Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

The Political Origins of Primary Education Systems: Ideology, Institutions, and Interdenominational Conflict in an Era of Nation-Building

  • BEN ANSELL (a1) and JOHANNES LINDVALL (a2)
Abstract

This paper is concerned with the development of national primary education regimes in Europe, North America, Latin America, Oceania, and Japan between 1870 and 1939. We examine why school systems varied between countries and over time, concentrating on three institutional dimensions: centralization, secularization, and subsidization. There were two paths to centralization: through liberal and social democratic governments in democracies, or through fascist and conservative parties in autocracies. We find that the secularization of public school systems can be explained by path-dependent state-church relationships (countries with established national churches were less likely to have secularized education systems) but also by partisan politics. Finally, we find that the provision of public funding to private providers of education, especially to private religious schools, can be seen as a solution to religious conflict, since such institutions were most common in countries where Catholicism was a significant but not entirely dominant religion.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Ben Ansell is Professor of Comparative Democratic Institutions at Nuffield College, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 1NF, United Kingdom (ben.ansell@politics.ox.ac.uk).
Johannes Lindvall is Associate Professor of Political Science, Department of Political Science, Lund University, Box 52, 22100, Lund, Sweden (Johannes.Lindvall@svet.lu.se).
References
Hide All
Aghion, Philippe, Persson, Torsten, and Rouzet, Dorothee. 2012. “Education and Military Rivalry.” Unpublished manuscript, Harvard University/Stockholm University.
Akenson, Donald H. 1970. The Irish Education Experiment. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Ansell, Ben, Erman, Alvina, Gahnberg, Carl, Lindvall, Johannes, and Thomson, Henry. 2013. “A Database of Primary School Systems, 1870–1939.” Version 1.0. University of Minnesota and Lund University.
Arthur, James 1995. The Ebbing Tide: Policy and Principles of Catholic Education. Leominster: Gracewing Publishing.
Benavot, Aaron, Cha, Yun-Kyung, Kamens, David, Meyer, John W., and Wong, Suk-Ying. 1991. “Knowledge for the Masses: World Models and National Curricula.” American Sociological Review 56 (1): 85100.
Benavot, Aaron, and Riddle, Phyllis. 1988. “The Expansion of Primary Education, 1870–1940: Trends and Issues.” Sociology of Education 61 (3): 191210.
Berman, Sheri. 2006. The Primacy of Politics. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Berrien, Marcia T. 1964. Education in New Zealand. Washington: U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Office of Education.
Bugge, Knud Eyvin. 1982. “Kirke Og Skole i Danmark 1930–1945.” In Kirken, Krisen og Krigen, eds. Montgomery, Ingun and Larsen, Stein Ugelvik. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget, 6974.
Butts, R. Freeman, and Cremin, Lawrence A.. 1959. A History of Education in American Culture. New York: Henry Holt & Co.
Caramani, Daniele. 2004. The Nationalization of Politics: The Formation of National Electorates and Party Systems in Western Europe. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Confino, Alon 2002. “Federalism and the Heimat Idea in Imperial Germany.” In German Federalism: Past, Present, Future. Basingstoke: Palgrave, 7090.
Cruickshank, M. 1963. Church and State in English Education, 1870 to the Present Day. St. Martin's Press.
Cusack, Thomas R., Iversen, Torben, and Soskice, David. 2007. “Economic Interests and the Origins of Electoral Systems.” American Political Science Review 101 (3): 373.
Esping-Andersen, Gøsta. 1990. The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Estevez-Abe, Margarita, Iversen, Torben, and Soskice, David. 2001. “Social Protection and the Formation of Skills.” In Varieties of Capitalism, eds. Hall, Peter A. and Soskice, David. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Finer, Samuel E. 1997. The History of Government. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 3 Volumes.
Gellner, Ernest. 1964. Thought and Change. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.
Gellner, Ernest. 1983. Nations and Nationalism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Gingrich, Jane R. 2011. Making Markets in the Welfare State: The Politics of Varying Market Reforms. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Grew, Raymond, and Harrigan, Partick J.. 1991. School, State, and Society: The Growth of Elementary Schooling in Nineteenth-Century France. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.
Guyer, Walter, eds. 1936. Erziehungsgedanke und Bildungswesen in der Schweiz. Leipzig: Huber & Co.
Hall, Peter A., and Soskice, David, eds. 2001. Varieties of Capitalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Herrlitz, Hans-Georg, Hopf, Wulf, Titze, Hartmut, and Cloer, Ernst. 2005. Deutsche Schulgeschichte von 1800 bis zur Gegenwart: Eine Einführung. Weinheim: Juventa.
Huntington, Samuel P. 1991. The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
Iversen, Torben, and Soskice, David. 2009. “Distribution and Redistribution: The Shadow of the Nineteenth Century.” World Politics 61 (3): 438–86.
Iversen, Torben, and Stephens, John D.. 2008. “Partisan Politics, the Welfare State, and Three Worlds of Human Capital Formation.” Comparative Political Studies 41 (4/5): 600–37.
Jägerskiöld, Stig. 1959. Från Prästskola till Enhetsskola. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell.
