Albertini, M., Kohli, M. and Vogel, C. 2007. Intergenerational transfers of time and money in European families: common patterns – different regimes? Journal of European Social Policy, 17, 4, 319–34.
Antonucci, T. and Jackson, J. 1989. Successful ageing and life course reciprocity. In Warnes, A. M. (ed.), Human Ageing and Later Life. Edward Arnold, London, 83–95.
Attias-Donfut, C., Ogg, J. and Wolff, F.-C. 2005. European patterns of intergenerational financial and time transfers. European Journal of Ageing, 2, 3, 161–73.
Batson, C. D. 1998. Altruism and prosocial behaviour. In Gilbert, D. T., Fiske, S. T. and Lindzey, G. (eds), The Handbook of Social Psychology. Volume 2, fourth edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, 282–316.
Bengtson, V. L. 2001. Beyond the nuclear family: the increasing importance of multigenerational bonds. Journal of Marriage and Family, 63, 1, 1–16.
Bengtson, V. L. and Roberts, R. E. L. 1991. Intergenerational solidarity in aging families: an example of formal theory construction. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 53, 4, 856–70.
Blossfeld, H.-P. 1995. The New Role of Women: Family Formation in Modern Societies. Westview, Boulder, Colorado.
Blossfeld, H.-P. and Huinink, J. 1991. Human capital investments or norms of role transition? How women's schooling and career affect the process of family formation. American Journal of Sociology, 97, 1, 143–68.
Bonsang, E. 2009. Does informal care from children to their elderly parents substitute for formal care in Europe? Journal of Health Economics, 28, 1, 143–54.
Börsch-Supan, A., Hank, K. and Jürges, H. 2005. A new comprehensive and international view on ageing: introducing the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe. European Journal of Ageing, 2, 4, 245–53.
Börsch-Supan, A. and Jürges, H. (eds)2005. The Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe – Methodology. Mannheim Research Institute for the Economics of Aging, University of Mannheim, Mannheim, Germany.
Brandt, M., Haberkern, K. and Szydlik, M. 2009. Intergenerational help and care in Europe. European Sociological Review, 25, 5, 585–601.
Chappell, N. and Blandford, A. 1991. Informal and formal care: exploring the complementarity. Ageing & Society, 11, 3, 299–317.
Cicirelli, V. G. 1991. Attachment theory in old age: protection of the attached figure. In Pillemer, K. and McCartney, K. (eds), Parent–Child Relations Throughout Life. Erlbaum, Hillsdale, New Jersey, 25–41.
Clogg, C. C. 1995. Latent class models. In Arminger, G., Clogg, C. C. and Sobel, M. E. (eds), Handbook of Statistical Modeling for the Social and Behavioral Sciences. Plenum, New York, 311–59.
Daatland, S. O. and Herlofson, K. 2003. ‘Lost solidarity’ or ‘changed solidarity’: a comparative European view of normative family solidarity. Ageing & Society, 23, 5, 537–60.
Daatland, S. O. and Lowenstein, A. 2005. Intergenerational solidarity and the family–welfare state balance. European Journal of Ageing, 2, 3, 174–82.
De Jong Gierveld, J. and Fokkema, T. 1998. Geographical differences in support networks of older adults. Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie, 89, 3, 328–36.
Douglas, M. 1999. Four cultures: the evolution of a parsimonious model. Geojournal, 47, 3, 411–5.
Ekeh, P. 1974. Social Exchange Theory: The Two Traditions. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Emerson, R. 1976. Social exchange theory. Annual Review of Sociology, 2, 1, 335–62.
Esping-Andersen, G. 1999. Social Foundations of Postindustrial Economies. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Festinger, L. A. 1957. A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California.
Gans, D. and Silverstein, M. 2006. Norms of filial responsibility for aging parents across time and generations. Journal of Marriage and Family, 68, 4, 961–76.
Glaser, K., Tomassini, C. and Grundy, E. 2004. Revisiting convergence and divergence: support for older people in Europe. European Journal of Ageing, 1, 1, 64–72.
Grendstad, G. 1999. A political cultural map of Europe: a survey approach. Geojournal, 47, 3, 463–75.
Grundy, E. and Shelton, N. 2001. Contact between adult children and their parents in Great Britain 1986–99. Environment and Planning A, 33, 4, 685–97.
