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Land Use and an Archaeological Perspective on Socio-Natural Studies in the Wadi Al-Hasa, West-Central Jordan

  • J. Brett Hill (a1)

Abstract

In recent years environmental archaeologists have emphasized evidence for human-caused degradation, and attention has been focused on the role of our discipline in debates over contemporary socioenvironmental problems. In a recent American Antiquity forum, van der Leeuw and Redman (2002) argue that current environmental research would benefit from an archaeological perspective on these problems, and that our discipline would benefit from more active engagement in the larger debate. I present research supporting the claim that archaeology has unique and compelling insights to offer socio-natural studies. I make arguments based on spatial statistical and GIS analyses of past land use in the Wadi al-Hasa, west-central Jordan, that environmental degradation in the form of soil erosion has been a problem for agropastoralists in that region for several millennia. Furthermore, I argue that an archaeological perspective on long-term patterns of land use provides information at a scale and resolution that makes it highly suitable for studies of human-environment dynamics. Archaeology's unique data and perspective create an opportunity to contribute in a more explicit manner to the study of contemporary environmental issues that currently lack long-term focus at a scale and resolution that is meaningful to humans.

Resumen

En años recientes arqueólogos con interés en el ambiente han enfatizado en la evidencia de la degradación ambiental causada por seres humanos y se ha atención dado al rol de nuestra disciplina en debates sobre problemas socio-ambientales contémporaneos. Recientemente, en un foro de American Antiquity, van der Leeuw y Redman (2002) argumentan que las investigaciones ambientales de hoy se beneficiarían a través de una perspectiva arqueológica, pero también nuestra disiciplina se beneficiaría de una participación más activa en este gran debate. Presento en mis investigaciones resultados que argumentan que la arqueología provee una perspectiva única y urgente para los estudios de carácter socio-natural. Argumento, basado en análisis de estadísticas espaciales y SIG (GIS) sobre el uso anterior de la tierra en el Wadi al-Hasa en la parte occidente-central de Jordanía donde la degradación ambiental en forma de erosión de suelos ha sido un problema para agropastores en esa región por miles de años. Además, argumento que una perspectiva arqueológica sobre patrones del uso de la tierra a largo plazo provee información a una escala y resolución que lo hace altamente valioso para el estudio de las dinámicas de la interacción del ambiente y humanos. Los datos y la perspectiva única de la arqueología generan oportunidades para contribuir, de una manera específica, a los estudios de problemas ambientales contémporaneas que hoy les falta un enfoque de amplio espectro y a una escala y resolución que tenga un significado para los seres humanos.

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