Johnson, F. Henry. 1968. A Brief History of Canadian Education. Toronto: McGraw-Hill.
Kalyvas, Stathis N. 1996. The Rise of Christian Democracy in Europe. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Kalyvas, Stathis N. 1998. “Democracy and Religious Politics.” Comparative Political Studies 31 (3): 292320.
Kaspersen, Lars Bo, and Lindvall, Johannes. 2008. “Why No Religious Politics?Archives Européennes de Sociologie 49 (1): 119–43.
Kennedy, Robert E. 1973. The Irish: Emigration, Marriage, and Fertility. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Kivinen, Osmo, and Risto, Rinne. 1994. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell, 39–52.
Knippenberg, Hans, and Herman, van der Wusten. 1984. “The Primary School System in the Netherlands 1900–1980.” Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie 73 (3): 177–85.
Korsgaard, Ove. 2004. Kampen om Folket. Copenhagen: Nordisk Forlag.
Lijphart, Arend. 1968. The Politics of Accommodation. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Lijphart, Arend. 1979. “Religious vs. Linguistic vs. Class Voting: The Crucial Experiment of Comparing Belgium, Canada, South Africa and Switzerland.” American Political Science Review 73 (2): 442–58.
Lindert, Peter H. 2004. Growing Public. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Lipset, Seymour Martin, and Rokkan, Stein. 1967. Party Systems and Voter Alignments. New York: Free Press.
Loss, Daniel. 2013. “The Afterlife of Christian England, 1944–1994.” Manuscript, Brown University.
Maddison, Angus. 2011. “Statistics on World Population, GDP and Per Capita GDP, 1–2008 AD.” University of Groningen. http://www.ggdc.nl/maddison (Accessed September 13, 2011).
Mallinson, Vernon. 1963. Power & Politics in Belgian Education: 1815 to 1961. London: Heineman Education Books Ltd.
Mann, Michael. 2004. Fascists. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Marshall, Monty G., and Jaggers, Keith. 2011. “Polity IV Project: Political Regime Characteristics and Transitions, 1800–2009.” Maryland: University of Maryland.
Martin, Cathie Jo, and Swank, Duane. 2011. “Gonna Party Like It's 1899: Party Systems and the Origins of Varieties of Coordination.” World Politics 63 (1): 78114.
Martin, Cathie Jo, and Swank, Duane. 2012. The Political Construction of Business Interests: Coordination, Growth, and Equality. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
McLeod, Hugh. 1997. Religion and the People of Western Europe 1789–1990. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
McLeod, Hugh. 2007. The Religious Crisis of the 1960s. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
McNair, John M. 1984. Education for a Changing Spain. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Meyer, John W., Ramirez, Francisco O., and Soysal, Yasemin N.. 1992. “World Expansion of Mass Education, 1870–1980.” Sociology of Education 65: 128–49.
Morgan, Kimberly J. 2002. “Forging the Frontiers Between State, Church, and Family.” Politics & Society 30 (1): 113–48.
Murphy, James. 1968. “Religion, the State, and Education in England.” History of Education Quarterly 8 (1): 334.
Nagel, Anne C. 2012. Hitlers Bildungsreformer. Das Reichsministerium für Wissenschaft, Erziehung und Volksbildung 1934–1945. Frankfurt am Main: Fischer Taschenbuchverlag.
Noakes, Jeremy 1980. Government, Party, and People in Nazi Germany. 2. Exeter, University of Exeter Press.
Rokkan, Stein. 1973. “Cities, States, and Nations.” In Building States and Nations, Vol. 1. Beverly Hills: Sage.
Saville Muzzey, David. 1911. “State, Church, and School in France II: The Campaign for Lay Education.” The School Review 19 (4): 248–65.
Scheipl, Josef, and Seel, Helmut. 1985. Die Entwicklung des Österreichischen Schulwesens von 1750–1938. Graz: Leykam Verlag.
Shibata, Masako. 2004. “Controlling National Identity and Reshaping the Role of Education: The Vision of State Formation in Meiji Japan and the German Kaiserreich.” History of Education 33 (1): 7585.
Soifer, Hillel D. 2006. Authority over Distance: Explaining Variation in State Infrastructural Power in Latin America. Ph.D. thesis, Harvard University.
Soifer, Hillel D. 2009. “The Sources of Infrastructural Power: Evidence from Nineteenth-Century Chilean Education.” Latin American Research Review 44 (2): 158–80.
Soysal, Yasemin N., and Strang, David. 1989. “Construction of the First Mass Education Systems in Nineteenth Century Europe.” Sociology of Education 62 (4): 277–88.
Tannenbaum, Edward R. 1974. “Education.” In Modern Italy: A Topical History Since 1861, eds. Tannenbaum, Edward R. and Noether, Amiliana P.. New York: New York University Press, 231–53.
Tegborg, Lennart. 1969. Folkskolans Sekularisering, 1895–1909. Stockholm: Föreningen för svensk undervisningshistoria.
Thelen, Kathleen. 2004. How Institutions Evolve: The Political Economy of Skills in Germany, Britain, the United States and Japan. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Tveiten, Asbjørn. 1994. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell, 21–38.
van Kersbergen, Kees, and Manow, Philip, eds. 2009. Religion, Class Coalitions, and Welfare States. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Wilensky, Harold L. 1974. The Welfare State and Equality. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Wilkinson, Ian R., Caldwell, Brian J., Selleck, R. J. W., Harris, Jessica, and Dettman, Pam. 2006. A History of State Aid to Non-Government Schools in Australia. Brighton: Educational Transformations.
Ziblatt, Daniel. 2008. Structuring the State. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

American Political Science Review
  • ISSN: 0003-0554
  • EISSN: 1537-5943
  • URL: /core/journals/american-political-science-review
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed