Skip to main content
×
Home

The Missionary Roots of Liberal Democracy

  • ROBERT D. WOODBERRY (a1)
Abstract

This article demonstrates historically and statistically that conversionary Protestants (CPs) heavily influenced the rise and spread of stable democracy around the world. It argues that CPs were a crucial catalyst initiating the development and spread of religious liberty, mass education, mass printing, newspapers, voluntary organizations, and colonial reforms, thereby creating the conditions that made stable democracy more likely. Statistically, the historic prevalence of Protestant missionaries explains about half the variation in democracy in Africa, Asia, Latin America and Oceania and removes the impact of most variables that dominate current statistical research about democracy. The association between Protestant missions and democracy is consistent in different continents and subsamples, and it is robust to more than 50 controls and to instrumental variable analyses.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Robert D. Woodberry is Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, National University of Singapore AS1, #04–10 Arts LinkSingapore117570 (polv48@nus.edu.sg; until July 2012, contact at bobwood@austin.utexas.edu).
References
Hide All
Acemoglu Daron, and Johnson Simon. 2007. “Disease and Development: The Effect of Life Expectancy on Economic Growth.” Journal of Political Economy 115: 925–85.
Acemoglu Daron, Johnson Simon, and Robinson James A.. 2001. “The Colonial Origins of Comparative Development.” American Economic Review 91: 13691401.
Acemoglu Daron, Johnson Simon, and Robinson James A.. 2002. “Reversal of Fortune: Geography and Institutions in the Making of the Modern World Income Distribution.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 117: 1231–94.
Acemoglu Daron, Johnson Simon, Robinson James A., and Yared Pierre. 2008. “Income and Democracy.” American Economic Review 98: 808–42.
Acemoglu Daron, and Robinson James A.. 2005. Economic Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Aggarwal S. K. 1988. Press at the Crossroads in India. Delhi, India: UDH Publishing House.
Albouy David. 2008. The Colonial Origins of Comparative Development: An Investigation of the Settler Mortality Data. NBER Working Paper 14130.
Ali Muhammad Mohar. 1965. The Bengali Reaction to Christian Missionary Activities, 1833–1857. Chittagong, India: Mehrub Publications.
Altman Albert A. 1966. “The Emergence of the Press in Meiji, Japan.” Ph.D. diss. Princeton University.
Anderson John. 2004. “Does God Matter, and If So Whose God? Religion and Democratization.” Democratization 11: 192217.
Anheier Helmut K. 1989. “Private Voluntary Organizations and Development in West Africa.” In The Nonprofit Sector in International Perspective, ed. Estelle James. New York: Oxford University Press, 337–57.
Anheier Helmut K., and Salamon Lester M.. 1998. The Nonprofit Sector in the Developing World. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press.
Annis Sheldon. 1987. God and Production in a Guatemalan Town. Austin, TX: Austin University Press.
Anstey Roger T. 1975. The Atlantic Slave Trade and British Abolition. London: Macmillan.
Bacchus M. Kazim. 1988. “The Role of Denominational Bodies in the Development of Education in the Commonwealth Caribbean.” In Christianity and Educational Provision in International Perspective, eds. Tulasiewicz W. and Brock C.. London: Routledge, 217–69.
Bai Ying, and Kai-Sing Kung James. 2011. “Diffusing Knowledge while Spreading God's Message: Protestantism and Economic Prosperity in China, 1840–1920.” Hong Kong University of Science and Technology. Unpublished paper.
Barrett David B. 1982. World Christian Encyclopedia. New York: Oxford University Press.
Barrett David B., Kurian George Thomas, and Johnson Todd M., eds. 2001. World Christian Encyclopedia, 2nd ed.New York: Oxford University Press.
Barro Robert J. 1999. “Determinants of Democracy.” Journal of Political Economy 107: S15883.
Barro Robert J., and Lee Jong-Wha. 1994. “Data Set for a Panel of 138 Countries.” http://www.nber.org/pub/barro.lee/ (accessed January 10, 2012).
Bayly C.A. 2004. The Birth of the Modern World 1780–1914. Oxford: Blackwell.
Bebbington David. 2006. “The Growth of Voluntary Religion.” In The Cambridge History of Christianity, Vol. 8, eds. Gillery S. and Stanley B.. New York: Cambridge University Press, 5369.
