Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 54
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Kirchmann, H. Kätterer, T. Bergström, L. Börjesson, G. and Bolinder, M.A. 2016. Flaws and criteria for design and evaluation of comparative organic and conventional cropping systems. Field Crops Research, Vol. 186, p. 99.

    Reeve, J.R. Hoagland, L.A. Villalba, J.J. Carr, P.M. Atucha, A. Cambardella, C. Davis, D.R. and Delate, K. 2016.

    Velmourougane, Kulandaivelu 2016. Impact of Organic and Conventional Systems of Coffee Farming on Soil Properties and Culturable Microbial Diversity. Scientifica, Vol. 2016, p. 1.

    Lee, Sang Soo Shah, Haleem S. Awad, Yasser M. Kumar, Sandeep and Ok, Yong Sik 2015. Synergy effects of biochar and polyacrylamide on plants growth and soil erosion control. Environmental Earth Sciences, Vol. 74, Issue. 3, p. 2463.

    Wachter, J.M. and Reganold, J.P. 2014. Encyclopedia of Agriculture and Food Systems.

    Brock, Christopher Oberholzer, Hans-Rudolf Schwarz, Jürgen Fließbach, Andreas Hülsbergen, Kurt-Jürgen Koch, Wernfried Pallutt, Bernhard Reinicke, Frank and Leithold, Günter 2012. Soil organic matter balances in organic versus conventional farming—modelling in field experiments and regional upscaling for cropland in Germany. Organic Agriculture, Vol. 2, Issue. 3-4, p. 185.

    Carr, Patrick Delate, Kathleen Zhao, Xin Cambardella, Cynthia Carr, Pattie and Heckman, Joseph 2012. Soils and Human Health.

    Munkholm, L.J. 2011. Soil friability: A review of the concept, assessment and effects of soil properties and management. Geoderma, Vol. 167-168, p. 236.

    Lee, Jongtae 2010. Effect of application methods of organic fertilizer on growth, soil chemical properties and microbial densities in organic bulb onion production. Scientia Horticulturae, Vol. 124, Issue. 3, p. 299.

    Okur, Nur Tuna, A. Levent Okur, Bülent Altunlu, Hakan Kayikçioğlu, H. Hüsnü and Civelek, Hasan S. 2010. Non-target effect of organic insecticides: effect of two plant extracts on soil microbial biomass and enzymatic activities in soil. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Vol. 165, Issue. 1-4, p. 389.

    Panwar, Nav Raten Ramesh, Pedaprolu Singh, Amar Bahadur and Ramana, Sivakoti 2010. Influence of Organic, Chemical, and Integrated Management Practices on Soil Organic Carbon and Soil Nutrient Status under Semi-arid Tropical Conditions in Central India. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, Vol. 41, Issue. 9, p. 1073.

    Ahmad, N. Hassan, F.U. and Belford, R.K. 2009. Effects of soil compaction in the sub-humid cropping environment in Pakistan on uptake of NPK and grain yield in wheat (Triticum aestivum). Field Crops Research, Vol. 110, Issue. 1, p. 61.

    Gopinath, K. A. Saha, Supradip Mina, B. L. Pande, Harit Kumar, Narendra Srivastva, Anil K. and Gupta, H. S. 2009. Yield potential of garden pea (Pisum sativumL.) varieties, and soil properties under organic and integrated nutrient management systems. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, Vol. 55, Issue. 2, p. 157.

    Gopinath, K.A. Saha, Supradip Mina, B.L. Pande, Harit Srivastva, A.K. and Gupta, H.S. 2009. Bell pepper yield and soil properties during conversion from conventional to organic production in Indian Himalayas. Scientia Horticulturae, Vol. 122, Issue. 3, p. 339.

    Rosemeyer, Martha 2009. The Conversion to Sustainable Agriculture.

    2009. Nitrogen Uptake by Chinese Cabbage and Soil Chemical Properties as Affected by Successive Application of Chicken Manure Compost. Korea Journal of Environmental Agriculture, Vol. 28, Issue. 1, p. 9.

    Gopinath, K. A. Saha, Supradip Mina, B. L. Pande, Harit Kundu, S. and Gupta, H. S. 2008. Influence of organic amendments on growth, yield and quality of wheat and on soil properties during transition to organic production. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, Vol. 82, Issue. 1, p. 51.

    HERENCIA, J. F. RUIZ, J. C. MELERO, S. GARCIA GALAVÍS, P. A. and MAQUEDA, C. 2008. A short-term comparison of organic v. conventional agriculture in a silty loam soil using two organic amendments. The Journal of Agricultural Science, Vol. 146, Issue. 06, p. 677.

    Reeve, Jennifer R. Smith, Jeffrey L. Carpenter-Boggs, Lynne and Reganold, John P. 2008. Soil-based cycling and differential uptake of amino acids by three species of strawberry (Fragaria spp.) plants. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Vol. 40, Issue. 10, p. 2547.

    King, J. A. Shepherd, M. A. Hyslop, J. J. and Keatinge, R. 2007. An Assessment of the Environmental Impacts at the Farm Scale of Three Organic Dairy Systems. Biological Agriculture & Horticulture, Vol. 24, Issue. 4, p. 317.

