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Wetlands and Emergent Horticultural Economies in the Upper Great Lakes: A New Perspective from the Schultz Site

  • William A. Lovis (a1), Kathryn C. Egan-Bruhy (a2), Beverley A. Smith (a3) and G. William Monaghan (a4)
Abstract

The Schultz site (20SA2) is a benchmark site for understanding the Woodland adaptations of the Upper Great Lakes, although its older excavation data is not comparable with recent Eastern Woodlands research, which consistently uses fine-grained recovery techniques. The 1991 Schultz-site research collected supplementary and upgraded subsistence and environmental data to address questions about regional transformations from hunting and gathering to horticulture. In addition, questions regarding the role of aquatic and wetland resources, and how environmental change affected the availability and productivity of these alternative resources, were addressed. Results of faunal, floral, and geoarchaeological research reveal that Woodland economies in the Saginaw region of the Upper Great Lakes were keyed to environmental changes affecting wetland availability and productivity. The Early Woodland presence of cucurbits does not appear economically important until later when it is combined with more reliable supplementary food sources. Although chenopod is present during the Middle Woodland and early Late Woodland, wetland plant and animal resources act as surrogates for other starchy and oily seeded annuals common in other portions of the Midwest and in the Mid-South. Maize apparently does not achieve economic significance until the Late Woodland period. A model of this combined northern and southern strategy is developed.

Résumé

El sitio Schultz (20SA2) es un sitio de referenda para comprender las adaptaciones del período Woodland de los Grandes Lagos superiores (Upper Great Lakes), aunque los datos de las excavaciones auteriores no son comparables con las investigaciones recientes en los Bosques Orientates (Eastern Woodlands) que usan de forma consistente las técnicas de recuperación más refinados. La investigación actual del sitio Schultz rin dío los datos de subsistencia y medioambiente suplementarios y de calidad más alta para formular preguntas sobre las transformaciones regionales de la caza y recolección a la horticultura. Además, se formulation preguntas con respecto al papel de los recursos acudticos y di pantano, yal cambio medioambiental que afecto la disponibilidad y la productividad de estos recursos alternativos. Los resultados de la investigación de fauna, flora, y geoarqueología revelan que las economías Woodland en la región de Saginaw de los Grandes Lagos Superiores (Upper Great Lakes) se asocian a los cambios medioambientales con impacto sobre la disponibilidad y la productividad de los recursos de pantano. La presencia de calabaza (Cucurbita pepo) no parece importante en la economía hasta que se la combinó con alimentos suplementarios más seguros. Aunque el chual (Chenopodium) está presente durante el período Woodland modio y la parte temprana del Woodland tardío, los animales y plantas del pantano parecen sustituir a las plantas anuales con semillas almidonosas y\o aceitosas comúnes área central de los Estados Unidos. El maíz no parece cobrar importancia económica hasta el período del Woodland tardío.

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American Antiquity
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