Becker Sascha O., and Woessmann Ludger. 2009. “Was Weber Wrong? A Human Capital Theory of Protestant Economic History.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 124 (2): 531–96.
Bekkers René, and Schuyt Theo. 2008. “And Who is Your Neighbor? Explaining Denominational Differences in Charitable Giving and Volunteering in the Netherlands.” Review of Religious Research 50: 7496.
Berman Harold J. 1983. Law and Revolution. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Berman Joshua A. 2008. Created Equal: How the Bible Broke with Ancient Political Thought. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Blunch Niels-Hugo. 2008. “Religion and Human Capital in Ghana.” Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, New Orleans.
Boix Carles. 2003. Democracy and Redistribution. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Boli John, Loya Thomas A., and Loftin Teresa. 1999. “National Participation in World-polity Organization.” In Constructing World Culture, eds. Boli John and Thomas George M.. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 5077.
Bollen Kenneth A. 1979. “Political Democracy and the Timing of Development.” American Sociological Review 44: 572–87.
Bollen Kenneth A. 2001. Cross-national Indicators of Liberal Democracy, 1950–1990 [Computer file]. 2nd ICPSR version. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina [producer], 1998. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor].
Bollen Kenneth A. 2009. “Liberal Democracy Series I, 1972–1988: Definition, Measurement, and Trajectories.” Electoral Studies 28: 368–74.
Bollen Kenneth A., and Jackman Robert W.. 1985. “Political Democracy and the Size Distribution of Income.” American Sociological Review 50: 438–57.
Bollen Kenneth A., and Paxton Pamela. 1998. “Detection and Determinants of Bias in Subjective Measures.” American Sociological Review 63: 465–78.
Bollen Kenneth A., and Paxton Pamela. 2000. “Subjective Measures of Liberal Democracy.” Comparative Political Studies 33: 5886.
Botticini Maristella, and Eckstein Zvi. 2005. “Jewish Occupational Selection: Education, Restrictions, or Minorities?Journal of Economic History 65: 922–48.
Bradley Ian. 2006. The Call to Seriousness: The Evangelical Impact on the Victorians. Oxford: Lion Hutson.
Bradley James E. 1990. Religion, Revolution, and English Radicalism: Non-conformity in Eighteenth-century Politics and Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bradley James E. 2005. “The Public, Parliament, and the Protestant Dissenting Deputies, 1732–1740.” Parliamentary History 24: 7190.
Bradley James E., and Van Kley Dale K., eds. 2001. Religion and Politics in Enlightenment Europe. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.
Brown Candy Gunther. 2004. The Word in the World: Evangelical Writing, Publishing, and Reading in America, 1789–1880. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Brown David S. 2000. “Democracy, Colonization, and Human Capital in Sub-Saharan Africa.” Studies in Comparative International Development 35: 2040.
Brusco Elizabeth E. 1995. The Reformation of Machismo. Austin: University of Texas Press.
Butler Jon. 2004. “Jack-in-the-box Faith: The Religious Problem in Modern American History.” Journal of American History 90: 1357–78.
Capoccia Giovanni, and Ziblatt Daniel. 2010. “The Historical Turn in Democratization Studies: A New Research Agenda for Europe and Beyond.” Comparative Political Studies 43: 931–68.
Chabbott Colette. 1999. “Development INGOs.” In Constructing World Culture, eds. Boli John and Thomas George M.. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 222–48, 319–20.
Chang Wen-Chung. 2006. “Determinants of Religious Giving in an Eastern-culture Economy.” Review of Religious Research 47: 363–79.
Chaudhuri Tripti. 1998. “Missionaries and the Peasant Question.” Currents in World Christianity Paper #88. Cambridge University.
Choi Myung Keun. 1997. Changes in Korean Society between 1884–1910 as a Result of the Introduction of Christianity. New York: Peter Lang.
Clague Christopher, Gleason Suzanne, and Knack Stephen. 2001. “Determinants of Lasting Democracy in Poor Countries.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 773: 1641.
Clarke J. C. D. 1994. The Language of Liberty 1660–1832. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Clarke Peter B. 1997. West Africa and Christianity. London: Edward Arnold.
Clements Keith. 1999. Faith on the Frontier: A Life of J. H. Oldham. Edinburgh: T&T Clark.
Cook David J. 1975. “The Influence of Livingstonia Mission upon the Formation of Welfare Associations in Zambia, 1912–31.” In Themes in the Christian History of Central Africa, eds. Range Terence and Weller John. London: Heinemann, 98134.
