban Setting.” American Journal of Sociology 101 (5): 1306–1332. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Reisenzein, Rainer. 1986. “A Structural Equation Analysis of Weiner’s Attribution—Affect Model of Helping Behavior.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 50 (6): 1123–1133. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Wilkins, Clara L., Wellman, Joseph D., Babbitt, Laura G., Toosi, Negin R., and Schad, Katherine D.. 2015. “You Can Win but I Can’t Lose: Bias against High-Status Groups Increases Their Zero-Sum Beliefs about Discrimination.” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 57 (March): 1–14. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Norton, Michael I., and Sommers, Samuel R.. 2011. “Whites See Racism as a Zero-Sum Game That They Are Now Losing.” Perspectives on Psychological Science 6 (3): 215–218. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Pettigrew, Thomas F. 1969. “Rejoinder.” Journal of Social Issues 25 (4): 201–205. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Pettigrew, Thomas F. 2008. “Reflections on Core Themes in Intergroup Research.” In Improving Intergroup Relations, edited by Wagner, Ulrich, Tropp, Linda R., Finchilescu, Gillian, and Tredoux, Colin, 281–303. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Sands, Melissa L. 2017. “Exposure to Inequality Affects Support for Redistribution.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 114 (4): 663–668. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Schmidt, Greg, and Weiner, Bernard. 1988. “An Attribution-Affect-Action Theory of Behavior: Replications of Judgments of Help-Giving.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 14 (3): 610–621. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Schwarz, Norbert, and Clore, Gerald L.. 2003. “Mood as Information: 20 Years Later.” Psychological Inquiry 14 (3/4): 296–303. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Tropp, Linda R., Okamoto, Dina G., Marrow, Helen B., and Jones-Correa., Michael 2018. “How Contact Experiences Shape Welcoming: Perspectives from U.S.-Born and Immigrant Groups.” Social Psychology Quarterly 81 (1): 23–47. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Wilkins, Clara L., and Kaiser, Cheryl R.. 2014. “Racial Progress as Threat to the Status Hierarchy: Implications for Perceptions of Anti-White Bias.” Psychological Science 25 (2): 439–446. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Reny, Tyler T., Valenzuela, Ali A., and Collingwood, Loren. 2020. “‘No, You’re Playing the Race Card’: Testing the Effects of Anti-Black, Anti-Latino, and Anti-Immigrant Appeals in the Post-Obama Era.” Political Psychology 42 (2): 283–302. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Richeson, Jennifer A., Baird, Abigail A., Gordon, Heather L., Heatherton, Todd F., Wyland, Carrie L., Trawalter, Sophie, and Shelton, J. Nicole. 2003. “An FMRI Investigation of the Impact of Interracial Contact on Executive Function.” Nature Neuroscience 6 (12): 1323–1328. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Rugh, Jacob S., and Massey, Douglas S.. 2014. “Segregation in Post-Civil Rights America: Stalled Integration or End of the Segregated Century?” Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race 11 (2): 205–232. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Schröder, Tobias, and Thagard, Paul. 2013. “The Affective Meanings of Automatic Social Behaviors: Three Mechanisms That Explain Priming.” Psychological Review 120 (1): 255–280. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Tajfel, Henri 1982. “Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations.” Annual Review of Psychology 33 (1): 1–39. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Trawalter, Sophie, and Richeson, Jennifer A.. 2008. “Let’s Talk about Race, Baby! When Whites’ and Blacks’ Interracial Contact Experiences Diverge.” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 44 (4): 1214–1217. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Should You Stay Away from Strangers? Busby, Ethan Google Scholar
    Nygaard, Lynne C., and Queen, Jennifer S.. 2008. “Communicating Emotion: Linking Affective Prosody and Word Meaning.” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 34 (4): 1017–1030. Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Park, Bernadette, Wolsko, Christopher, and Judd, Charles M.. 2001. “Measurement of Subtyping in Stereotype Change.” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 37 (4): 325–332. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Turner, Rhiannon N., Hewstone, Miles, Voci, Alberto, Paolini, Stefania, and Christ, Oliver. 2007. “Reducing Prejudice via Direct and Extended Cross-Group Friendship.” European Review of Social Psychology 18 (1): 212–255. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Patchen, Martin. 1982. Black-White Contact in Schools: Its Social and Academic Effects. West Lafayette: Purdue University Press. Google Scholar
