1Rogers Brubaker, Citizenship and Nationhood in France and Germany 31 (1992).
2Spiro, Peter J., Dual Nationality and the Meaning of Citizenship, 46Emory L.J. 1411 (1997).
3 William Blackstone characterized it by holding that an obligation to one's sovereign represented “a debt of gratitude, which cannot be forfeited, canceled, or altered, by any change of time place or circumstances.” SeeWilliam Blackstone, Commentaries on the Law of England 1765, at 369–70 (1979).
4 The right to expatriation is currently recognized by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Art. 15(2), GA Res. 217A (III), UN Doc. A/810 (1948).
5 Perez v. Brownell, 356 U.S. 44, 50 (1958).
6 Judgement of May 21, 1974, 37 BVerfGE 217, 254–55.
14Joppke, Christian, Citizenship and Immigration 31 (2010).
15Orgad, Liav, The Cultural Defense of Nations: A Liberal Theory of Majority Rights 85–114 (2015).
16 One can argue that access to the status of citizenship is becoming more liberal in one sense (who has access?), but less liberal in another sense (under which conditions?).
17 In a recent article, Rainer Bauböck demonstrates how international law can keep both open citizenship, which is easier to acquire, and the “genuine links” doctrine. See Rainer Bauböck, Genuine Links and Useful Passports: Evaluating Strategic Uses of Citizenship, J. Ethnic & Migration Stud. (Mar. 20, 2018), available athttps://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/1369183X.2018.1440495.
18 Spiro's case is special—his father was a German who fled Germany before the Nazis took over—but the point is one of principal.
19Shachar, Ayelet, Dangerous Liaisons: Money and Citizenship, inShould Citizenship Be for Sale? 3 (Shachar, Ayelet & Bauböck, Rainer eds., EUI Working Paper RSCAS 2014/01, European University Institute, 2014).
20 For a distinction between a country as a “country house,” a “hotel,” and a “home,” see Jonathan Sacks, The Home We Build Together: Recreating Society 13–23 (2007).
21See, e.g., Weiner, Myron, Security, Stability, and International Migration, 17Int'l Security 91 (1992–1993); Adamson, Fiona B., Crossing Borders: International Migration and National Security, 31Int'l Security 165 (2006).