  • Currently known as: Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems Title history
    American Journal of Alternative Agriculture, Volume 3, Issue 4
  • October 1988, pp. 144-155

Comparison of soil properties as influenced by organic and conventional farming systems

  • John P. Reganold (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 30 October 2009

This paper summarizes data from previous and current studies on two adjacent farms, one organically managed and the other conventionally managed, in the Palouse region of eastern Washington. The 320-hectare organic farm has been managed without the use of commercial fertilizers and only limited use of pesticides since the farm was first plowed in 1909. The 525-hectare conventional farm, first cultivated in 1908, began receiving recommended rates of commercial fertilizers and pesticides in 1948 and the early 1950's, respectively. The organically-farmed Naff silt loam soil had significantly higher organic matter, cation exchange capacity, total nitrogen, extractable potassium, water content, pH, polysaccharide content, enzyme levels, and microbial biomass than did the conventionally-farmed Naff soil. Also, the organically-farmed soil had significantly lower modulus of rupture, more granular structure, less hard and more friable consistence, and 16 centimeters more topsoil. This topsail difference between farms was attributed to significantly greater erosion on the conventionally-farmed soil between 1948 and 1985. The difference in erosion rates between farms was most probably due to their different crop rotation systems; Le., only the organic farm included a green manure crop in its rotation, and it had different tillage practices. These studies indicate that, in the long-term, the organic farming system was more effective than the conventional farming system in maintaining the tilth and productivity of the Naff soil and in reducing its loss to erosion.

Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

1.C. J. Action , D. A. Rennie , and E. A. Paul . 1963. The relationship of polysaccharides to soil aggregation. Can J. Soil Sci. 43:201209.

2.F. E. Allison 1968. Soil aggregation—some facts and fallicies as seen by a microbiologist. Soil Sci. 106(2):136143.

4.C. Arden-Clark , and R. D. Hodges . 1987. The environmental effects of conventional and organic/biological farming systems. I. Soil erosion, with special reference to Britain. Biol. Agric. Hort. 4:309357.

6.H. Bolton Jr, L. F. Elliott , R. I. Papendick , and D. F. Bezdicek . 1985. Soil microbial biomass and selected soil enzyme activities: Effect of fertilization and cropping practices. Soil Biol. Biochem. 17(3):297302.

7.G. J. Bouyoucos 1951. A recalibration of the hydrometer method for making mechanical analysis of soils. Agron. J. 43:434438.

10.R. H. Brink Jr., P. Dunbach , and D. L. Lynch . 1960. Measurement of carbohydrates in soil hydrolyzates with anthrone. Soil Sci. 89:157166.

18.J. F. Dormaar , U. J. Pittman , and E. D. Spratt . 1979. Burning crop residues: Effect on selected soil characteristics and long-term wheat yields. Can. J. Soil Sci. 59:7986.

28.C. B. Johnson , and W. C. Modenhauer . 1979. Effect of chisel versus moldboard plowing on soil erosion by water. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 43:177179.

29.A. E. Johnston 1986. Soil organic matter, effects on soils and crops. Soil Use Mngt. 2(3):97105.

33.W. E. Larson , F. J. Pierce , and R. H. Dowdy . 1983. The threat of soil erosion to long-term crop production. Science. 219:458465.

34.W. Lockeretz , G. Shearer , and D. H. Kohl . 1981. Organic farming in the corn belt. Science. 211:540547.

37.J. P. Martin 1945. Micro-organisms and soil aggregation. I. Soil Sci. 59:163174.

38.J. P. Martin 1946. Micro-organisms and soil aggregation. II. Soil Sci. 61:157166.

39.B. Metting , and W. R. Rayburn . 1983. The influence of a microalgal conditioner on selected Washington soils: An empirical study. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 47:682685.

41.M. B. Molope , I. C. Grieve , and E. R. Page . 1987. Contributions by fungi and bacteria to aggregate stability of cultivated soils. J. Soil Sci. 38:7177.

42.D. J. Mulla 1986. Distribution of slope steepness in the Palouse region of Washington. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 50(6):14011406.

44.K. R. Olson , and E. Nizeyimana . 1988. Effects of soil erosion on corn yields of seven Illinois soils. J. Prod. Agric. 1(1):1319.

46.M. Peach , and L. English . 1944. Rapid microchemical soil tests. Soil Sci. 57:167196.

49.J. P. Reganold , L. F. Elliott , and Y. L. Unger . 1987. Long-term effects of organic and conventional farming on soil erosion. Nature. 330:370372.

59.R. H. Stark , A. L. Hafenrichter , and W. A. Moss . 1950. Adaptation of grasses for soil and water conservation at high altitudes. Agron. J. 42(3):124127.

69.J. E. Woods , A. L. Hafenrichter , J. L. Schwendiman , and A. G. Law . 1953. The effect of grasses on yield of forage and production of roots by alfalfa-grass mixtures with special reference to soil conservation. Agron. J. 45(12):590595.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

American Journal of Alternative Agriculture
  • ISSN: 0889-1893
  • EISSN: 1478-5498
  • URL: /core/journals/american-journal-of-alternative-agriculture
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *