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Toward Compatibility of the EU Trade Policy with the General Data Protection Regulation

  • Svetlana Yakovleva (a1) and Kristina Irion (a2)
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References

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1 EU Proposal for WTO Disciplines and Commitments Relating to Electronic Commerce, Eur. Comm'n Commc'n, INF/ECOM/22, paras. 2.7–2.8 (Apr. 26, 2019).

2 Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union arts. 7 and 8, 2000 O.J. (C 364) 1 (Dec. 18, 2000) [hereinafter EU Charter].

3 Regulation (EU) 2016/679 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 April 2016 On the Protection of Natural Persons with Regard to the Processing of Personal Data and on the Free Movement of Such Data, and Repealing Directive 95/46/EC (General Data Protection Regulation), 2016 O.J. (L 119) 1 [hereinafter GDPR].

4 The EEA is an extension to the EU internal market by three European Free Trade Association states: Iceland, Liechtenstein, and Norway.

5 EU Charter, supra note 2, arts. 7 and 8.

6 GDPR, supra note 3, art. 3(2).

7 See Case C-363/14, Schrems v. Data Protection Commissioner, ECLI:EU:C:2015:650, para. 73 (Eur. Ct. Justice, Oct. 6, 2015) [hereinafter Schrems]; see also GDPR, supra note 3, art. 44.

8 GDPR, supra note 3, recital (23).

9 See Shoshana Zuboff, Big Other: Surveillance Capitalism and the Prospects of an Information Civilization, 30 J. Info. Tech. 75, 83 (2015).

10 See, e.g., Kristina Irion et al., Trade and Privacy: Complicated Bedfellows? How to Achieve Data Protection-proof Free Trade Agreements 28–30 (Study commissioned by BEUC et al., Amsterdam, Institute for Information Law (IViR), July 13, 2016).

11 Peter Swire, Testimony in Irish High Court Case Data Protection Commissioner v. Facebook Ireland Limited & Maximillian Schrems, 1-1, 1-2.

12 Svetlana Yakovleva & Kristina Irion, The Best of Both Worlds - Free Trade in Services and EU Law on Privacy and Data Protection, 2 Eur. Data Prot. L. Rev. 191, 198–99, 206–07 (2016).

13 See, e.g., Ingo Venzke, Making General Exceptions: The Spell of Precedents in Developing Article XX GATT into Standards for Domestic Regulatory Policy, 12 German L.J. 1111, 1116–37 (2011).

14 Christopher Kuner, Developing an Adequate Legal Framework for International Data Transfers, in Reinventing Data Protection? 269–71 (Serge Gutwirth et al. eds., 2009).

15 See Schrems, supra note 7, at para. 92; Opinion 1-15 on Draft EU-Canada PNR Agreement, ECLI:EU:C:2017:592, para. 140 (Eur. Ct. Justice, July 26, 2017) [hereinafter CJEU Opinion 1/15].

16 EU Charter, supra note 2, art. 52(1); Schrems, supra note 7, at paras. 93–95; CJEU Opinion 1/15, supra note 15, at paras. 141, 154.

17 GDPR, supra note 3, art. 45(2)(a).

18 Schrems, supra note 7, at paras. 87–98.

19 See Data Protection Commissioner v. Facebook Ireland Ltd, Maximillian Schrems, Case C-311/18 (pending); La Quadrature du Net & Others v. Comm'n, Case T-738/16 (pending).

20 Consolidated Version of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union art. 207(3)(2), 2010 O.J. (C 83) 47 (Mar. 30, 2010) [hereinafter TFEU].

21 See CJEU Opinion 1/15, supra note 15, at para. 154f.

22 TFEU, supra note 20, art. 218 sec. 11.

23 See, e.g., Irion et al., supra note 10.

24 General Agreement on Trade in Services art. XIVbis(1)(b), Apr. 15, 1994, Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization, Annex 1B, 1869 UNTS 183.

25 Panel Report, Russia-Measures Concerning Traffic in Transit, WT/DS512/R (adopted Apr. 26, 2019).

26 See Inu Manak, U.S. WTO E-Commerce Proposal Reads Like USMCA, Int'l Econ. L. & Pol'y Blog (May 8, 2019).

27 See, e.g., Christopher Kuner, Reality and Illusion in EU Data Transfer Regulation Post Schrems, 18 German L.J. 881 (2017).

28 See Svetlana Yakovleva, Privacy Protection(ism): The Latest Wave of Trade Constraints on Regulatory Autonomy, U. Miami L. Rev. (forthcoming).

Toward Compatibility of the EU Trade Policy with the General Data Protection Regulation

  • Svetlana Yakovleva (a1) and Kristina Irion (a2)

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