Haberkern, K. and Szydlik, M. 2010. State care provision, societal opinion and children's care of older parents in 11 European countries. Ageing & Society, 30, 2, 299–323.
Hagenaars, J. A. and Halman, L. C. 1989. Searching for ideal types: the potentialities of latent class analysis. European Sociological Review, 5, 1, 81–96.
Hagestad, G. O. 1998. The aging society as a context for family life. Daedalus, 115, 1, 119–39.
Hakim, C. 2000. Work–Lifestyle Choices in the 21st Century: Preference Theory. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Hank, K. 2007. Proximity and contacts between older parents and their children: a European comparison. Journal of Marriage and Family, 69, 1, 157–73.
Hank, K. and Buber, I. 2009. Grandparents caring for their grandchildren: findings from the 2004 Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe. Journal of Family Issues, 30, 1, 53–73.
Hareven, T. K. 1995. Historical perspectives on the family and aging. In Blieszner, R. and Bedford, V. H. (eds), Handbook of Aging and the Family. Greenwood, Westport, Connecticut, 13–31.
Hogan, D. P., Eggebeen, D. J. and Clogg, C. C. 1993. The structure of intergenerational exchanges in American families. American Journal of Sociology, 98, 6, 1428–58.
Höllinger, F. and Haller, M. 1990. Kinship and social networks in modern societies: a cross-cultural comparison among seven nations. European Sociological Review, 6, 2, 103–24.
Joseph, A. E. and Hallman, B. C. 1998. Over the hill and far away: distance as a barrier to the provision of assistance to elderly relatives. Social Science and Medicine, 46, 6, 631–39.
Kalmijn, M. 2007. Gender differences in the effects of divorce, widowhood, and remarriage on intergenerational support: does marriage protect men? Social Forces, 85, 3, 1079–104.
Kalmijn, M. and Dykstra, P. A. 2006. Differentials in face-to-face contact between parents and their grown-up children. In Dykstra, P. A., Kalmijn, M., Knijn, T. C. M., Komter, A. E., Liefbroer, A. C. and Mulder, C. H. (eds), Family Solidarity in The Netherlands. Dutch University Press, Amsterdam, 63–87.
Kalmijn, M. and Saraceno, C. 2008. A comparative perspective on intergenerational support: responsiveness to parental needs in individualistic and familialistic countries. European Societies, 10, 3, 479–508.
Klein Ikkink, K., van Tilburg, T. G. and Knipscheer, K. C. P. M. 1999. Perceived instrumental support exchanges in relationships between elderly parents and their adult children: normative and structural explanations. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 61, 4, 831–44.
Kohli, M. 1999. Private and public transfers between generations: linking the family and the state. European Societies, 1, 1, 81–104.
Künemund, H. and Rein, M. 1999. There is more to receiving than needing: theoretical arguments and empirical explorations of crowding in and crowding out. Ageing & Society, 19, 1, 93–121.
Lawton, L., Silverstein, M. and Bengtson, V. 1994. Affection, social contact, and geographic distance between adult children and their parents. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 56, 1, 57–68.
Lee, G. R., Netzer, J. K. and Coward, R. T. 1994. Filial responsibility expectations and patterns of intergenerational assistance. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 56, 3, 559–65.
Lewis, J. 2001. The End of Marriage? Individualism and Intimate Relations. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK.
Liao, T. F. 1994. Interpreting Probability Models: Logit, Probit, and Other Generalized Linear Models. Sage, Thousand Oaks, California.
Lin, G. and Rogerson, P. A. 1995. Elderly parents and the geographic availability of their adult children. Research on Aging, 17, 3, 303–31.
Litwak, E. and Kulis, S. 1987. Technology, proximity, and measures of kin support. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 49, 3, 649–61.
Litwin, H. and Attias-Donfut, C. 2009. The inter-relationship between formal and informal care: a study in France and Israel. Ageing & Society, 29, 1, 71–91.
Long, J. S. 1997. Regression Models for Categorical and Limited Dependent Variables: Advanced Quantitative Techniques in the Social Sciences. Volume 7, Sage, Thousand Oaks, California.
Lowenstein, A. 2007. Solidarity – conflict and ambivalence: testing two conceptual frameworks and their impact on quality of life for older family members. Journals of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 62B, 2, S100–7.
