Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Local food systems and sustainable communities

  • Gail W. Feenstra (a1)
Abstract

The long-term health of a community's food system is an important indicator of its vitality and sustainability. A logical and appropriate way to revitalize a community is by the development of a local food economy. People throughout the United States are designing and implementing sustainable, local food systems that are rooted in particular places, aim to be economically viable for farmers and consumers, use ecologically sound production and distribution practices, and enhance social equity and democracy for all members of the community. This paper reviews the existing literature on local food systems, examines a variety of strategies and initiatives that are currently underway, and identifies steps that community kaders and citizens can use to develop their own local food systems. Finally, I suggest what research is needed to support these community efforts.

Copyright
References
Hide All
1.Aegerter, B., Along, A., Barnett, E., Coomber, S., Johnson, M., Kile, R., Nielsen, M., Preves, G., Scott, M., Strangler, J., and Woodwell, J.. 1990. Education in a hotter time: The campus and the biosphere in the twenty-first century. Carleton and St. Olaf Colleges, Northfield, Minnesota; Meadowcreek Project, Fox, Arkansas.
2.Arthur D. Little, Inc. 1985. Frontiers for agriculture. An action agenda for New York State, Volume 1. Main report (reference 53235). Henderson, Friedlich, Graf and Doyle, Inc., New York, N.Y.
3.Ashman, L., de la Vega, J., Dohan, M., Fisher, A., Hippler, R., and Romain, B.. 1993. Seeds of Change. Strategies for Food Security for the Inner City. Southern California Interfaith Hunger Coalition, Los Angeles, California.
4.Berry, W. 1977. The Unsettling of America. Culture and Agriculture. Avon Books, New York, N.Y.
5.British Columbia Ministry of Health. 1994. B.C. foods – A rainbow of choices. Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
6.Bruhn, C., Chapman, E., Vaupel, S., and Vossen, P.. 1992. Consumer attitudes toward locally grown produce. California Agriculture 46(4):1318.
7.Campbell, L., and Pearman, C.. 1994. Locally produced foods sold in Renfrew County: Survey of food retailers and distributors. Association for Agricultural Self-Reliance – Renfrew County, Renfrew, Ontario.
8.Cantrell, P. 1991. The Food and Agriculture Workbook. Rocky Mountain Institute, Old Snowmass, Colorado.
9.Clancy, K.L. 1994. Local and regional food systems: The role of food policy councils. Presentation at the “Cuisine, Agriculture & Social Change Conference,” a joint annual meeting of the Agriculture, Food and Human Values Society and the Association for the Study of Food and Society, June 9–12, Tucson, Arizona.
10.Community Food Security Coalition. 1995. Community Food Security Empowerment Act, 1995. Hartford Food System, Hartford Connecticut; Sustainable Food Center, Austin, Texas; Dept. of Urban Planning, Univ. of California, Los Angeles.
11.Cornucopia Project. 1981. Empty Breadbasket? The Coming Challenge to America's Food Supply and What We Can Do About It. Rodale Press, Emmaus, Pennsylvania.
12.Cornucopia Project. 1982. Organizing a Local Cornucopia Project: A Manual for Changing Your Food System. Rodale Press, Emmaus, Pennsylvania.
13.Cornucopia Project, (undated). Strategies for a Sustainable Food System. Rodale Press, Emmaus, Pennsylvania.
14.Crouch, M. 1993. Eating our teachers: Local food, local knowledge. Raise The Stakes: The Planet Drum Review. Planet Drum Foundation, San Francisco, California.
15.Dahlberg, K. 1994. Food policy councils: The experience of five cities and one county. Unpublished discussion paper. Dept. of Political Science, Western Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo.
16.De Boer, J.C., and Schlabach, J.H.. 1981. Primer on Food Stewardship. Joint Strategy and Action Committee, Inc., New York, N.Y.
17.Fricker Group and Sunflower Strategies. 1994. Collective Marketing Strategy for the Humboldt County Food Products Industry. The Fricker Group and Sunflower Strategies, Santa Rosa, California.
18.Getz, A. 1991. Urban foodsheds. Permaculture Activist 7(3):2627.
