Akerlof, G. A. 1998. Men without children. Economic Journal, 108, 447, 287–309.
Andrews, F. M. and Withey, S. B. 1976. Social Indicators of Wellbeing: Americans' Perceptions of Life Quality. Plenum, New York.
Aykan, H. 2003. Effect of childlessness on nursing home and home health-care use. Journal of Aging and Social Policy, 15, 1, 33–53.
Becker, G. S. 1991 . A Treatise on the Family. Enlarged edition, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Beets, G. 2005. Weinig ouderen overleven hun kinderen [Few older adults outlive their children]. Demos, 21, 1, 69–72.
Bergman, H. and Hobson, B. 2002. Compulsory fatherhood: the coding of fatherhood in the Swedish welfare state. In Hobson, B. (ed.), Making Men Into Fathers: Men, Masculinities and the Social Politics of Fatherhood. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 92–144.
Bernard, J. 1982 . The Future of Marriage. Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut.
Berwick, D. M., Murphy, J. M., Goldman, P. A., Ware, J. E., Barsky, A. J. and Weinstein, M. C. 1991. Performance of a five-item mental health screening test. Medical Care, 29, 2, 169–76.
Brannen, J. and Nilsen, A. 2006. From fatherhood to fathering: transmission and change among British fathers in four-generation families. Sociology, 40, 2, 335–52.
Brockmann, H. and Klein, T. 2004. Love and death in Germany: the marital biography and its effect on mortality. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 66, 3, 567–81.
Bulcroft, R. and Teachman, J. 2003. Ambiguous constructions: development of a childless or childfree life course. In Coleman, M. and Ganong, L. H. (eds), Handbook of Contemporary Families: Considering the Past, Contemplating the Future. Sage, London, 116–35.
Clarke, L. and Roberts, C. 2002. Policy and rhetoric: the growing interest in fathers and grandparents in Britain. In Carling, A., Duncan, S. and Edwards, R. (eds), Analysing Families: Morality and Rationality in Policy and Practice. Routledge, London, 165–82.
Cooney, T. M. and Uhlenberg, P. 1990. The role of divorce in men's relations with their adult children after mid-life. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 52, 3, 677–88.
Diener, E., Emmons, R., Larsen, J. and Griffin, S. 1985. The Satisfaction with Life Scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 1, 71–5.
Durkheim, E. 1951 . Suicide. Free Press, Glencoe, Illinois.
Dykstra, P. A. 1998. The effects of divorce on intergenerational exchanges in families. Netherlands' Journal of Social Sciences, 33, 1, 77–93.
Dykstra, P. A. 2006. Off the beaten track: childlessness and social integration in late life. Research on Aging, 28, 6, 749–67.
Dykstra, P. A. and Hagestad, G. O. 2007. Roads less taken: developing a nuanced view of older adults without children. In Dykstra, P. A. and Hagestad, G. O. (eds), Multiple Meanings of Childlessness in Late Life: Findings From Seven Societies. Journal of Family Issues, 28, 11, special issue, 1275–310.
Dykstra, P. A., Kalmijn, M., Knijn, T. C. M., Komter, A. E., Liefbroer, A. C. and Mulder, C. H. 2005. Codebook of the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study, A Multi-actor, Multi-method Panel Study on Solidarity in Family Relationships. Wave 1, Version 1.0. Working Paper 4, Netherlands Kinship Panel Study, Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute, The Hague.
Eggebeen, D. J. and Knoester, C. 2001. Does fatherhood matter for men? Journal of Marriage and the Family, 63, 2, 381–93.
Eggebeen, D. J. and Uhlenberg, P. 1985. Changes in the organization of men's lives: 1960–1980. Family Relations, 34, 2, 251–7.
Erikson, E. H. 1963 . Childhood and Society. Second edition, Norton, New York.
Ernst, J. M and Cacioppo, J. T. 1999. Lonely hearts: psychological perspectives on loneliness. Applied and Preventive Psychology, 8, 1, 1–22.
European Communities 2006. Population Statistics: 2006 Edition. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.
Forste, R. 2002. Where are all the men? A conceptual analysis of the role of men in family formation. Journal of Family Issues, 23, 5, 579–600.
Ganzeboom, H. B. G., De Graaf, P. M. and Treiman, D. J. 1992. A standard international socio-economic index of occupational status. Social Science Research, 21, 1, 1–56.
Greene, M. E. and Biddlecom, A. E. 2000. Absent and problematic men: demographic accounts of male reproductive roles. Population and Development Review, 26, 1, 81–115.
Hofferth, S. L. and Anderson, K. G. 2003. Are all dads equal? Biology versus marriage as a basis for paternal investment. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 65, 1, 213–32.
Jong, Gierveld J. de and Tilburg, T. G. van 1990. Manual of the Loneliness Scale. Department of Social Research Methodology, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam.