Curtis James E., Baer Douglas E. and Grabb Edward G.. 2001. “Nations of Joiners: Explaining Voluntary Association Membership in Democratic Societies.” American Sociological Review 66: 783805.
Daughton J. P. 2006. An Empire Divided: Religion, Republicanism, and the Making of French Colonialism, 1880–1914. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Davis Daniel M. 1988. The Life and Thought of Henry Gerhard Appenzeller (1858–1902). Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen.
Davis Daniel M. 1994. “The Impact of Christianity upon Korea.” Journal of Church and State 36: 795820.
Deol Harnik. 2000. Religion and Nationalism in India. London: Routledge.
Deaton Angus. 2010. “Instruments, Randomization and Learning about Development.” Journal of Economic Literature 48: 424–55.
Dick Devon. 2002. Rebellion to Riot: The Jamaican Church in Nation Building. Kingston, Jamaica: Ian Randle.
Drescher Seymour. 1986. Capitalism and Antislavery. London: Macmillan.
Drummond Richard H. 1971. A History of Christianity in Japan. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.
Duchesne Ricardo. 2006. “Asia First?Journal of the Historical Society 6: 6991.
Dunch Ryan. 2001. Fuzhou Protestants and the Making of Modern China. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Ecklund Elaine Howard, and Park Jerry Z.. 2007. “Religious Diversity and Community Volunteerism among Asian Americans.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 46: 233–44.
Eisenstein Elizabeth L. 1979. The Printing Press as an Agent of Change. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Ellens J. P. 1994. Religious Routes to Gladstonian Liberalism. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.
Engerman Stanley L. and Sokoloff Kenneth L.. 2008. “Debating the Role of Institutions in Political and Economic Development.” Annual Review of Political Science 11: 119–35.
Ertman Thomas. 2010. “The Great Reform Act of 1832 and British Democratization.” Comparative Political Studies 43: 1000–22.
Etherington Norman. 2005. Missions and Empire. New York: Oxford University Press.
Fairbank John King. 1985. “Introduction: The Place of Protestant Writing in China's Cultural History.” In Christianity in China, eds. Wilson Barnett Suzanne and Fairbank John King. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 118.
Fails Matthew D., and Krieckhaus Jonathan. 2010. “Colonialism, Property Rights, and the Modern World Income Distribution.” British Journal of Political Science 40: 487508.
Febvre Lucian, and Martin Henri-Jean. 1976. The Coming of the Book. London: Verso.
Fitzgerald Scott T., and Glass Jennifer. 2008. “Can Early Family Formation Explain the Lower Educational Attainment of U.S. Conservative Protestants?Sociological Spectrum 28 (5): 556–77.
Fredrickson George M. 2002. Racism: A Short History. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Frykenberg Robert Erik. 1999. “India.” In A World History of Christianity, ed. Hastings Adrian. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 147–91.
Frykenberg Robert Erik. 2008. Christianity in India. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Fung Archon. 2003. “Associations and Democracy.” Annual Review of Sociology 29: 515–39.
Gallego Francesco, and Woodberry Robert D.. 2010. “Christian Missions and Education in Former African Colonies: How Competition Mattered.” Journal of African Economies 19 (3): 294319.
Gasiorowski Mark J., and Power Timothy J.. 1998. “The Structural Determinants of Democratic Consolidation: Evidence from the Third World.” Comparative Political Studies 31 (6): 740–71.
Geddes Barbara. 1999. “What Do We Know about Democratization after Twenty Years?Annual Review of Political Science 2: 115–44.
Ghosh Anindita. 2003. “An Uncertain ‘Coming of the Book’: Early Print Cultures in Colonial India.” Book History 6: 2355.
Gill Anthony. 1998. Rendering unto Caesar: The Catholic Church and the State in Latin America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Gladwin Michael. 2007. “The Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society, Abolition and English Public Life, 1816–1833.” Master's thesis. Australian National University.
Gombrich Richard and Obeyesekere Gananath. 1988. Buddhism Transformed. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Gorski Philip S. 2003. The Disciplinary Revolution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Gould Andrew C. 1999. Origins of Liberal Dominance. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Grabb Edward G. and Curtis James E.. 1992. “Voluntary Association Activity in English Canada, French Canada, and the United States.” Canadian Journal of Sociology 17: 371–88.
