Achen, Christopher H. 1978. “Measuring Representation.” American Journal of Political Science 22 (3): 475–510.
Achen, Christopher H., and Bartels, Larry M.. 2016. Democracy for Realists: Why Elections Do Not Produce Responsive Government. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Alesina, Alberto. 1988. “Credibility and Policy Convergence in a Two-Party System with Rational Voters.” American Economic Review 78 (4): 796–805.
Alexander, Herbert E., and Denny, Laura L.. 1966. Regulation of Political Finance. Berkeley, CA and Princeton, NJ: Institute of Governmental Studies, University of California, Berkeley and Citizens’ Research Foundation.
Angrist, Joshua David, and Pischke, Jörn-Steffen. 2009. Mostly Harmless Econometrics: An Empiricist’s Companion. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Ansolabehere, Stephen, Snyder, James M. Jr., and Stewart, Charles III. 2001. “Candidate Positioning in U.S. House Elections.” American Journal of Political Science 45 (1): 136–59.
Arceneaux, Kevin. 2002. “Direct Democracy and the Link between Public Opinion and State Abortion Policy.” State Politics & Policy Quarterly 2 (4): 372–87.
Arnold, R. Douglas. 1990. The Logic of Congressional Action. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Bafumi, Joseph, and Herron, Michael C.. 2010. “Leapfrog Representation and Extremism: A Study of American Voters and Their Members in Congress.” American Political Science Review 104 (3): 519–42.
Bailey, Michael A. 2007. “Comparable Preference Estimates across Time and Institutions for the Court, Congress, and Presidency.” American Journal of Political Science 51 (3): 433–48.
Bailey, Michael A., and Rom, Mark Carl. 2004. “A Wider Race? Interstate Competition across Health and Welfare Programs.” Journal of Politics 66 (2): 326–47.
Barber, Michael J. 2016. “Ideological Donors, Contribution Limits, and the Polarization of American Legislatures.” Journal of Politics 78 (1): 296–310.
Bartels, Larry M. 2008. Unequal Democracy: The Political Economy of the New Gilded Age. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Beck, Nathaniel, and Katz, Jonathan N.. 2011. “Modeling Dynamics in Time-Series–Cross-Section Political Economy Data.” Annual Review of Political Science 14: 331–52.
Berry, William D., Ringquist, Evan J., Fording, Richard C., and Hanson, Russell L.. 1998. “Measuring Citizen and Government Ideology in the American States, 1960–93.” American Journal of Political Science 42 (1): 327–48.
Besley, Timothy, and Case, Anne. 2003. “Political Institutions and Policy Choices: Evidence from the United States.” Journal of Economic Literature 41 (1): 7–73.
Besley, Timothy, and Coate, Stephen. 1997. “An Economic Model of Representative Democracy.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 112 (1): 85–114.
Brown, Robert D. 1995. “Party Cleavages and Welfare Effort in the American States.” American Political Science Review 89 (1): 23–33.
Carmines, Edward G., and Stimson, James A.. 1980. “The Two Faces of Issue Voting.” American Political Science Review 74 (1): 78–91.
Caughey, Devin. Forthcoming. The Unsolid South: Mass Politics and National Representation in an Exclusionary One-Party Enclave. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Caughey, Devin, Tausanovitch, Chris, and Warshaw, Christopher. 2017. “Partisan Gerrymandering and the Political Process: Effects on Roll-Call Voting and State Policies.” Election Law Journal. (Symposium on Partisan Gerrymandering and the Efficiency Gap). Prepublished. doi:10.1089/elj.2017.0452.
Caughey, Devin, and Warshaw, Christopher. 2015. “Dynamic Estimation of Latent Opinion Using a Hierarchical Group-Level IRT Model.” Political Analysis 23 (2): 197–211.
Caughey, Devin, and Warshaw, Christopher. 2016. “The Dynamics of State Policy Liberalism, 1936–2014.” American Journal of Political Science 60 (4): 899–913.
Caughey, Devin, Warshaw, Christopher, and Xu, Yiqing. 2017. “Incremental Democracy: The Policy Effects of Partisan Control of State Government.” Journal of Politics 79 (4): 1–17.
