Skip to main content

The Associational Critique of Quaternary Overkill and why it is Largely Irrelevant to the Extinction Debate

  • Todd A. Surovell (a1) and Brigid S. Grund (a2)

The overkill hypothesis has been criticized using a simple observation–with the exception of New Zealand, there is little evidence for human hunting of extinct Quaternary faunas. We explore the legitimacy of this argument, or what we call the “Associational Critique,” the idea that the paucity of evidence for the subsistence exploitation of extinct taxa weakens or falsifies overkill. Using quantitative and probabilistic models, based on the temporal depth of extinction events, human demography, and taphonomic bias, we ask how many associations with extinct fauna should have been found by this point in time in Australia, North America, and New Zealand. We conclude that such evidence should be rare in Australia, of intermediate abundance in North America, and common in New Zealand, a conclusion very much in accord with the current state of the archaeological record. We reach a similar conclusion using an analysis of the relative frequency of radiocarbon dates from each region dating to the time of coexistence of humans and extinct fauna. We argue that a scarcity of evidence for the exploitation of extinct fauna is not only consistent with overkill but also nearly every other extinction hypothesis that has been proposed, thus rendering the Associational Critique irrelevant.


La hipótesis de exceso de caza ha sido criticada utilizando una simple observación–con la excepción de Nueva Zelandia, existe pocas evidencias de caza humana de fauna extinta del Cuaternario. Nosotros exploramos la legitimidad de este argumento, o lo que llamamos la “Crítica por Asociación”, la idea de que la ausencia de evidencia para la explotación de subsistencia debilita o falsifica la hipótesis de exceso de caza. Utilizando modelos cuantitativos y probabilísticos basados en distancia temporal de eventos de extinción, demografía humana, y sesgo tafonómico, nos preguntamos cuántas asociaciones con fauna extinta se han encontrado hasta este momento en Australia, Norte América, y Nueva Zelandia. Concluimos que con tales evidencias debería ser escaso en Australia, de abundancia intermedia en Norte América y común en Nueva Zelandia, una conclusión mucho más concordante con el estado actual del registro arqueológico. Llegamos a una conclusión similar utilizando un análisis de frecuencias relativas de fechados radiocarbónicas de cada región que datan de la coexistencia de humanos y fauna extinta. Argumentamos que la escasez de evidencia de explotación de fauna extinta no es solo consistente con el exceso de caza si n también con todas las hipótesis que han sido propuestas, haciendo irrelevante a la Crítica por Asociación.

Hide All
Adovasio, James. M., and Page, Jake 2002 The First Americans: In Pursuit of Archaeology’s Greatest Mystery. Random House, New York.
John, Alroy, 1999 Putting North America’s End-Pleistocene Megafaunal Extinctions in Context: Large-scale Analyses of Spatial Patterns, Extinction Rates, and Size Distributions. In Extinctions in Near Time, edited by R. MacPhee, pp. 105143. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York.
Atholl, Anderson, 1984 The Extinction of Moa in Southern New Zealand. In Quaternary Extinctions, edited by P. S. Martin and R. G. Klein, pp. 728740. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.
Atholl, Anderson, 1989 Prodigious Birds: Moas and Moa-Hunting in Prehistoric New Zealand. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Anderson, David G., Miller, Shane, Yerka, Stephen J., and Faught, Michael K. 2005 Paleoindian Database of the Americas: 2005 Status Report. Current Research in the Pleistocene 22:9192.
Attenbrow, V. J. 2004 What’s Changing? Population Size or Land-Use Patterns? The Archaeology of Upper Mangrove Creek, Sydney Basin. Terra australis 21. Australia National University Press, Canberra.
Balme, Jane, D. Merrilees, and Porter, J. K. 1978 Late Quaternary Mammal Remains Spanning around 30,000 Years from Excavations in Devil’s Lair, Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 61:3365.
Barnosky, Anthony D., and Lindsey, Emily L. 2010 Timing of Quaternary Megafaunal Extinction in South America in Relation to Human Arrival and Climate Change. Quaternary International 217:1029.
Barnosky, Anthony D., Koch, Paul L., Feranec, Robert S., Wing, Scott L., and Shabel, Alan B. 2004 Assessing the Causes of Late Pleistocene Extinctions on Continents. Science 306:7075.