Kaufman, G. and Uhlenberg, P. 1998. Effects of life course transitions on the quality of relationships between adult children and their parents. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 60, 4, 924–38.
Kendig, H., Dykstra, P. A., Gaalen, R. van and Melkas, T. 2007. Health of aging parents and childless individuals. In Dykstra, P. A. and Hagestad, G. O. (eds), Multiple Meanings of Childlessness in Late Life: Findings from Seven Societies. Journal of Family Issues, 28, 11, special issue, 1457–86.
Knoester, C. and Eggebeen, D. J. 2006. The effects of the transition to parenthood and subsequent children on men's wellbeing and social participation. Journal of Family Issues, 27, 11, 1532–60.
Kohler, H.-P., Behrman, J. R. and Skytthe, A. 2005. Partner+children=happiness? The effects of partnerships and fertility on wellbeing. Population and Development Review, 31, 3, 407–45.
Lamb, M. E. 1997. Fathers and child development. In Lamb, M. E. (ed.), The Role of the Father in Child Development. Third edition, Wiley, New York, 1–18.
Larsson, K. and Silverstein, M. 2004. The effects of marital and parental status on informal support and service utilization: a study of older Swedes living alone. Journal of Aging Studies, 18, 2, 231–44.
Lewis, J. 2004. Individualization and the need for new forms of family solidarity in post-industrial families: new forms of bonding? In Knijn, T. and Komter, A. (eds), Solidarity Between the Sexes and the Generations: Transformations in Europe. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, UK, 51–67.
Lundberg, S. and Rose, E. 2002. The effects of sons and daughters on men's labor supply and wages. Review of Economics and Statistics, 84, 2, 251–68.
Marsiglio, W., Amato, P. R., Day, R. and Lamb, M. 2000. Scholarship on fatherhood in the 1990s and beyond. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 62, 4, 1173–91.
Mastekaasa, A. 1992. Marriage and psychological wellbeing: some evidence on selection into marriage. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 54, 4, 901–11.
McLanahan, S. and Adams, J. 1987. Parenthood and psychological wellbeing. Annual Review of Sociology, 13, 5, 237–57.
Muramatsu, N., Yin, H., Campbell, R. T., Hoyem, R. L., Jacob, M. A. and Ross, C. O. 2007. Risk of nursing home admission among older Americans: does states' spending on home- and community-based services matter? Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 62B, 3, S169–78.
Nolte, E., Mc Kee, M. and Gilmore, A. 2005. Morbidity and mortality in the transition countries of Europe. In Macura, M., MacDonald, A. L. and Haug, W. (eds), The New Demographic Regime: Population Challenges and Policy Responses. United Nations Organisation, New York, 153–76.
Nomaguchi, K. M. and Milkie, M. A. 2003. Costs and rewards of children: the effects of becoming a parent on adults' lives. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 65, 2, 356–74.
Offer, S. and Schneider, B. 2007. Children's role in generating social capital. Social Forces, 85, 3, 1125–42.
Oppenheimer, V. K. 1994. Women's rising employment and the future of the family in industrial societies. Population and Development Review, 20, 2, 293–342.
Pleck, J. H. 1981. The Myth of Masculinity. MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Pleck, J. H. and Sawyer, J. (eds) 1974. Men and Masculinity. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.
Román, A. A. 2006. Deviating from the Standard: Effects on Labor Continuity and Career Patterns. Dutch University Press, Amsterdam.
Simon, R. W. 2002. Revisiting the relationships among gender, marital status, and mental health. American Journal of Sociology, 107, 4, 1065–96.
Skevik, A. 2006. ‘Absent fathers’ or ‘reorganized families’? Variations in father-child contact after parental break-up in Norway. Sociological Review, 54, 1, 114–32.
Tazi-Preve, I. M. and Dorbritz, J. 2007. Various Aspects of Fatherhood from a Gender Point of View: A European Country Comparison. Paper presented at a meeting of the Population Association of America, 29–31 March, New York.
Townsend, N. W. 2002. The Package Deal: Marriage, Work, and Fatherhood in Men's Lives. Temple University Press, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Umberson, D. 1987. Family status and health behaviors: social control as a dimension of social integration. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 28, 3, 306–19.
Walker, A. (ed.) 2005. Understanding Quality of Life in Old Age. Open University Press, Maidenhead, Berkshire, UK.
Weitoft, G. R., Burström, B. and Rosén, M. 2004. Premature mortality among lone fathers and childless men. Social Science and Medicine, 59, 7, 1449–59.
Wenger, C. C., Dykstra, P. A., Melkas, T. and Knipscheer, C. P. M. 2007. Social embeddedness and late-life parenthood: community activity, close ties and support networks. In Dykstra, P. A. and Hagestad, G. O. (eds), Multiple Meanings of Childlessness in Late Life: Findings from Seven Societies. Journal of Family Issues, 28, 11, special issue, 1419–56.