Clark, Jennifer Hayes, and Williams, R. Lucas. 2014. “Parties, Term Limits, and Representation in the U.S. States.” American Politics Research 42 (1): 171–93.
Dahl, Robert A. 1971. Polyarchy: Participation and Opposition. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Dahl, Robert A. 1989. Democracy and Its Critics. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
De Boef, Suzanna, and Keele, Luke. 2008. “Taking Time Seriously.” American Journal of Political Science 52 (1): 184–200.
Downs, Anthony. 1957. An Economic Theory of Democracy. New York: Harper & Row.
Dunham, James, Caughey, Devin, and Warshaw, Christopher. 2016. dgo: Dynamic Estimation of Group-Level Opinion. R package version 0.2.3.https://jamesdunham.github.io/dgo/.
Dye, Thomas R. 1966. Politics, Economics, and the Public: Political Outcomes in the American States. Chicago: Rand McNally.
Enns, Peter K., and Koch, Julianna. 2013. “Public Opinion in the U.S. States: 1956 to 2010.” State Politics & Policy Quarterly 13 (3): 349–72.
Erikson, Robert S., MacKuen, Michael B., and Stimson, James A.. 2002. The Macro Polity. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Erikson, Robert S., Wright, Gerald C., and McIver, John P.. 1993. Statehouse Democracy: Public Opinion and Policy in the American States. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Erikson, Robert S., Wright, Gerald C., and McIver, John P.. 2006. “Public Opinion in the States: A Quarter Century of Change and Stability.” In Public Opinion in State Politics, ed. Cohen, Jeffrey E., 229–53. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.
Fearon, James D. 1999. “Electoral Accountability and the Control of Politicians: Selecting Good Types versus Sanctioning Poor Performance.” In Democracy, Accountability, and Representation, eds. Przeworski, Adam, Stokes, Susan Carol, and Manin, Bernard, 55–97 New York: Cambridge University Press.
Feigenbaum, James J., Fouirnaies, Alexander, and Hall, Andrew B.. 2017 “The Majority Party Disadvantage: Revising Theories of Legislative Organization.” Quarterly Journal of Political Science 12 (3): 269–300.
Folke, Olle, and Snyder, James M. 2012. “Gubernatorial Midterm Slumps.” American Journal of Political Science 56 (4): 931–48.
Ford, Pamela S. 1955. Regulation of Campaign Finance. Bureau of Public Administration, University of California.
Fowler, Anthony, and Hall, Andrew B.. 2016. “The Elusive Quest for Convergence.” Quarterly Journal of Political Science 11 (1): 131–49.
Fowler, Anthony, and Hall, Andrew B.. 2017. “Long-Term Consequences of Election Results.” British Journal of Political Science 47 (2): 351–72.
Gerber, Elisabeth R. 1996. “Legislative Response to the Threat of Popular Initiatives.” American Journal of Political Science 40 (1): 99–128.
Gilens, Martin. 2012. Affluence and Influence: Economic Inequality and Political Power in America. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Gray, Virginia, Lowery, David, Fellowes, Matthew, and McAtee, Andrea. 2004. “Public Opinion, Public Policy, and Organized Interests in the American States.” Political Research Quarterly 57 (3): 411–20.
Honaker, James, King, Gary, and Blackwell, Matthew. 2011. “Amelia II: A Program for Missing Data.” Journal of Statistical Software 45 (7): 1–47. http://www.jstatsoft.org/v45/i07/.
Hopkins, Daniel J. Forthcoming. The Increasingly United States: How and Why American Political Behavior Nationalized. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Jessee, Stephen A. 2009. “Spatial Voting in the 2004 Presidential Election.” American Political Science Review 103 (1): 59–81.
Kastellec, Jonathan P., Lax, Jeffrey R., Malecki, Michael, and Phillips, Justin H.. 2015. “Polarizing the Electoral Connection: Partisan Representation in Supreme Court Confirmation Politics.” Journal of Politics 77 (3): 787–804.
Key, V. O. Jr. 1949. Southern Politics in State and Nation. New York: Knopf.