Michael, Barton, C., Schmich, Steven, and James, Steven R. 2004 The Ecology of Human Colonization in Pristine Landscapes. In The Settlement of the American Continents, edited by C. M. Barton, G. A. Clark, D. R. Yesner and G. A. Pearson, pp. 138161. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.
Bowler, J. M., Johnston, Harvey, Olley, Jon M., Prescott, John R., Roberts, R. G., Shawcross, Wilfred, and Spooner, Nigel A. 2003 New Ages for Human Occupation and Climatic Change at Lake Mungo, Australia. Nature 421:837840.
Breschini, G. S., Haversat, T., and Erlandson, J. 2004 California Radiocarbon Dates: An Online Database. Coyote Press, Salinas, California.
Brewis, Alexandra A., Molloy, Maureen A., and Sutton, Douglas G. 1990 Modeling the Prehistoric Maori Population. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 81:343356.
Brook, Barry W., and Bowman, David M. J. S. 2005 One Equation Fits Overkill: Why Allometry Underpins Both Prehistoric and Modern Body Size-biased Extinctions. Population Ecology 47:137141.
Brook, Barry W., and Johnson, Christopher N. 2006 Selective Hunting of Juveniles as a Cause of Imperceptible Overkill of the Australian Pleistocene Megafauna. Alcheringa 1:3948.
Brook, Barry W., Burney, David A., Flannery, Timothy F., Gagan, Michael K., Gillespie, Richard, Johnson, Christopher N., Kershaw, Peter, Magee, John W., Martin, Paul S., Miller, Gifford H., Peiser, Benny, and Roberts, Richard G. 2007 Would the Australian Megafauna Have Become Extinct if Humans Had Never Colonised the Continent? Comments on “A Review of the Evidence for a Human Role in the Extinction of Australian Megafauna and an Alternative Explanation” by S. Wroe and J. Field. Quaternary Science Reviews 26:560564.
Burney, David A. 1999 Rates, Patterns, and the Process of Landscape Transformation and Extinction in Madagascar. In Extinctions in Near Time, edited by R. MacPhee, pp. 145164. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York.
Byers, David A., and Ugan, Andrew 2005 Should We Expect Large Game Specialization in the Late Pleistocene? An Optimal Foraging Perspective on Early Paleoindian Prey Choice. Journal of Archaeological Science 32:16241640.
Cannon, Michael D., and Meltzer, David J. 2004 Early Paleoindian Foraging: Examining the Faunal Evidence for Megafaunal Specialization and Regional Variability in Prey Choice. Quaternary Science Reviews 23:19551987.
Richard, Cassels, 1984 The Role of Prehistoric Man in the Faunal Extinctions of New Zealand and Other Pacific Islands. In Quaternary Extinctions, edited by P. S. Martin and R. G. Klein, pp. 741767. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.
Cione, Alberto L., Tonni, Edurado P., and Soibelzon, Leopoldo 2009 Did Humans Cause the Late Pleistocene-Early Holocene Mammalian Extinctions in South America in a Context of Shriking Open Areas? In American Megafaunal Extinctions at the End of the Pleistocene, edited by G. Haynes, pp. 125144. Springer, New York.
Clausen, C. J., Cohen, A. D., Emeliani, C., Holman, J. A., and Stipp, J. J. 1979 Little Salt Spring, Florida: A Unique Underwater Site. Science 203:609614.
Dewar, Robert E., and Wright, Henry T. 1993 The Culture History of Madagascar. Journal of World Prehistory 7:417466.
Diamond, Jared. M. 1989 Quaternary Megafaunal Extinctions: Variations on a Theme by Paganini. Journal of Archaeological Science 16:167185.
Dillehay, Tom D. 2000 The Settlement of the Americas: A New Prehistory. Basic Books, New York.
Faith, J. Tyler, and Surovell, Todd A. 2009 Synchonous Extinction of North America’s Pleistocene Mammals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106:2064120645.
Reid, Ferring, C. 2001 The Archaeology and Paleoecology of the Aubrey Clovis Site (41DN479), Denton County, Texas. Center for Environmental Archaeology, Department of Geography, University of North Texas, Denton.
Stuart, Fiedel 2009 The Chronology of Terminal Pleistocene Megafaunal Extinction. In American Megafaunal Extinctions at the End of the Pleistocene, edited by G. Haynes, pp. 2137. Springer, New York.
