Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-65dc7cd545-54nbv Total loading time: 0.242 Render date: 2021-07-25T07:41:23.772Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Article contents

Saint Mediation in the Era of Transnationalism: The Da'Ira of the Jakhanke Marabouts

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  03 March 2011

Abstract

The focus of this article is the intersection of the motivations for international migration and innovative new forms of religious organisation. An example is provided by the recent introduction of a prayer ritual called da’ira in the Muslim community of the Jakhanke Jabi in eastern Senegal. For centuries, supererogatory prayers mingled with local practices have been at the heart of the religious traditions of the Jakhanke Jabi marabouts. Yet their religious practice underwent considerable change when the young disciples began to migrate to Europe and the United States. Prayers raised during the ritual address the invisible saints capable of serving the needs of transnational migrants. At the same time the economic base of community agriculture shifted from labour provided by the students to donations increasingly coming from overseas groups of followers. Since then a great number of people—including politicians—seeking success in business, career, health or marriage have solicited the spiritual help and protection of Jakhanke Jabi marabouts.

Résumé

La thème central de cet article est l'intersection des motivations de migration internationale et de nouvelles formes originales d’organisation religieuse. L’introduction récente d’un rituel de prière appelé da'ira au sein de la communauté musulmane des Jakhanke Jabi, dans l'Est du Sénégal, en fournit un exemple. Pendant des siècles, des prières surérogatoires mêlées de pratiques locales étaient au cœur des traditions religieuses des marabouts Jakhanke Jabi. Leur pratique religieuse a pourtant subi un changement profond lorsque les jeunes disciples ont commencé à migrer vers l'Europe et les Etats-Unis. Les prières prononcées au cours du rituel s’adressent aux saints invisibles capables de satisfaire les besoins des migrants transnationaux. Dans le même temps, la base économique de l'agriculture communautaire est passée d’une main-d’œuvre fournie par les étudiants aux dons provenant, de plus en plus, de groupes d’adeptes résidant à l'étranger. Depuis lors, un nombre considérable de personnes, y compris des politiciens, en quête de réussite commerciale, professionnelle, sanitaire ou matrimoniale sollicitent l'aide spirituelle et la protection des marabouts Jakhanke Jabi.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © International African Institute 2003