Kingdon, John W. 1989. Congressmen’s Voting Decisions. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Kingdon, John W. 1995. Agendas, Alternatives, and Public Policies. 2nd ed. New York: HarperCollins.
Kousser, J. Morgan. 1974. The Shaping of Southern Politics: Suffrage Restriction and the Establishment of the One-Party South. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Kousser, Thad. 2005. Term Limits and the Dismantling of State Legislative Professionalism. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Kousser, Thad, Lewis, Jeffrey B., and Masket, Seth E.. 2007. “Ideological Adaptation? The Survival Instinct of Threatened Legislators.” Journal of Politics 69 (3): 828–43.
La Raja, Raymond J., and Schaffner, Brian F.. 2014. “The Effects of Campaign Finance Spending Bans on Electoral Outcomes: Evidence from the States about the Potential Impact of Citizens United v. FEC.” Electoral Studies 33 (March): 102–14.
La Raja, Raymond J., and Schaffner, Brian F.. 2015. Campaign Finance and Political Polarization: When Purists Prevail. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Lascher, Edward L., Hagen, Michael G., and Rochlin, Steven A.. 1996. “Gun Behind the Door? Ballot Initiatives, State Policies and Public Opinion.” Journal of Politics 58 (3): 760–75.
Lax, Jeffrey R., and Phillips, Justin H.. 2009. “Gay Rights in the States: Public Opinion and Policy Responsiveness.” American Political Science Review 103 (3): 367–86.
Lax, Jeffrey R., and Phillips, Justin H.. 2012. “The Democratic Deficit in the States.” American Journal of Political Science 56 (1): 148–66.
Lee, David S., Moretti, Enrico, and Butler, Matthew J.. 2004. “Do Voters Affect or Elect Policies? Evidence from the U.S. House.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 119 (3): 807–59.
Levitt, Steven D. 1996. “How Do Senators Vote? Disentangling the Role of Voter Preferences, Party Affiliation, and Senator Ideology.” American Economic Review 86 (3): 425–41.
Maestas, Cherie. 2000. “Professional Legislatures and Ambitious Politicians: Policy Responsiveness of State Institutions.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 25 (4):663–90.
Matsusaka, John G. 2001. “Problems with a Methodology Used to Evaluate the Voter Initiative.” Journal of Politics 63 (4): 1250–56.
Matsusaka, John G. 2008. For the Many or the Few: The Initiative, Public Policy, and American Democracy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Matsusaka, John G. 2010. “Popular Control of Public Policy: A Quantitative Approach.” Quarterly Journal of Political Science 5 (2): 133–67.
Mayhew, David R. 1974. Congress: The Electoral Connection. New Haven, CT: Yale UP.
McGann, Anthony J. 2014. “Estimating the Political Center from Aggregate Data: An Item Response Theory Alternative to the Stimson Dyad Ratios Algorithm.” Political Analysis 22 (1): 115–29.
Mickey, Robert W. 2015. Paths Out of Dixie: The Democratization of Authoritarian Enclaves in America’s Deep South. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Miller, Warren E., and Stokes, Donald E.. 1963. “Constituency Influence in Congress.” American Political Science Review 57 (1): 45–56.
Monogan, James, Gray, Virginia, and Lowery, David. 2009. “Public Opinion, Organized Interests, and Policy Congruence in Initiative and Noninitiative U.S. States.” State Politics & Policy Quarterly 9 (3): 304–24.
Nickell, Stephen. 1981. “Biases in Dynamic Models with Fixed Effects.” Econometrica 49 (1): 1417–26.
Oates, Wallace E. 1972. Fiscal Federalism. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Pacheco, Julianna. 2011. “Using National Surveys to Measure Dynamic U.S. State Public Opinion: A Guideline for Scholars and an Application.” State Politics & Policy Quarterly 11 (4): 415–39.
Pacheco, Julianna. 2013. “The Thermostatic Model of Responsiveness in the American States.” State Politics & Policy Quarterly 13 (3): 306–32.
Page, Benjamin, and Shapiro, Robert. 1983. “Effects of Public Opinion on Policy.” American Political Science Review 77 (1): 175–90.