Field, Judith, Fillios, Melanie, and Wroe, Stephen 2008 Chronological Overlap between Humans and Megafauna in Sahul (Pleistocene Australia-New Guinea): A Review of the Evidence. Earth-Science Reviews 89:97115.
Firestone, R. B., West, A., Kennett, J. P., Becker, L., Bunich, T. E., Revay, Z. S., Schultz, P. H., Belgya, T., Kennett, D. J., Erlandson, J. M., Dickenson, O. J., Goodyear, A. C., Harris, R. S., Howard, G. A., Kloosterman, J. B., Lechler, P., Mayewski, P. A., Montgomery, J., Poreda, R., Darrah, T., Que Hee, S. S., Smith, A. R., Stich, A., Topping, W., Wittke, J. H., and Wolbach, W. W. S. 2007 Evidence for an Extraterrestrial Impact 12,900 Years Ago that Contributed to the Megafaunal Extinctions and the Younger Dryas Cooling. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104:1601616021.
Flannery, Timothy F. 1994 The Future Eaters: An Ecological History of the Australasian Lands and People. Reed Books, Australia.
Garling, Stephanie J. 1998 Megafauna on the Menu? Haemoglobin Crystallisation of Blood Residues from Stone Artefacts at Cuddie Springs. In A Closer Look: Recent Australian Studies of Stone Tools, edited by R. Fullagar, pp. 2948. Sydney University Archaeological Methods Series 6. Archaeological Computing Laboratory, University of Sydney, Sydney.
Gilbert, M. Thomas, P., Jenkins, Dennis L., Götherstrom, Anders, Naveran, Nuria, Sanchez, Juan J., Hofreiter, Michael, Thomsen, Philip Francis, Binladen, Jonas, Higham, Thomas F. G., Yohe, Robert M., Parr, Rrobert, Cummings, Linda Scott, and Willerslev, Eske 2008 DNA from Pre-Clovis Human Coprolites in Oregon, North America. Science 320(5877):786789.
Gillespie, Richard 2008 Updating Martin’s Global Extinction Model. Quaternary Science Reviews 27:25222529.
Gillespie, Richard, Brook, Barry W., and Baynes, Alexander 2006 Short Overlap of Humans and Megafauna in Pleistocene Australia. Alcheringa 31(S1):163186.
Golson, Jack 1993 The Last Days of Pompeii? In Sahul in Review: Pleistocene Archaeology in Australia, New Guinea and Island Melanesia, edited by M. A. Smith, M. Spriggs and B. Fankhauser, pp. 275280. Occasional Papers in Prehistory 24. Australian National University, Canberra.
Graf, Kelly, and Schmitt, Dave N. 2007 Paleoindian or Paleoarchaic? Great Basin Human Ecology at the Pleistocene-Holocene Transition. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.
Graham, Russell W., and Kay, Marvin 1988 Taphonomic Comparisons of Cultural and Noncultural Faunal Deposits at the Kimmswick and Barnhart Sites, Jefferson County, Missouri. Bulletin of the Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences 33:227240.
Graham, Russell W., and Lundelius, Ernest L. Jr. 1984 Coevolutionary Disequilibrium and Pleistocene Extinctions. In Quaternary Extinctions, edited by P. S. Martin and R. G. Klein, pp. 223249. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.
Grayson, Donald K. 2001 The Archaeological Record of Human Impacts on Animal Populations. Journal of World Prehistory 15:167.
Grayson, Donald K., and Meltzer, David J. 2002 Clovis Hunting and Large Mammal Extinction: A Critical Review of the Evidence. Journal of World Prehistory 16:313359.
Grayson, Donald K., and Meltzer, David J. 2003 A Requiem for North American Overkill. Journal of Archaeological Science 30:585593.
Grün, Rainier, Eggins, Stephen, Aubert, Maxime, Spooner, Nigel A., and Pike, Allistair W.G. 2010 ESR and U-series Analyses of Faunal Material from Cuddie Springs, NSW, Australia: Implications for the Timing of the Extinction of the Australian Megafauna. Quaternary Science Reviews 29:596610.
Dale, Guthrie, R. 1984 Mosaics, Allelochemics, and Nutrients: An Ecological Theory of Late Pleistocene Megafaunal Extinctions. In Quaternary Extinctions, edited by P. S. Martin and R. G. Klein, pp. 289298. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.
Dale, Guthrie, R. 2003 Rapid Body Size Decline in Alaskan Pleistocene Horses before Extinction. Nature 426:169171.