Matthews, S. H. and Sun, R. 2006. Incidence of four-generation family lineages: is timing of fertility or mortality a better explanation? Journals of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 61B, 2, S99–106.
Motel-Klingebiel, A., Tesch-Römer, C. and Von Kondratowitz, H.-J. 2005. Welfare states do not crowd out the family: evidence for mixed responsibility from comparative analyses. Ageing & Society, 25, 6, 863–82.
Münch, R. 1972. Mentales System und Verhalten: Grundlagen einer Allgemeinen Verhaltenstheorie [Mental System and Behaviour: Foundations for a General Behavioural Theory]. Mohr, Tübingen, Germany.
Ogg, J. and Renaut, S. 2006. The support of parents in old age by those born during 1945–1954: a European perspective. Ageing & Society, 26, 5, 723–43.
Popenoe, D. 1988. Disturbing the Nest: Family Change and Decline in Modern Societies. Aldine de Gruyter, New York.
Popenoe, D. 1993. American family decline, 1960–1990: a review and appraisal. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 55, 3, 527–55.
Reher, D. S. 1998. Family ties in Western Europe: persistent contrasts. Population and Development Review, 24, 2, 203–34.
Roberts, R. E. L., Richards, L. N. and Bengtson, V. L. 1991. Intergenerational solidarity in families: untangling the ties that bind. Marriage and Family Review, 16, 1/2, 11–46.
Rossi, A. S. and Rossi, P. H. 1990. Of Human Bonding: Parent–Child Relations Across the Life Course. Aldine de Gruyter, New York.
Seltzer, J. A., Bachrach, C. A., Bianchi, S. M., Bledsoe, C. H., Casper, L. M., Chase-Lansdale, P. L., DiPrete, T. A., Hotz, V. J., Morgan, S. P., Sanders, S. G. and Thomas, D. 2005. Explaining family change and variation: challenges for family demographers. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67, 4, 908–25.
Silverstein, M. and Bengtson, V. L. 1997. Intergenerational solidarity and the structure of adult–parent relationships in American families. American Journal of Sociology, 103, 2, 429–60.
Silverstein, M., Parrott, T. M. and Bengtson, V. L. 1995. Factors that predispose middle-aged sons and daughters to provide support to older parents. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 57, 2, 465–75.
Soldo, B. J. and Hill, M. S. 1993. Intergenerational transfers: economic, demographic, and social perspectives. In Maddox, G. L. and Powell Lawton, M. (eds), Annual Review of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Volume 13, Focus on Kinship, Aging, and Social Change. Springer Publishing Company, New York, 187–216.
Stein, C. H., Wemmerus, V. A., Ward, M., Gaines, M. E., Freeberg, A. L. and Jewell, T. C. 1998. ‘Because they're my parents’: an intergenerational study of felt obligation and parental caregiving. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 60, 3, 611–22.
Tomassini, C., Glaser, K., Wolf, D., Broese van Groenou, M. and Grundy, E. 2004 a. Living arrangements among older people: an overview of trends in Europe and the USA. Population Trends, 115, 24–34.
Tomassini, C., Kalogirou, S., Grundy, E., Fokkema, T., Martikainen, P., Broese van Groenou, M. and Karisto, A. 2004 b. Contacts between elderly parents and their children in four European countries: current patterns and future prospects. European Journal of Ageing, 1, 1, 54–63.
Van Gaalen, R. I. and Dykstra, P. A. 2006. Solidarity and conflict between adult children and parents: a latent class analysis. Journal of Marriage and Family, 68, 4, 947–60.
Van Gaalen, R. I., Dykstra, P. A. and Flap, H. 2008. Intergenerational contact beyond the dyad: the role of the sibling network. European Journal of Ageing, 5, 1, 19–29.
Vermunt, J. K. and Magidson, J. 2005. Latent GOLD User's Guide (Version 4.0). Statistical Innovations, Belmont, Massachusetts.
Waite, L. and Gallagher, M. 2000. The Case for Marriage: Why Married People Are Happier, Healthier and Better Off Financially. Doubleday, New York.
Wolfe, A. 1989. Whose Keeper? Social Science and Moral Obligations. University of California Press, Berkeley, California.
Yamaguchi, K. 2000. Multinomial logit latent-class regression models: an analysis of the predictors of gender-role attitudes among Japanese women. American Journal of Sociology, 105, 6, 1702–40.