Graff Harvey J. 1987. The Legacies of Literacy. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Grant Kevin. 2005. A Civilized Savagery: Britain and the New Slaveries in Africa, 1884–1926. New York: Routledge.
Grayson James Huntley. 2002. Korea: A Religious History. New York: Routledge Curzon.
Green Nile. 2009. “Journeymen, Middlemen: Travel, Transculture, and Technology in the Origins of Muslim Printing.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 41: 203–24.
Greenlee James G. and Johnston Charles M.. 1999. Good Citizens: British Missionaries and Imperial States 1870 to 1918. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press.
Habermas Jürgen. 1989. The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere. Trans. Burger Thomas with Lawrence Frederick. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Hadenius Axel. 1992. Democracy and Development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hall Peter Dobkin. 1992. Inventing the Nonprofit Sector. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Hall Peter Dobkin. 1994. “Religion and the Origin of Voluntary Association in the United States.” Program on Non-profit Organizations Working Paper #213. Yale University.
Hamburger Philip. 2002. Separation of Church and State. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Hane Mikiso. 1982. Peasants, Rebels and Outcastes: The Underside of Modern Japan. New York: Pantheon Books.
Harland-Jacobs Jessica L. 2007. Builders of Empire: Freemasonry and British Imperialism, 1717–1927. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Hastings Adrian. 1994. The Church in Africa: 1450–1950. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Helmstadter Richard, ed. 1997. Freedom and Religion in the Nineteenth Century. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Higgs Robert. 1971. “Race, Skills, and Earnings: American Immigrants in 1909.” Journal of Economic History 31 (2): 420–28.
Hincks Craig W. 2009. Quest for Peace: An Ecumenical History of the Church in Lesotho. Morija, Lesotho: HCL and CCL
Hochschild Adam. 1998. King Leopold's Ghost. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Houston R. A. 2002. Literacy in Early Modern Europe: Culture and Education 1500–1800, 2nd ed.New York: Longman.
Howsam Leslie. 1991. Cheap Bibles: Nineteenth-century Publishing and the British and Foreign Bible Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Huffman James. L. 1997. Creating a Public: People and Press in Meiji Japan. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press.
Hutchison William R. 1987. Errand to the World. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Hutson James H. 1998. Religion and the Founding of the American Republic. Washington, DC: Library of Congress.
Ihalainen Pasi. 1999. The Discourse on Political Pluralism in Early Eighteenth-century England. Helsinki: Suomen Historiallinen Seura.
Ingleby J. C. 2000. Missionaries, Education, and India. Delhi, India: ISPCK Press.
Ingham Kenneth. 1956. Reformers in India 1793–1833. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Inglehart Charles W. 1959. A Century of Protestant Christianity in Japan. Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle.
James Estelle. 1987. “The Nonprofit Sector in Comparative Perspective.” In The Nonprofit Sector: A Research Handbook, ed. Powell William W.. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 397415.
Estelle James. ed. 1989 The Nonprofit Sector in International Perspective. New York: Oxford University Press.
James Estelle. 1993. “Why Do Different Countries Choose a Different Public-Private Mix of Educational Services?Journal of Human Resources 28: 571–92.
Johansson Egil. 1977. The History of Literacy in Sweden in Comparison with Some Other Countries. Umeå, Sweden: Umeå University and Umeå School of Education.
Kalyvas Stathis. 1996. The Rise of Christian Democracy in Europe. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Kamens David H. 1988. “Education and Democracy.” Sociology of Education 61: 114–27.
Kang Wi Jo. 1997. Christ and Caesar in Modern Korea. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Kelly David H. 2000. French Colonial Education. New York: AMS Press.
Khan M. Siddiq. 1961. “William Carey and the Serampore Books.” Libri 11: 197280.
Kim Andrew Eungi. 2003. “Religious Influence on Personal and Societal Well-being.” Social Indicators Research 62/63: 149–70.
Knaplund Paul 1953. James Stephen and the British Colonial System: 1813–1847. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
Lai Brian, and Melkonian-Hoover Ruth. 2005. “Democratic Progress and Regress.” Political Research Quarterly 58: 551–64.
Lange Matthew K. 2009. Lineages of Despotism and Development: British Colonialism and State Power. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Lankina Tomila and Getachew Lullit. N.d. “Mission or Empire, Word or Sword? The Human Capital Legacy in Post-colonial Democratic Development.” American Journal of Political Science. Forthcoming.