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

Babou, C. A. 2002. ‘Brotherhood solidarity, education and migration: the role of the dahiras among the Murid Muslim community of New York’, African Affairs 101: 151–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brenner, L. 1988. ‘Concepts of tariqa in West Africa: the case of the Quadiriya’, in O’Brien, D. Cruise and Coulon, C. (eds), Charisma and Brotherhood in African Islam. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
Clancy- Smith, J. A. 1994. Rebel and Saint: Muslim Notables, Populist Protest, Colonial Encounters (Algeria and Tunisia, 1800-1904). Berkeley CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Comaroff, J. and Comaroff, J. L. 1999. ‘Occult economies and the violence of abstraction: notes from the South African postcolony’, American Ethnologist 26 (2): 279–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cornell, V. J. 1998. Realm of the Saint: Power and Authority in Moroccan Sufism. Austin TX: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
Coulon, C. 1981. Le Marabout et le prince : Islam et pouvoir au Senegal. Paris: Pedone.Google Scholar
Coulon, C. 1988. Les Musulmans et le pouvoir en Afrique noire. Paris: Karthala.Google Scholar
Coulon, C. 1999. ‘The grand Magal in Touba: a religious festival of the Mouride brotherhood of Senegal’, African Affairs 98: 195–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cruise O’Brien, D. 1971. The Mourides of Senegal: the Political and Economic Organization of an Islamic Brotherhood. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
Cruise O’Brien, D. 1988 ‘Charisma comes to town: Mouride urbanization, 1945–1896’, in O’Brien, D. Cruise and Coulon, C. (eds), Charisma and Brotherhood in African Islam. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
Cruise O’Brien, D. and Coulon, C. (eds) 1988. Charisma and Brotherhood in African Islam. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
Curtin, P. 1971. ‘Pre-colonial trading networks and traders: the Diakhanké’, in Meillassoux, C. (ed), The Development of Indigenous Trade and Markets in West Africa. London: Oxford University Press for the International African Institute.Google Scholar
Diop, M. C. 1981. ‘Fonctions et activités des dahira mourides urbains (Sénégal)’, Cahiers d’études africaines 21 (81–3), 79–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Diouf, M. 2000. ‘The Senegalese Murid trade diaspora and the making of a vernacular cosmopolitanism’, Codesria Bulletin 1: 19–30.Google Scholar
Ellis, S. and Ter Haar, G. 1998. ‘Religion and politics in sub-Saharan Africa’, Journal of Modern African Studies 36 (2): 175–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gellner, E. 1981. Muslim Society. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Geschiere, P. L. 1997. The Modernity of Witchcraft: Politics and the Occult in Postcolonial Africa. Charlottesville VA: University of Virginia Press.Google Scholar
Gibb, C. T. 1999. ‘Baraka without borders: integrating communities in the “city of saints” ‘, Journal of Religion in Africa 29 (1): 88–108.Google Scholar
Godelier, M. 1999. The Enigma of the Gift. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Hawley, J. S. 1987. Saints and Virtues. Comparative Studies in Religion and Society 2. Berkeley CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Hoffman, V. J. 1995. Sufism, Mystics, and Saints in Modern Egypt. Columbia SC: University of South Carolina.Google Scholar
Hunter, T. C. 1976. ‘The Jabi Ta’rikhs: their significance in West African Islam’, International Journal of African Historical Studies 9: 435–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kearney, M. 1995. ‘The local and the global: the anthropology of globalization and transnationalism’, Annual Review of Anthropology 24: 547–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Last, M. 1988. ‘Charisma and medicine in northern Nigeria’, in O’Brien, D. Cruise and Coulon, C. (eds), Charisma and Brotherhood in African Islam. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
Launay, R. 1992. Beyond the Stream: Islam and Society in a West African Town. Berkeley CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Marone, I. 1970. ‘Le Tidjanisme au Senegal’, Bulletin de l'Institut fondamental dAfrique noire 32 (1), 136–215.Google Scholar
Marty, P. 1921. Islam en Guinée. Paris: Collection de la Revue du monde musulman.Google Scholar
Nicholson, R. A. 1914. The Mystics of Islam. London: Bell.Google Scholar
Parry, J. P. 1994. Death in Bañares. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Quinn, C. A. 1979. ‘Maba Diakhou and the Gambian jihad, 1850-1890’, in Willis, J. R. (ed.), Studies in West African Islamic History, I The Cultivators of Islam. London: Frank Cass.Google Scholar
Rançon, A. 1894. Dans la Haute-Gambie : voyage d’exploration scientifique 18911892. Annales de l'Institut colonial de Marseille. Paris: Société d’éditions scientifiques.Google Scholar
Reeves, E. B. 1995. ‘Power, resistance and the cult of Muslim saints in a northern Egyptian town’, American Ethnologist 22 (2): 306–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rosander, E. E. 1997. ‘Le “dahira” de Mam Diarra Bousso à Mbacké’, in Rosander, E. E. (ed.), Transforming Female Identities: Women's Organizational Forms in West Africa. Uppsala: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.Google Scholar
Rudolph, S. H. and Piscatori, J. (eds) 1997. Transnational Religion and Fading States. Boulder CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
Sanneh, L. 1979. The Jakhanke: the History of an Islamic Clerical People of the Senegambia. London: International African Institute.Google Scholar
Sanneh, L. 1987. ‘Saints and virtue in African Islam: an historical approach’, in Hawley, J. S. (ed.), Saints and Virtues. Comparative Studies in Religion and Society 2. Berkeley CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Schimmel, A. 1975. Mystical Dimensions of Islam. Chapel Hill NC: University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
Stewart, C. C. 1973. Islam and Social Order in Mauritania. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
Suret- Canale, J. 1970. ‘Touba in Guinea: holy places in Islam’, in Allen, C., Johnson, R. W. and Hodgkin, T. (eds), African Perspectives: Papers in the History, Politics and Economics of Africa presented to Thomas Hodgkin. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Tambiah, S. J. 1984. The Buddhist Saints of the Forest and the Cult of Amulets: a Study in Charisma, Hagiography, Sectarianism, and Millennial Buddhism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Trimingham, S. J. 1971. The Sufi Ordersin Islam London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Van Hoven, E. 1995. L’oncle maternel est roi : la formation d#x2019;alliances hiér archiques chez les Mandingue du Wuli (Sénégal). Leiden: CNWS Publica tions.Google Scholar
Van Hoven, E. 1996. ‘Local tradition or Islamic precept? The notion of zakat in Wuli (eastern Senegal)’, Cahiers d’études africaines 144 (36–4): 703–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van Hoven, E. 2000. ‘The nation turbaned? The construction of nationalist Muslim identities in Senegal’, Journal of Religion in Africa 30 (2): 225–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Villalón, L. A. 1995. Islamic Society and State Power in Senegal: Disciples and Citizens in Fatick. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Voll, J. 1982. Islam: Continuity and Change in the Modern World. Boulder CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
Werbner, P. and Basu, H. 1998. Embodying Charisma:Modernity, Locality and the Performance of Emotion in Sufi Cults. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wilks, I. 1968. ‘The transmission of Islamic learning in the western Sudan’, in Goody, J. (ed.), Literacy in Traditional Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
3
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Saint Mediation in the Era of Transnationalism: The Da'Ira of the Jakhanke Marabouts
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Saint Mediation in the Era of Transnationalism: The Da'Ira of the Jakhanke Marabouts
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Saint Mediation in the Era of Transnationalism: The Da'Ira of the Jakhanke Marabouts
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *