American Psychiatric Association (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edn) (DSM–IV). Washington, DC: APA.
Bailey, J. M. & Pillard, R. C. (1991) A genetic study of male sexual orientation. Archives of General Psychiatry, 48, 1089–1096.
Bentler, P. M., Rekers, G. A. & Rosen, A. C. (1979) Congruence of childhood sex-role identity and behaviour disturbance. Child: Care, Health and Development, 5, 267–283.
Bleiberg, E., Jackson, L. & Ross, J. L. (1986) Gender identity disorder and object loss. Journal of the Americam Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 25, 58–67.
Coates, S. & Spector Person, E. (1985) Extreme boyhood femininity: isolated behaviour or pervasive disorder?
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 24, 702–709.
Coates, S., Friedman, R. & Wolfe, S. (1991) The aetiology of boyhood gender identity disorder: a model for integrating temperament, development and pychodynamics. Psychoanalytic Dialogues, 1, 481–523.
Cohen-Kettenis, P. T. & van Goozen, S. H. M. (1997) Sex reassignment of adolescent transsexuals: a follow up study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolsecent Psychiatry, 36, 263–271.
Di Ceglie, D. (1998a) Management and therapeutic aims with children and adolescents with gender identity disorders and their families. In A Stranger in My Own Body: Atypical Gender Identity Development and Mental Health (eds Di Ceglie, D. with Freedman, D.) pp. 185–197. London: Karnac.
Di Ceglie, D. (1998b) Reflections on the nature of the “atypical gender identity organisation”. A Stranger in My Own Body: Atypical Gender Identity Development and Mental Health (eds Di Ceglie, D. with Freedman, D.) pp. 9–25. London: Karnac.
Feinblatt, J. A. & Gold, A. R. (1976) Sex roles and the psychiatric referral process. Sex Roles, 2, 109–122.
Green, R. (1968) Childhood cross-gender identification. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 147, 500–509.
Green, R. (1987) The ‘Sissy Boy Syndrome’ and the Development of Homosexuality. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Green, R., Roberts, C. W., Williams, K.
et al (1987) Specific cross-gender behaviour in boyhood and later homosexual orientation. British Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 84–88.
LeVay, S. (1991) A difference in hypothalamic structure between heterosexual and homosexual men. Science, 253, 1034–1037.
Marantz, S. & Coates, S. (1991) Mothers of boys with gender identity disorders: a comparison to normal controls. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 30, 136–143.
Money, J. (1955) Hermaphroditism, gender and precocity in hyperadrenocorticism: psychological findings. Bulletin of Johns Hopkins Hospital, 96, 253–264.
Money, J. (1994) The concept of gender identity disorder in childhood and adolescence after 39 years. Journal of Sex and marital therapy, 20, 163–177.
Money, J. & Russo, A. J. (1981) Homosexual vs transvestite or transsexual gender identity/role: outcome study in boys. International Journal of Family Psychiatry, 2, 139–145.
Rosen, A. C., Rekers, G. A. & Friar, L. A. (1977) Theoretical and diagnostic issues in child gender disturbances. Journal of Sex Research, 13, 89–103.
Royal College of Psychiatrists (1998) Gender Identity Disorders in Children and Adolescents – Guidance for Management. Council Report CR63. London: Royal College of Psychiatrists.
Segal, H. (1957) Notes on symbol formation. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 38, 391–397.
Stoller, R. (1964) The hermaphroditic identity of hermaphrodites. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 139, 453–457.
Stoller, R. (1968) Male childhood transsexualism. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 7, 193–201.
Stoller, R. (1992) Gender identity development and prognosis: a summary. In New Approaches to Mental Health from Birth to Adolescence (eds Chiland, C. & Young, J. G.) pp. 78–87. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
World Health Organization (1992) The ICD–10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders. Clinical Descriptions and Diagnostic Guidelines. Geneva: WHO.
Zucker, K. J. (1985) Cross-gender identified children. In Gender Dysphoria (ed. Steiner, B.) pp. 75–174. New York: Plenum Press.
Zucker, K. J. & Bradley, S. J. (1995) Gender Indentity Disorder and Psychosexual Problems in Children and Adolescents. New York: Plenum Press.
Zuger, B. & Taylor, P. (1969) Effeminate behaviour present in boys from early childhood, in comparison with similar symptoms in non-effeminate boys. Pediatrics, 44, 375–380.