Lent John A. 1981. “The Missionary Press of Asia.” Communicatio Socialis Yearbook 14: 5778.
Lester Alan. 2006. “Humanitarians and White Settlers in the Nineteenth Century.” In Missions and Empire, ed. Etherington Norman. New York: Oxford University Press, 6485.
Lipset Seymour M. 1994. “The Social Requisites of Democracy Revisited.” American Sociological Review 59: 122.
Lutz Donald S. 1980. “Covenant to Constitution in American Political Throught.” Publius 10: 101–33.
Lutz Donald S. 1984. “The Relative Influence of European Writers on Late Eighteenth-century American Political Thought.” American Political Science Review 78: 189–97.
Lutz Donald S. 1988. The Origins of American Constitutionalism. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press.
Lutz Donald S. 1992. “The State Constitutional Pedigree of the U.S. Bill of Rights. Publius 22: 1945.
Lutz Jessie Gregory. 2008. Opening China. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.
Lynch Katherine A. 2003. Individuals, Families, and Communities in Europe, 1200–1800. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Machin G.I.T. 1977. Politics and the Churches in Great Britain, 1832 to 1868. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Mackenzie Clayton G. 1993. “Demythologising the Missionaries.” Comparative Education 29: 4566.
Maddison Angus. 2001. The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective. Paris: OECD.
Madeley John. 1982. “Politics and the Pulpit: The Case of Protestant Europe.” In Religion in West European Politics, ed. Berger Suzanne. London: Frank Cass, 149–71.
Manning Patrick. 1998. Francophone Sub-Saharan Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Masters Ryan Kelly and Young Michael P.. 2007. “Reviving the Religious Origins of the U.S. Temperance Movement.” Presented at the American Sociological Association, New York.
McLoughlin William Gerald. 1990. Champions of the Cherokees. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Melton James Van Horn. 2001. “Pietism, Politics, and the Public Sphere in Germany.” In Religion and Politics in Enlightenment Europe, eds. Bradley James E. and Van Kley Dale K.. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 294333.
Midlarsky Manus I. 1998. “Democracy and Islam.” International Studies Journal 42: 485511.
Miller Jon and Gregory Stanczak. 2009. “Redeeming, Ruling, and Reaping: British Missionary Societies, the East India Company and the India-to-China Opium Trade.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 48 (2): 332–52.
Moore Barrington. 1966. The Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy. Boston: Beacon.
Morris R. J. 1990. “Clubs, Societies, and Associations.” In The Cambridge Social History of Britain, 1750–1950, Vol. 3. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 395444.
Neill Stephen. 1966. Colonialism and Christian Missions. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Nelson Eric. 2010. The Hebrew Republic: Jewish Sources and the Transformation of European Political Thought. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Nord David Paul. 2004. Faith in Reading: Religious Publishing and the Birth of Mass Media in America. New York: Oxford University Press.
Nunn Nathan. 2010. “Christianity in Colonial Africa.” Harvard University. Unpublished paper.
Oddie Geoffrey A. 1969. “Protestant Missions, Caste and Social Change in India, 1850–1914.” Indian Economic and Social History Review 6: 259–91.
Oddie Geoffrey A. 1978. Social Protest in India. Columbia, MO: South Asia Books.
Oddie Geoffrey A. 1996. “Missionaries as Social Commentators.” In Missionary Encounters, eds. Bickers R. A. and Seton R.. Richmond, UK: Curzon Press, 197210.
Owolabi Kunle. 2010. “Forced Settlement, Colonial Occupation and Divergent Political Regime Outcomes in the Developing World, 1946–2004.” Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Washington, DC.
Paxton Pamela. 2002. “Social Capital and Democracy.” American Sociological Review 67: 254–77.
Philpott Daniel. 2004. “The Catholic Wave.” Journal of Democracy 15: 3246.
Poi Brian P. 2006. “Jackknife Instrumental Variables Estimation in Stata.” Stata Journal 6: 364–76.
Porter Andrew. 2004. Religion versus Empire? Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Posner Daniel N. 2003. “The Colonial Origins of Ethnic Cleavages.” Comparative Politics 35: 127–46.
Prasad Bimal. 1999. The Foundations of Muslim Nationalism. New Delhi: Manohar.
Putnam Robert D. 1993. Making Democracy Work. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Ranger Terence O. 1999. “Taking on the Missionary's Task: African Spirituality and the Mission Churches of Manicaland in the 1930s.” Journal of Religion in Africa 29: 175205.