19.Gottlieb, R., and Fisher, A.. 1996. “First feed the face”: Environmental justice and community food security. Antipode 28(2):193203.
20.Granberg-Michaelson, W. 1984. A Worldly Spirituality. Harper and Row Publishers, San Francisco, California.
21.Gussow, J.D. 1978. The Feeding Web: Issues in Nutritional Ecology. Bull Publishing Co. Inc., Palo Alto, California.
22.Gussow, J.D., and Clancy, K.L.. 1986. Dietary guidelines for sustainability. J. Nutrition Education 18(1):15.
23.Hamm, M.W. 1993a. The potential for a localized food supply in New Jersey. Paper presented at the “Environment, Culture, and Food Equity Conference,” organized jointly by the Agriculture, Food and Human Values Society and the Association for the Study of Food in Society, June 3–6, Pennsylvania State Univ., State College.
24.Hamm, M.W. 1993b. Proposal for a student farm at Cook College. Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, New Jersey.
25.Hartford Food System. 1993. Annual report. City of Hartford, Connecticut, Advisory Commission on Food Policy. 1992–1993. Hartford, Connecticut.
26.Hartford Food System. 1994. Hunger in Hartford: Towards a Solution. Working to Rebuild Our Local Food System, (brochure). Hartford Food System, Hartford, Connecticut.
27.Haughton, B. 1982. The cosmopolitan radish: Procedures for constructing a food guide for New York City and State in the year 2020. Doctoral dissertation, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, N.Y.
28.Hendrickson, J.A. 1993. The foodshed: Heuristic device and sustainable alternative to the food system. Paper presented at the “Environment, Culture, and Food Equity Conference,” organized jointly by the Agriculture, Food and Human Values Society and the Association for the Study of Food in Society, June 3–6, Pennsylvania State Univ., State College.
29.Herrin, M., and Gussow, J.D.. 1989. Designing a sustainable regional diet. J. Nutrition Education 21(6):270275.
30.Hightower, J. 1973. Hard Tomatoes, Hard Times. Harper and Brothers, New York, N.Y.
31.Hightower, J. 1976. Eat Your Heart Out. Vintage Books, New York, N.Y.
32.Hollander, H. 1983. The Lehigh Valley food system: Opportunities for economic growth. The Cornucopia Project of Rodale Press, Emmaus, Pennsylvania.
33.Homeless Garden Project. 1992. The homeless garden project reader. Santa Cruz, California.
34.Joseph, H. 1996. Community food security, agriculture, and the environment: A Massachusetts perspective. In Lockeretz, W. (ed). Environmental Enhancement through Agriculture. School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts Univ., Medford, Massachusetts. pp. 245253.
35.Jubilee Agriculture Ministries. 1994. Of the land, for the land. A bible study on church, land and community. Jubilee Agriculture Ministries, Tempe, Arizona.
36.Junge, S., Ingram, R., and Veerkamp, G.E.. 1995. Impacts of local food systems on communities and agriculture: Reason for the seasons. Progress Rept. to the Univ. of California Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Program, Davis.
37.Kloppenburg, J. Jr., Hendrickson, J., and Stevenson, G.W.. (1996). Coming in to the foodshed. In Vitek, W. and Jackson, W. (eds.) Rooted in the Land. Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut, pp 113123.
38.Kneen, B. 1993. From Land to Mouth. Understanding the Food System. NC Press Limited, Toronto, Canada.
39.Land, Food, and Justice Committee. 1986. There is a Season: Cooking with the Good Things Growing in Michigan. Interfaith Council for Peace, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
40.Lappe, P.M. 1975. Diet for a Small Planet. 10th ed.Ballantine Books, New York, N.Y.
41.Lappe, P.M., and Collins, J.. 1978. Food First: Beyond the Myth of Scarcity. Revised ed. Ballantine Books, New York, N.Y.
42.Lehman, P. 1994. Arcata farm and education project. Progress report to the Univ. of California Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Program, Davis.
43.Lockeretz, W. 1986. Urban consumers' attitudes towards locally grown produce. Amer. J. Alternative Agric. 1:8388.