Haynes, C. Vance, Jr. 1984 Stratigraphy and Late Pleistocene Extinction in the United States. In Quaternary Extinctions, edited by P. S. Martin and R. G. Klein, pp. 345353. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.
Haynes, C. Vance, Jr. 2008 Younger Dryas “Black Mats” and the Rancholabrean Termination in North America. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105:65206525.
Haynes, Gary 2007 A Review of Some Attacks on the Overkill Hypothesis, with Special Attention to Misrepresentations and Doubletalk. Quaternary International 169170:8494.
Hiscock, Peter 2008 Archaeology of Ancient Australia. Routledge, London.
Holdaway, Richard N., and Jacomb, C. 2000 Rapid Extinction of the Moas (Aves: Dinornithiformes): Model, Test, and Implications. Science 287:22502254.
Horton, D. R. 1984 Red Kangaroos: Last of the Australian Megafauna. In Quaternary Extinctions, edited by P. S. Martin and R. G. Klein, pp. 639680. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.
Jefferson, Thomas 1984 [1787] Notes on the State of Virginia. The Library of America, New York.
Johnson, C.N. 2002 Determinants of Loss of Mammal Species during the Late Quaternary ‘Megafauna’ Extinctions: Life History and Ecology, but Not Body Size. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 269:22212227.
Johnson, C.N. 2006 Australia’s Mammal Extinctions: A 50,000-Year History. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Kelly, Robert L. 2003 Maybe We Do Know When People Came to North America. Quaternary International 109–110:133145.
Kurtén, Björn, and Anderson, Elaine 1980 Pleistocene Mammals of North America. Columbia University Press, New York.
Lourandos, Harry 1997 Continent of Hunter-Gatherers: New Perspectives in Australian Prehistory. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Lyons, S. K., Smith, F. A., and Brown, J. H. 2004 Of Mice, Mastodons, and Men: Human-mediated Extinctions on Four Continents. Evolutionary Ecology Research 6:339358.
Lyons, S. Kathleen, Smith, Felisa A., Wagner, Peter J., White, Ethan P., and Brown, James H. 2004 Was a ‘Hyperdisease’ Responsible for the Late Pleistocene Megafaunal Extinctions? Ecology Letters 7:859868.
McGimsey, Charles R., and van der Koogh, Josetta 2001 Louisiana’s Archaeological Radiometric Database. Special Publication of the Louisiana Archaeological Society No. 3, Baton Rouge.
MacPhee, Ross D. E., and Burney, David A. 1991 Dating of Modified Femora of Extinct Dwarf Hippopotamus from Southern Madagascar: Implications for Constraining Human Colonization and Vertebrate Extinction Events. Journal of Archaeological Science 18:695706.
MacPhee, Ross D. E., and Marx, P. A. 1997 The 40,000-year Plague: Humans, Hyperdisease and First-contact Extinctions. In Natural Change and Human Impact in Madagascar, edited by S. Goodman and B. Patterson, pp. 169217. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
Martin, Paul S. 1973 The Discovery of America. Science 179:969974.
Martin, Paul S. 1984 Prehistoric Overkill: The Global Model. In Quaternary Extinctions, edited by P. S. Martin and R. G. Klein, pp. 354403. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.
Martin, Paul S., and Steadman, David W. 1999 Prehistoric Extinctions on Islands and Continents. In Extinctions in Near Time, edited by R. MacPhee, pp. 1755. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York.
Maslowski, Robert F, Niquette, Charles M., and Wingfield, Derek M. 1995 The Kentucky, Ohio and West Virginia Radiocarbon Database. West Virginia Archeologist 47(1&2).
Meltzer, David J. 1986 Pleistocene Overkill and the Associational Critique. Journal of Archaeological Science 13:5160.
Meltzer, David J. 2006 Folsom: New Archaeological Investigations of a Classic Paleoindian Bison Kill. University of California Press, Berkeley.
Miller, G. H., Fogel, Marilyn L., Magee, John W., Gagan, Michael K., Clarke, Simon J., and Johnson, Beverly J. 2005 Ecosystem Collapse in Pleistocene Australia and a Human Role in Megafaunal Extinction. Science 309:287290.
Miller, Gifford H., Magee, John W., Johnson, Beverly J., Fogel, Marilyn L., Spooner, Nigel A., McCulloch, Malcolm T., and Ayliffe, Linda K. 1999 Pleistocene Extinction of Genyornis newtoni: Human Impact on Australian Megafauna. Science 283:205208.
Mithen, Steven 1993 Simulating Mammoth Hunting and Extinction: Implications for the Late Pleistocene of the Central Russian Plain. In Hunting and Animal Exploitation in the Later Paleolithic and Mesolithic of Eurasia, edited by G. Larsen, H. M. Bricker and P. Mellars, pp. 163178. Archaeological Papers No. 4. American Anthropological Association, Arlington, Virginia
Mountain, Mary-Jane 1993 Bones, Hunting and Predation in the Pleistocene of Northern Sahul. In Sahul in Review: Pleistocene Archaeology in Australia, New Guinea and Island Melanesia, edited by M. A. Smith, M. Spriggs and B. Fankhauser, pp. 123130. Occasional Papers in Prehistory 24. Australaian National University, Canberra.
Mulvaney, John, and Kamminga, Johan 1999 Prehistory of Australia. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D. C.
NZARD 2003 New Zealand Radiocarbon Database
O’Connell, James F., and Allen, J. 2007 Pre-LGM Sahul (Pleistocene Australia-New Guinea) and the Archaeology of Early Modern Humans. In Rethinking the Human Revolution: New Behavioural and Biological Perspectives on the Origin and Dispersal of Modern Humans, edited by P. Mellars, K. Boyle, O. Bar-Yosef, and C. Stringer, pp. 395410. McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, Cambridge.
O’Connor, Sue, and Veth, Peter 2006 Revisiting the Past: Changing Interpretations of Pleistocene Settlement Subsistence and Demography in Northem Australia. In Archaeology of Oceania: Australia and the Pacific Islands, edited by I. Lilley, pp. 3147. Black-well Publishing, Maiden, Massachusetts.
Owen-Smith, Norman 1987 Pleistocene Extinctions: The Pivotal Role of Megaherbivores. Paleobiology 13:351362.
Perez, Ventura R., Godfrey, Laurie R., Nowak-Kemp, Malgosia, Burney, David A., Ratsimbazafy, Jonah, and Vasey, Natalia 2005 Evidence of Early Butchery of Giant Lemurs in Madagascar. Journal of Human Evolution 49:722742.
Peros, Matthew C., Munoz, Samuel E., Gajewski, Konrad, and Viau, André E. 2010 Prehistoric Demography of North America Inferred from Radiocarbon Data. Journal of Archaeological Science 37:656664.
Pool, David Ian 1977 The Maori Population of New Zealand. Auckland University Press, Auckland.
Pushkina, Diana, and Raia, Pasquale 2008 Human Influence on Distribution and Extinctions of the Late Pleistocene Eurasian Megafauna. Journal of Human Evolution 54:769782.
Roberts, R. G., and Brook, B. W. 2010 Turning Back the Clock on the Extinction of Megafauna in Australia. Quatenary Science Reviews 29:593595.
Roberts, Richard G., Flannery, Timothy F., Ayliffe, Linda K., Yoshida, Hiroyiki, Olley, Jon M., Prideaux, Gavin J., Laslett, Geoff M., Baynes, Alexander, Smith, M. A., Jones, Rhys, and Smith, Barton L. 2001 New Ages for the Last Australian Megafauna: Continent-wide Extinction about 46,000 Years Ago. Science 292:18881891.
Simpson, George Gaylord 1943 The Discovery of Fossil Vertebrates in North America. Journal of Paleontology: 26–38.
Speth, John D., Newlander, Khori, White, Andrew A., Lemke, Ashley K., and Anderson, Lars E. 2012 Early Paleoindian Big-game Hunting in North America: Provisioning or Politics? Quaternary International, in press.
Steadman, David W., Martin, Paul S., E., Ross D. MacPhee, A. J. T. Jull, Gregory H. McDonald, Charles A. Woods, Manuel Iturralde-Vinent, and Hodgins, Gregory W. L. 2005 Asynchronous Extinction of Late Quaternary Sloths on Continents and Islands. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 102:1176311768.
Stiner, Mary C., Munro, Natalie D., and Surovell, Todd A. 2000 The Tortoise and the Hare: Small Game Use, the Broad Spectrum Revolution, and Paleolithic Demography. Current Anthropology 41(1):3973.
Stuart, Anthony J. 2005 The Extinction of Woolly Mammoth (Mammuthus prirnigenius) and Straight-tusked Elephant (Palaeoloxodon antiquus) in Europe. Quaternary International 126–128:171177.