Reed Christopher A. 2007. “Gutenberg and Modern Chinese Print Culture.” Book History 10: 291315.
Rich Paul J. 1991. Chains of Empire: English Public Schools, Masonic Cabalism, Historical Causality, and Imperial Clubdom. London: Regency.
Robbins Joel. 2004. “The Globalization of Pentecostal and Charismatic Christianity.” Annual Review of Anthropology 33: 117–43.
Robert Dana L. 2000. “Shifting Southward; Global Christianity since 1945.” International Bulletin of Missionary Research 24 (2): 5058.
Robert Dana L. 2002. “The First Globalization: The Internationalization of the Protestant Missionary Movement between the World Wars.” International Bulletin of Missionary Research 26 (2): 5066.
Robinson Francis. 2000. Islam and Muslim History in South Asia. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
Rokkan Stein. 1970. Citizens, Elections, Parties. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.
Roemer Michael. K. 2008. “Religiosity and Subjective and Psychological Well-being in Contemporary Japan.” Ph.D. diss. University of Texas at Austin.
Rosenberg Scott, Weisfelder Richard F. and Frisbie-Fulton Michelle. 2003. Historical Dictionary of Lesotho. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
Ross Andrew C. 2003. “Christian Missions and the Mid-nineteenth-century Change in Attitudes to Race: The African Experience.” In The Imperial Horizons of British Protestant Missions, 1880–1914, ed. Porter Andrew. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 85105.
Ross Fiona G. E. 1999. The Printed Bengali Character and Its Evolution. London: Curzon Press.
Ross Michael L. 2001. “Does Oil Hinder Democracy?World Politics 53: 325–61.
Rueschemeyer Dietrich, Stephens Evelyn Huber, and Stephens John D.. 1992. Capitalist Development and Democracy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Salamon Lester M. and Anheier Helmut K.. 1997. “The Third World's Third Sector in Comparative Perspective.” Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project Working Paper, no. 24. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Institute for Policy Studies.
Sharkey Heather J. 2003. “A New Crusade or an Old One?ISIM Newsletter 12: 4849.
Sharkey Heather J. 2012. “Middle Eastern and North Africa Christianity.” In Introducing World Christianity, ed. Farhardian Charles. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 720.
Shaw Graham. 2007. “South Asia.” In A Companion to the History of the Book, eds. Eliot S. and Rose J.. Oxford: Blackwell, 126–37.
Sherman Amy L. 1997. The Soul of Development. New York: Oxford University Press.
Shin Young-Ha. 1984. “The Thought of the Enlightenment Movement.” Korea Journal 24: 421.
Shin Kokui. 1999. “Rikugo Sodan (1857–58)” no Gakusai Teki Kenkyu (Scholarly Research on Rikugo Sodan: 1857–58). Tokyo: Hakuteisha.
Slater Dan. 2009. “Revolutions, Crackdowns, and Quiescence: Communal Elites and Democratic Mobilization in Southeast Asia.” American Journal of Sociology 115: 203–54.
Smith Christian. 1991. The Emergence of Liberation Theology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Smith Christian. ed. 1996. Disruptive Religion. New York: Routledge.
Smith Christian. 2003. Moral, Believing Animals. New York: Oxford University Press.
Smith Christian. 2010. What is a Person? Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Smith Tony. 1978. “A Comparative Study of French and British Decolonization.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 20: 70102.
Smyth Rosaleen. 2004. “The Roots of Community Development in Colonial Office Policy and Practice in Africa.” Social Policy and Administration 38: 418–36.
Solano Arturo Piedra. 1990. “Notas sobre la relación entre liberalismo, francmasonería y penetración protestantes en Centroamérica.” In Protestantes, liberalise y francmasones, ed. Bastian JP. Mexico City: Fondo de cultura económica, 119–31.
Staiger Douglas and Stock James H.. 1997. “Instrument Relevance in Multivariate Linear Models: A Simple Measure.” Review of Economics and Statistics 79: 348–52.
Stanley Brian. 1990. The Bible and the Flag: Protestant Missions and British Imperialism in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. Leicester, UK: Apollos.
Stamatov Peter. 2006. Religious Origins of Modern Long Distance Humanitarianism. Ph.D. diss. University of California, Los Angeles.
Stamatov Peter. 2010. “Activist Religion, Empire, and the Emergence of Modern Long-distance Advocacy Networks.” American Sociological Review 75 (4): 607–28.