44.Lyson, T.A., Gillespie, G.W. Jr., and Hilchey, D.. 1995 Farmers' markets and the local community: Bridging the formal and informal economy. Amer. J. Alternative Agric. 10:108113.
45.Maretzki, A., and Anderson, C. (project co-directors). 1991. The Northeast Network: Food, Agriculture, and Health Policy Education. Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, and Cornell Univ., Ithaca, New York.
46.Massachusetts Audubon Society, (undated). A description of Drumlin Farm's food project. Unpublished project description. Lincoln, Massachusetts.
47.McKnight, J. 1995. The Careless Society. Basic Books, New York, N.Y.
48.Messing, P. 1981. The New York State food system: Growing closer to home. Rodale Press, Emmaus, Pennsylvania.
49.Midwest Organic Alliance. 1995. Midwest organic alliance update, vol. 1, issue 1.
50.Minneapolis Food Policy Task Force. 1987. A municipal food policy for Minneapolis: The report of the Minneapolis Food Policy Task Force. Self Reliance Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota.
51.Minnesota Project. 1986. AgMarket search for southeast Minnesota (volume I: executive summary report). The Minnesota Project, Preston, Minnesota.
52.Nayga, R.M. Jr., Govindasamy, R., Wall, T., and Thatch, D.W.. 1995. Characteristics of farmer-to-consumer direct market customers in New Jersey. Dept. of Agricultural Economics and Marketing, Rutgers Cooperative Extension, New Brunswick, New Jersey.
53.Nettleton, J. 1996. Regional farmers' market development as an employment and economic development strategy. In Lockeretz, W. (ed). Environmental Enhancement through Agriculture. School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts Univ., Medford, Massachusetts, pp. 235243.
54.Nuxalk Food and Nutrition Program. 1984. Nuxalk Food and Nutrition Handbook. A Practical Guide to Family Foods and Nutrition Using Native Foods. Malibu Offset Printing Inc., Richmond, British Columbia, Canada.
55.Pahl, E. 1983. The Food System in California: Problems and Prospects in the Land of Plenty. Rodale Press, Emmaus, Pennsylvania.
56.PlacerGROWN. 1995. Placer Grown (tabloid). PlacerGROWN, Auburn, California.
57.Presbyterian Eco-Justice Task Force. 1989. Keeping and Healing the Creation. Committee on Social Witness Policy, Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.), Louisville, Kentucky.
58.St. Paul Farmers' Market. 1985. The St. Paul Farmers' Market Cookbook. St. Paul, Minnesota.
59.Sustainable Food Center. 1995. Access denied. An analysis of problems facing East Austin residents in their attempts to obtain affordable, nutritious food. Sustainable Food Center, Austin, Texas.
60.Thomson, J., and Kelvin, R.. 1994. A community systems approach to sustain agriculture in urbanizing environments: Developing a regional marketing infrastructure (final project report). Sustaining Agriculture and Natural Resources in Urbanizing Environments (SANRUE), Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, and Rodale Institute Center, Kutztown, Pennsylvania.
61.Toronto Food Policy Council. 1992. 1992 action plan of the Toronto Food Policy Council. Toronto Food Policy Council, Toronto, Canada.
62.Toronto Food Policy Council. 1995. Toronto Food Policy Council Policy manual. Toronto Food Policy Council, Toronto, Canada.
63.Tudge, C. 1980. Future Food: Politics, Philosophy and Recipes for the 21st Century. Harmony Books, New York, N.Y.
64.Wilkins, J., and Bokaer-Smith, J.. 1996. The Northeast Regional Food Guide. Cornell Univ., Ithaca, New York.
65.Yazman, M.B. 1991. A guide to starting a local food project based on the Hendrix College experience. Hendrix College, Conway, Arkansas.
66.Yellow Wood Associates, Inc. 1988. North country region cash crop feasibility study. Yellow Wood Associates, Inc., Fairfield, Vermont.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

American Journal of Alternative Agriculture
  • ISSN: 0889-1893
  • EISSN: 1478-5498
  • URL: /core/journals/american-journal-of-alternative-agriculture
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed