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NEW CRITERIA FOR THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL IDENTIFICATION OF BONE GREASE PROCESSING

  • Eugène Morin (a1) and Marie-Cécile Soulier (a2)

Abstract

Bone grease processing is frequently used in archaeology to investigate human diet breadth because it constitutes a costly mode of lipid procurement. However, problems of equifinality often complicate the identification of this activity. This paper develops new criteria focused on morphology, the presence of micro-inclusions, and forms of damage that were derived from a bone grease rendering experiment that involved red deer (Cervus elaphus) long bones. Because they are poorly represented in a distinct experiment focused exclusively on marrow extraction, the criteria presented here appear to provide robust signatures of bone grease processing. A survey of the actualistic literature shows that certain bone processing activities, such as stewing and soup making, mostly involve coarse spongy fragments. Because these fragments are too large to be ingested, grease can be extracted from them only through heating or boiling. In contrast, bones ingested in bone meal or as flour necessitate pulverization. A high percentage of coarse fragments may therefore provide a proxy for cooking technology or, minimally, the use of fire, if other patterns are consistent with grease extraction. Given the evolutionary significance of these innovations, the criteria presented here may help to strengthen arguments about dietary shifts during the Paleolithic and later periods.

La graisse contenue dans les portions spongieuses des os constitue une source lipidique importante. La récupération de cette graisse nécessite toutefois la mise en œuvre de moyens importants, ce qui en fait un objet d’étude privilégié pour discuter des changements dans la diète en contexte archéologique. La mise en évidence de cette activité est néanmoins largement limitée par des problèmes d’équifinalité. Cet article présente de nouveaux critères basés sur la morphologie des fragments osseux, la présence de micro-inclusions et diverses formes d'altérations observés à l'issue d'une expérimentation conduite sur un large corpus d'os longs de cerf (Cervus elaphus). La comparaison de ce matériel avec les ossements issus d'une expérimentation ayant uniquement visé à la récupération de la moelle osseuse montre que les critères identifiés constituent des indices robustes pour identifier la récupération de la graisse. La littérature ethnographique et ethnoarchéologique indique que certaines préparations impliquant l'utilisation de morceaux d'os, tel que les plats mijotés et les bouillons gras, se font généralement à partir de gros fragments osseux. La taille de ces fragments ne permettant pas leur ingestion, la graisse doit nécessairement être extraite par chauffage ou ébullition. Parallèlement, la production de pâte d'os et de farine nécessite une pulvérisation de la matière osseuse afin de la rendre consommable. Si les indices de fracturation et les altérations présentes sur les ossements sont compatibles avec une récupération de graisse, la présence de nombreux gros fragments d'os spongieux peut témoigner de la cuisson des aliments et, par extension, de l'utilisation du feu. En raison de l'importance de ces innovations en termes d’évolution des comportements humains, les critères présentés ici permettent d’étayer les discussions concernant les changements alimentaires au cours du Paléolithique ou lors de périodes plus récentes.

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Corresponding author

(eugenemorin@trentu.ca, corresponding author)

References

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