    Saguy, Tamar, Tausch, Nicole, Dovidio, John F., and Pratto, Felicia. 2009. “The Irony of Harmony: Intergroup Contact Can Produce False Expectations for Equality.” Psychological Science 20 (1): 114–121. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Reimer, Nils Karl, Becker, Julia C., Benz, Angelika, Christ, Oliver, Dhont, Kristof, Klocke, Ulrich, Neji, Sybille, Rychlowska, Magdalena, Schmid, Katharina, and Hewstone, Miles. 2017. “Intergroup Contact and Social Change: Implications of Negative and Positive Contact for Collective Action in Advantaged and Disadvantaged Groups.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 43 (1): 121–136. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Sagiv, Lilach, and Schwartz, Shalom H.. 1995. “Value Priorities and Readiness for Out-Group Social Contact.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 69 (3): 437–448. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Saguy, Tamar, and Chernyak-Hai., Lily 2012. “Intergroup Contact Can Undermine Disadvantaged Group Members’ Attributions to Discrimination.” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 48 (3): 714–720. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Sanders, Lynn M. 1997. “Against Deliberation.” Political Theory 25 (3): 347–376. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Tversky, Amos, and Kahneman, Daniel. 1974. “Judgment under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases.” Science 185 (4157): 1124–1131. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Richards, Zoeë, and Hewstone, Miles. 2001. “Subtyping and Subgrouping: Processes for the Prevention and Promotion of Stereotype Change.” Personality and Social Psychology Review 5 (1): 52–73. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Rothschild, Jacob E., Howat, Adam J., Shafranek, Richard M., and Busby, Ethan C.. 2019. “Pigeonholing Partisans: Stereotypes of Party Supporters and Partisan Polarization.” Political Behavior 41 (2): 423–443. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Shepherd, Stephen V. 2010. “Following Gaze: Gaze-Following Behavior as a Window into Social Cognition.” Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience 4, Article 5. Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Zaller, John, and Feldman, Stanley. 1992. “A Simple Theory of the Survey Response: Answering Questions versus Revealing Preferences.” American Journal of Political Science 36 (3): 579–616. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Nummenmaa, Lauri, and Calder, Andrew J.. 2009. “Neural Mechanisms of Social Attention.” Trends in Cognitive Sciences 13 (3): 135–143. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Open Science Collaboration. 2015. “Estimating the Reproducibility of Psychological Science.” Science 349 (6251): aac4716–aac4716. Google Scholar
    Petronio, Sandra, Ellemers, Naomi, Giles, Howard, and Gallois, Cynthia. 1998. “(Mis) Communicating across Boundaries: Interpersonal and Intergroup Considerations.” Communication Research 25 (6): 571–595. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Schwartz, Shalom H. 2003. “A Proposal for Measuring Value Orientations across Nations.” Questionnaire Package of the European Social Survey, 259–290. Google Scholar
    Sears, David O. 1986. “College Sophomores in the Laboratory: Influences of a Narrow Data Base on Social Psychology’s View of Human Nature.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 51 (3): 515–530. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Vermue, Marieke, Seger, Charles R., and Sanfey, Alan G.. 2018. “Group-Based Biases Influence Learning about Individual Trustworthiness.” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 77 (July): 36–49. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Walsh, Katherine Cramer. 2007. Talking about Race: Community Dialogues and the Politics of Difference. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. CrossRef | Google Scholar

    Metrics

    Altmetric attention score

    Full text views

    Total number of HTML views: 0
    Total number of PDF views: 0 *
    Loading metrics...

    Abstract views

    Total abstract views: 0 *
    Loading metrics...

    * Views captured on Cambridge Core between #date#. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

    Usage data cannot currently be displayed.