Surovell, Todd A., and Brantingham, P. Jeffrey 2007 A Note on the Use of Temporal Frequency Distributions in Studies of Prehistoric Demography. Journal of Archaeological Science 34:18681877.
Surovell, Todd A., Finely, Judson B., Smith, Geoffrey M., Brantingham, P. Jeffrey, and Kelly, Robert L. 2009 Correcting Temporal Frequency Distributions for Taphonomic Bias. Journal of Archaeological Science 36:17151724.
Surovell, Todd A., and Waguespack, Nicole M. 2008 How Many Elephant Kills are 14? Clovis Mammoth and Mastodon Kills in Context. Quaternary International 191:8297.
Surovell, Todd A., and Waguespack, Nicole M. 2009 Human Prey Choice in the Late Pleistocene and its Relation to Megafaunal Extinctions. In American Megafaunal Extinctions at the End of the Pleistocene, edited by G. Haynes, pp. 77105. Springer, New York.
Surovell, Todd A., Waguespack, Nicole M., and Brantingham, P. Jeffrey 2005 Global Archaeological Evidence for Proboscidean Overkill. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 102:62316236.
Taylor, R. E. 1987 Radiocarbon Dating: An Archaeological Perspective. Academic Press, Orlando.
Trotter, Michael M., and McCulloch, Beverly 1984 Moas, Men, and Middens. In Quaternary Extinctions. edited by P. S. Martin and R. G. Klein, pp. 708727. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.
Turney, Chris S. M., Bird, Michael I., Fifield, L. Keith, Roberts, Richard G., Smith, Mike, Dortch, Charles E., Grün, Rainier. Lawson, Ewan, Ayliffe, Linda K., Miller, Gifford H., Dortch, Joe, and Cresswell, Richard G. 2001 Early Human Occupation at Devil’s Lair, Southwestern Australia 50,000 Years Ago. Quaternary Research 55:313.
Ugan, Andrew, and Byers, David A. 2008 A Global Perspective on the Spatiotemporal Pattern of the Late Pleistocene Human and Woolly Mammoth Radiocarbon Record. Quaternary International 191:6981.
Waguespack, Nicole M., and Surovell, Todd A. 2003 Clovis Hunting Strategies, or How to Make out on Plentiful Resources. American Antiquity 68:333352.
Walker, Renee B., and Driskell, Boyce N. (editors) 2007 Foragers of the Terminal Pleistocene in North America. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln.
Weninger, Bernhard, and Joris, Olaf 2008 A 14C age Calibration Curve for the Last 60 ka: The Greenland-Hulu U/Th Timescale and Its Impact on Understanding the Middle to Upper Paleolithic Transition in Western Eurasia. Journal of Human Evolution 55:772781.
Weninger, Bernhard, Jöris, Olaf, and Danzeglocke, U. 2009 CalPal-2007. Cologne Radiocarbon Calibration & Palaeoclimate Research Package,
Williams, A. N., Smith, M. A., Turney, C. S. M., and Cupper, M. L. 2008 Radiocarbon Database of Archaeological Samples from the Australian Drylands. Australian Archaeology 66:99.
Wilmsen, Edwin M., and Roberts, Frank H. H. Jr. 1984 Lindenmeier, 1934–1974: Concluding Report on Investigations Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology, No. 24. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C.
Wilmshurst, Janet M., Anderson, Atholl J., Higham, Thomas F. G., and Worthy, Trevor H. 2008 Dating the Late Prehistoric Dispersal of Polynesians to New Zealand Using the Commensal Pacific Rat. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105(22):76767680.
Worthy, Trevor H., and Holdaway, Richard N. 2002 The Lost World of the Moa. Indiana University Press, Bloomington.
Wroe, Stephen, Field, Judith, Fullagar, Richard, and Jermin, Lars S. 2004 Megafaunal Extinction in the Late Quaternary and the Global Overkill Hypothesis. Alcheringa 28:291331.
Wyoming SHPO 2010 Wyoming Radiocarbon Database. Database curated at the Wyoming State Historic Preservation Office, Laramie, Wyoming.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

American Antiquity
  • ISSN: 0002-7316
  • EISSN: 2325-5064
  • URL: /core/journals/american-antiquity
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 49 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 293 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 20th January 2017 - 20th September 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.