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Young puritan preachers in post-independence Malawi

  • Richard A. van Dijk

Résumé

C'est dans la zone urbaine la plus importante de Malawi, Blantyre, ville de 400,000 habitants, que trente à quarante jeunes prêcheurs environ dirigent une quinzaine d'organisations constituant le mouvement ‘Regénération’ (‘Born Again’). Les organisations comprennent aussi bien les ‘saints ministères’ et les ‘confréries’ que les ‘églises’. Le mouvement a commencé vers 1974. Il est significatif que tous les dirigeants étaient à l'époque des adolescents; encore aujourd'hui, la deuxième ‘génération’ de prêcheurs comprend des adolescents ou des jeunes d'une vingtaine d'années. Leur message est dominé par un même thème: ils mènent une opposition véhémente contre les actions mêlées à des pratiques d'un caractère pour le moins mystérieux ou même malveillant, particulièrement la sorcellerie et la politique. Les jeunes prêcheurs présument que ces forces sont à la base du pouvoir exercé par les plus anciens dans les villages ou les communes urbaines. Pourtant, à Blantyre, où la surveillance politique sur la vie quotidienne est très forte, il leur faut rester très prudents en défiant la puissante génération precédente, s'ils veulent conserver ‘l'espace intellectuel’ qu'ils trouvent dans la religion. Enfin, dans sa conclusion, l'article soutient que les théories utilisées pour expliquer l'installation d'Eglises Sionistes en zones urbaines dans d'autres régions du sud de l'Afrique ne s'appliquent pas à l'analyse du mouvement ‘Regénération’, un mouvement dirigé avec succès par de jeunes citadins.

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