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Double burden for women in mid- and later life: evidence from time-use profiles in Cebu, the Philippines

  • FEINIAN CHEN (a1) (a2), LUOMAN BAO (a3), ZHIYONG LIN (a1), ZACHARY ZIMMER (a4) (a5), SOCORRO GULTIANO (a6) (a7) and JUDITH B. BORJA (a7) (a8)...


Using data from the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (1994, 1998, 2002, 2005, 2007, 2012), we utilise latent class analysis to develop time-use class membership to characterise the degree to which women in Cebu are subject to the double burden of work and family responsibilities in mid- and later life. Results suggest that close to a third of the sample are engaged in high-intensity work for pay (either outside or home-based), while combining it with a substantial amount of household chores and with a low level of personal time in a span of 18 years. Our latent transition analysis also shows that, with the addition of grandchildren into the household, some women experience a shift in time-use class membership by becoming high-intensity care-givers or by completely transitioning out of the work arena, while others remain double-burdened with active involvement in both work and family responsibilities.


Corresponding author

Address for correspondence: Feinian Chen, Department of Sociology, Maryland Population Research Center, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA E-mail:


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Double burden for women in mid- and later life: evidence from time-use profiles in Cebu, the Philippines

  • FEINIAN CHEN (a1) (a2), LUOMAN BAO (a3), ZHIYONG LIN (a1), ZACHARY ZIMMER (a4) (a5), SOCORRO GULTIANO (a6) (a7) and JUDITH B. BORJA (a7) (a8)...


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