Chapman, N. J. 1989. Gender, marital status, and childlessness of older persons and the availability of informal assistance. In Peterson, M. D. and White, D. L. (eds), Health Care of the Elderly: An Information Sourcebook. Sage, London, 277–328.
Chappel, N. L. and Badger, M. 1989. Social isolation and well-being. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 44, 3, S169–76.
Choi, N. G. 1994. Patterns and determinants of social service utilization: comparisons of the childless elderly and elderly parents living with or apart from their children. The Gerontologist, 34, 3, 353–62.
Connidis, I. A. and McMullin, J. A. 1992. Getting out of the house: the effect of childlessness on social participation and companionship in later life. Canadian Journal on Aging/Revue Canadienne du Vieillissement, 11, 1, 370–86.
Dykstra, P. A. 1995. Network composition. In Knipscheer, C. P. M., de Jong Gierveld, J., van Tilburg, T. G. and Dykstra, P. A. (eds), Living Arrangements and Social Networks of Older Adults. VU University Press, Amsterdam, 97–114.
Jerrome, D. and Wenger, G. C. 1999. Stability and change in late-life friendships. Ageing & Society, 19, 1, 661–76.
Kivett, V. A. and Learner, M. 1980. Perspectives on the childless rural elderly: a comparative analysis. The Gerontologist, 29, 6, 708–16.
Mugford, S. and Kendig, H. L. 1986. Social relations: networks and ties. In Kendig, H. L. (ed.), Ageing and Families: A Social Networks Perspective. Allen and Unwin, Boston, Massachusetts, 38–59.
O'Bryant, S. L. 1985. Neighbors' support of older widows who live alone in their own homes. The Gerontologist, 25, 3, 305–10.
Pickard, S. 1995. Living on the Front Line: A Social Anthropological Study of Old Age and Ageing. Avebury, Aldershot, UK.
Rubinstein, R. L., Alexander, B. L., Goodman, M. and Luborsky, M. 1991. Key relationships of never-married, childless older women: a cultural analysis. Journal of Gerontology, 46, 5, S270–7.
Strain, L. A. and Payne, B. J. 1992. Social networks and patterns of social interaction among ever-single and separated/divorced elderly Canadians. Canadian Journal on Aging Aging/Revue Canadienne du Vieillissement, 11, 1, 31–53.
Townsend, P. 1957. The Family Life of Old People. Routledge and Kegan Paul, London.
Wenger, G. C. 1984. The Supportive Network: Coping with Old Age. George Allen and Unwin, London.
Wenger, G. C. 2001. Ageing without children: rural Wales. Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, 16, 1, 79–109.
Wenger, G. C. and Burholt, V. 2001. Differences over time in older people's relationships with children, grandchildren, nieces and nephews in rural North Wales. Ageing & Society, 21, 5, 567–90.
Wenger, G. C., Dykstra, P., Melkas, T. and Knipscheer, C. P. M. 2007. Social embeddedness and late life parenthood: community activity, close ties and support networks. Family Issues, 28, 11, 1419–56. (Special issue, Part 2, Multiple Meanings of Childlessness in Late Life: Findings from Seven Societies).
Wenger, G. C., Scott, A. and Patterson, N. 2000. How important is parenthood? Childlessness and support in old age in England. Ageing & Society, 20, 2, 161–82.