Stata . 2007. Stata Basic Reference Manual, Vol. 3, Release 10. College Station, TX: Stata Press.
St. Clair William. 2007. The Reading Nation in the Romantic Period. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Steigenga Timothy J. 2001. The Politics of the Spirit: The Political Implications of Pentecostalized Religion in Costa Rica and Guatemala. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.
Stephens John D. 1979. “Religion and Politics in Three Northwest European Democracies.” Comparative Social Research 2: 129–57.
Stock James H., Wright Jonathan H. and Yogo Motohiro. 2002. “A Survey of Weak Instruments and Weak Identification in Generalized Method of Moments.” Journal of Business and Economic Statistics 20: 518–29.
Stock James H. and Yogo Motohiro. 2005. “Testing for Weak Instruments in Linear IV Regression.” In Identification and Inference for Economic Models, eds. Andrews D.W.K. and Stock J.H.. New York: Cambridge University Press, 80108.
Stocking George W. Jr. 1987. Victorian Anthropology. New York: Free Press.
Street James O., Carroll Raymond J. and Ruppert David. 1988. “A Note on Computing Robust Regression Estimates via Iteratively Reweighted Least Squares.” American Statistician 42: 152–54.
Su Ching. 1996. The Printing Presses of the London Missionary Society among the Chinese. Ph.D. diss. University of London.
Sundkler Bengt and Steed Christopher. 2000. A History of the Church in Africa. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Swanson Guy E. 1967. Religion and Regime. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Talmon Jacob Lieb. 1970. The Origins of Totalitarian Democracy. New York: Norton.
Tarrow Charles. 1998. Power in Movement, 2nd ed.New York: Cambridge University Press.
Tejirian Eleanor H. and Simon Reeva Spector, eds. 2002. Altruism and Imperialism. New York: Middle East Institute, Columbia University.
Thung Mandy A., Peelen Gert J. and Kingmans Marten C.. 1982. “Dutch Pillarisation on the Move? Political Destabilisation and Religious Change.” In Religion in West European Politics, ed. Berger Suzanne. London: Frank Cass, 149–71.
Tilly Charles. 1995. Popular Contention in Great Britain. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Treier Shawn and Jackman Simon. 2008. “Democracy as a Latent Variable.” American Journal of Political Science 52: 201–17.
Treisman Daniel. 2000. “The Causes of Corruption.” Journal of Public Economics 76: 399457.
Trejo Guillermo. 2009. “Religious Competition and Ethnic Mobilization in Latin America: Why the Catholic Church Promotes Indigenous Movements in Mexico.” American Political Science Review 103 (3): 323–42.
Trinitapoli Jenny Ann. 2007. The Role of Religious Organization in the HIV Crisis of Sub-Saharan Africa. Ph.D. diss. University of Texas at Austin.
Tsai Ming-Chang. 2006. “Does Political Democracy Enhance Human Development in Developing Countries?American Journal of Economics and Sociology 65 (2): 233–68.
Tudesco James P. 1980. Missionaries and French Imperialism. Ph.D. diss. University of Connecticut.
Turner Mary. 1998. Slaves and Missionaries. Cave Hill: Barbados: University of the West Indies Press.
Tusalem Rollin F. 2009. “The Role of Protestantism in Democratic Consolidation among Transitional States.” Comparative Political Studies 42 (7): 882915.
Uslaner Eric M. 2002. “Religion and Civic Engagement in Canada and the United States.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 41: 239–54.
Van den End Thomas. 2001. “Dutch United East-India Company and Indonesia.” In Dictionary of Asian Christianity, ed. Grand Rapids S.W. Sunquist., MI: Eerdmans, 253–54, 374–80.
van der Veer Peter. 2001. Imperial Encounters. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Van de Walle Francine. 1980. “Education and the Demographic Transition in Switzerland.” Population and Development Review 6: 463–72.
Van Kley Dale K. 1996. The Religious Origins of the French Revolution. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Verba Sidney, Schlozman Kay Lehman and Brady Henry E.. 1995. Voice and Equality. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Vincent David. 2000. The Rise of Mass Literacy. Oxford: Blackwell.
Waldron Jeremy. 2002. God, Locke, and Equality: Christian Foundations in Locke's Political Thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Walls Andrew F. 1996. The Missionary Movement in Christian History. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books.