Page, Benjamin, and Shapiro, Robert. 1992. The Rational Public: Fifty Years of Trends in Americans’ Policy Preferences. Chicago: University of Chicago.
Poole, Keith T. 2007. “Changing Minds? Not in Congress!” Public Choice 131 (3): 435–51.
Poole, Keith T., and Rosenthal, Howard. 1984. “The Polarization of American Politics.” Journal of Politics 46 (4): 1061–79.
Poole, Keith T., and Rosenthal, Howard. 2007. Ideology & Congress. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
Przeworski, Adam, Stokes, Susan Carol, and Manin, Bernard, eds,. 1999. Introduction to Democracy, Accountability, and Representation. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Quinn, Kevin M. 2004. “Bayesian Factor Analysis for Mixed Ordinal and Continuous Responses.” Political Analysis 12 (4): 338–53.
Ringquist, Evan J., and Garand, James C.. 1999. Policy Change in the American States. In American State and Local Politics: Directions for the 21st Century, eds. Weber, Ronald E. and Brace, Paul. New York: pn, 268–99.
Rogers, Steven. 2016. “National Forces in State Legislative Elections.” ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 667 (September): 207–25.
Ruggles, Steven, Alexander, J. Trent, Genadek, Katie, Goeken, Ronald, Schroeder, Matthew B., and Sobek, Matthew. 2010. Integrated Public Use Microdata Series: Version 5.0 [Machine-readable database]. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota.
Shor, Boris, and McCarty, Nolan. 2011. “The Ideological Mapping of American Legislatures.” American Political Science Review 105 (3): 530–51.
Snyder, James M. Jr., and Ting, Michael M.. 2003. “Roll Calls, Party Labels, and Elections.” Political Analysis 11 (4): 419–44.
Soroka, Stuart, and Wlezien, Christopher. 2010. Degrees of Democracy: Politics, Public Opinion, and Policy. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Springer, Melanie Jean. 2014. How the States Shaped the Nation: American Electoral Institutions and Voter Turnout, 1920–2000. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Squire, Peverill. 1992. “Legislative Professionalization and Membership Diversity in State Legislatures.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 17 (1): 69–79.
Squire, Peverill. 2007. “Measuring State Legislative Professionalism: The Squire Index Revisited.” State Politics & Policy Quarterly 7 (2): 211–27.
Stimson, James A. 1991. Public Opinion in America: Moods, Cycles, and Swings. Boulder, CO: Westview.
Stimson, James A. 2009. “Perspectives on Unequal Democracy: The Political Economy of the New Gilded Age.” Perspectives on Politics 7 (1): 151–3.
Stimson, James A., MacKuen, Michael B., and Erikson, Robert S.. 1995. “Dynamic Representation.” American Political Science Review 89 (3): 543–65.
Stimson, James A., Thiébaut, Cyrille, and Tiberj, Vincent. 2012. “The Evolution of Policy Attitudes in France.” European Union Politics 13 (2): 293–316.
Stratmann, Thomas, and Aparicio-Castillo, Francisco J.. 2006. “Competition Policy for Elections: Do Campaign Contribution Limits Matter?” Public Choice 127 (1): 177–206.
Tanner, Martin A. 1996. Tools for Statistical Inference Methods for the Exploration of Posterior Distributions and Likelihood Functions. 3rd ed. New York: Springer.
Tausanovitch, Chris, and Warshaw, Christopher. 2013. “Measuring Constituent Policy Preferences in Congress, State Legislatures and Cities.” Journal of Politics 75 (2): 330–42.
Tausanovitch, Chris, and Warshaw, Christopher. 2014. “Representation in Municipal Government.” American Political Science Review 108 (3): 605–41.
Treier, Shawn, and Hillygus, D. Sunshine. 2009. “The Nature of Political Ideology in the Contemporary Electorate.” Public Opinion Quarterly 73 (4): 679–703.
Treier, Shawn, and Jackman, Simon. 2008. “Democracy as a Latent Variable.” American Journal of Political Science 52 (1): 201–17.
Weissberg, Robert. 1978. “Collective vs. Dyadic Representation in Congress.” American Political Science Review 72 (2): 535–47.