Walzer Michael. 1971. The Revolution of the Saints. New York: Atheneum.
Weber Max. 1958. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. New York: Scribner.
Weber Max. 1968. Economy and Society. New York: Bedminster Press.
Welch Holmes. 1968. The Buddhist Revival in China. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Wilkinson Steven I. 2008. “How Colonial Legacies of Party Competition Affect Post-independence Levels of Democracy.” Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Boston.
Witte John Jr. 2007. The Reformation of Rights. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Witte John, Jr. and Alexander Frank S.. 2008. Christianity and Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
World Religion Database. 2011. http://www.worldreligiondatabase.org/wrd_default.asp (accessed January 10, 2012).
Woodberry Robert D. 1996. “The Origins of the Temperance Movement: A Comparative Historical Analysis.” Presented at the American Sociological Association, New York.
Woodberry Robert D. 2000. “The Long-term Influence of Religious Traditions on Democracy.” Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association for the Sociology of Religion, Washington, DC.
Woodberry Robert D. 2004a. “The Cost of Bigotry: The Educational and Economic Consequences of Restricting Missions.” Presented at the Association for the Study of Religion, Economics, and Culture, Kansas City, KS.
Woodberry Robert D. 2004b. “Missionaries and Colonial Abuses: The Rubber Terror in French and Belgian Congo.” Presented at the Society for the Scientific Study of Religion, Kansas City, KS.
Woodberry Robert D. 2004c. “The Shadow of Empire: Christian Missions, Colonial Policy, and Democracy in Post-colonial Societies.” Ph.D. diss. University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill.
Woodberry Robert D. 2006a. “The Enlightenment Veneer: Religion and the Origins of Immediate Abolitionism.” Presented at the Society for the Scientific Study of Religion, Portland, OR.
Woodberry Robert D. 2006b. “Reclaiming the M-Word: The Consequences of Missions for Nonwestern Societies.” Review of Faith and International Affairs 4 (1): 312.
Woodberry Robert D. 2006c. “Where Do Institutions Come From? Population Density, Settler Mortality, Colonizers, and Church-State Relations in the Construction of Economic Friendly Institutions.” Presented at the Association for the Study of Economics, Religion and Culture, Portland, OR.
Woodberry Robert D. 2011a. “Ignoring the Obvious: What Explains Botswana's Exceptional Democratic and Economic Performance in Sub-Saharan Africa.” University of Texas at Austin. Working paper.
Woodberry Robert D. 2011b. “Protestant Missions and the Global Spread of Organizational Civil Society.” University of Texas at Austin. Working paper.
Woodberry Robert D. 2011c. “Religion and the Spread of Human Capital and Political Institutions: Christian Missions as a Quasi-natural Experiment.” In Oxford Handbook of the Economics of Religion, ed. McCleary Rachel. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 111–31.
Woodberry Robert D., Esparza Ochoa Juan Carlos, Porter Reid, and Lu Xiaoyun. 2010. “Conceptual Framework and Technical Innovations for Creating the Project on Religion and Economy Change Geo-Spatial Database.” PREC Working Paper #004. http://www.prec.com (accessed January 10, 2012).
Woodberry Robert D. and Shah Timothy S.. 2004. “Christianity and Democracy: The Pioneering Protestants.” Journal of Democracy 15: 4761.
World Bank. 2002. World Development Indicators (data file).
Xu Xiaohong. 2010. “The Religious Origins of the Chinese Revolution: The YMCA, Moral Entrepreneurship and the Organizational Revolution in Republican China.” Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Social Science History Association, Chicago.
Young Michael P. 2006. Bearing Witness against Sin: The Evangelical Birth of the American Social Movement. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Zaret David. 2000. Origins of Democratic Culture. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Zavos John. 2000. The Emergence of Hindu Nationalism in India. London: Oxford University Press.
Zhai Jiexia Elisa and Woodberry Robert D.. 2011. “Religion and Educational Ideals in Contemporary Taiwan.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 50 (2): 307–27.
Zhang Xiantao. 2007. The Origins of the Modern Chinese Press. New York: Routledge.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

American Political Science Review
  • ISSN: 0003-0554
  • EISSN: 1537-5943
  • URL: /core/journals/american-political-science-review
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×
Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary Materials

Woodberry supplementary material
Supplementary tables

 Word (1.1 MB)
1.1 MB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 154
Total number of PDF views: 791 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 3195 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 24th November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.