Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 504
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Anderson, Ross P. Jimenez, Geronimo Bae, Jin Yung Silver, Diana Macinko, James and Porfiri, Maurizio 2016. Understanding Policy Diffusion in the U.S.: An Information-Theoretical Approach to Unveil Connectivity Structures in Slowly Evolving Complex Systems. SIAM Journal on Applied Dynamical Systems, Vol. 15, Issue. 3, p. 1384.

    ben-Aaron, James Denny, Matthew Desmarais, Bruce and Wallach, Hanna 2016. Transparency by Conformity: A Field Experiment Evaluating Openness in Local Governments. Public Administration Review,

    BOUSHEY, GRAEME 2016. Targeted for Diffusion? How the Use and Acceptance of Stereotypes Shape the Diffusion of Criminal Justice Policy Innovations in the American States. American Political Science Review, Vol. 110, Issue. 01, p. 198.

    Boyer, Mark A. Meinzer, Melanie and Bilich, Andy 2016. The climate adaptation imperative: local choices targeting global problems?. Local Environment, p. 1.

    Carley, Sanya Nicholson-Crotty, Sean and Miller, Chris J. 2016. Adoption, reinvention and amendment of renewable portfolio standards in the American states. Journal of Public Policy, p. 1.

    Davis, John C. and Nicholson-Crotty, Sean 2016. Partisanship and tax competition in the American states. Journal of Public Policy, Vol. 36, Issue. 03, p. 437.

    Donnelly, Ellen A. 2016. The Politics of Racial Disparity Reform: Racial Inequality and Criminal Justice Policymaking in the States. American Journal of Criminal Justice,

    Fay, Daniel L. and Wenger, Jeffrey B. 2016. The Political Structure of Policy Diffusion. Policy Studies Journal, Vol. 44, Issue. 3, p. 349.

    Feller, Irwin 2016. Innovation in Science and Organizational Renewal.

    Fitch-Roy, Oscar 2016. An offshore wind union? Diversity and convergence in European offshore wind governance. Climate Policy, Vol. 16, Issue. 5, p. 586.

    Gijzen, Sandra L’Hoir, Monique P. Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M. and Need, Ariana 2016. Stakeholders’ opinions on the implementation of Child Death Review in the Netherlands. BMC Research Notes, Vol. 9, Issue. 1,

    Hall, Jeremy L. 2016. Evidence-Based Practice: Challenging the Rational Wisdom. International Journal of Public Administration, p. 1.

    Jans, Wouter Denters, Bas Need, Ariana and Van Gerven, Minna 2016. Mandatory innovation in a decentralised system: The adoption of an e-government innovation in Dutch municipalities. Acta Politica, Vol. 51, Issue. 1, p. 36.

    Kollman, Kelly 2016. Pioneering marriage for same-sex couples in the Netherlands. Journal of European Public Policy, p. 1.

    Lamothe, Scott and Lamothe, Meeyoung 2016. Service Shedding in Local Governments: Why Do They Do It?. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, Vol. 26, Issue. 2, p. 359.

    Lawrence, Benjamin Zhang, Jie J. and Heineke, Janelle 2016. A life-cycle perspective of professionalism in services. Journal of Operations Management, Vol. 42-43, p. 25.

    Lee, Donghyun Kim, Minki and Lee, Jungyoun 2016. Adoption of green electricity policies: Investigating the role of environmental attitudes via big data-driven search-queries. Energy Policy, Vol. 90, p. 187.


    Lyson, Helena C. 2016. National policy and state dynamics: A state-level analysis of the factors influencing the prevalence of farm to school programs in the United States. Food Policy, Vol. 63, p. 23.

    Ma, Liang 2016. Political ideology, social capital, and government innovativeness: evidence from the US states. Public Management Review, p. 1.


The Diffusion of Innovations among the American States*

  • Jack L. Walker (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 September 2012

We are now in the midst of a notable revival of interest in the politics of the American states. During the last decade many studies have been conducted of the social, political and economic determinants of state policy outcomes. Several of these writers have argued that the relative wealth of a state, its degree of industrialization, and other measures of social and economic development are more important in explaining its level of expenditures than such political factors as the form of legislative apportionment, the amount of party competition, or the degree of voter participation. It has been claimed that such factors as the level of personal income or the size of the urban population are responsible both for the degree of participation and party competition in a state, and the nature of the system's policy outputs. By making this argument these writers have called into question the concepts of representation and theories of party and group conflict which, in one form or another, are the foundations for much of American political science.

There is a growing awareness, however, that levels of expenditure alone are not an adequate measure of public policy outcomes. Sharkansky has shown, for example, that levels of expenditure and levels of actual service are seldom correlated; presumably, some states are able to reach given service levels with much less expenditure than others.

Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

Richard E. Dawson and James A. Robinson , “Inter-Party Competition, Economic Variables, and Welfare Policies in the American States,” Journal of Politics (May, 1963), 265289

John H. Fenton and Donald W. Chamberlayne , “The Literature Dealing with the Relationships Between Political Processes, Socio-economic Conditions and Public Policies in the American States: A Bibliographical Essay,” Polity (Spring, 1969), 388394

Elihu Katz , Martin L. Levin , and Herbert Hamilton , “Traditions of Research in the Diffusion of Innovations,” American Sociological Review (1963), 237252

Ada J. Davis , “The Evolution of the Institution of Mothers' Pensions in the United States,” American Journal of Sociology (1930), 573582

Edgar C. McVoy , “Patterns of Diffusion in the United States,” American Sociological Review (1940), 219227

Robert Mason and Albert N. Halter , “The Application of a System of Simultaneous Equations to an Innovation Diffusion Model,” Social Forces (1968), 182193

Richard J. Hall , S. Eugene Haas , and Norman J. Johnson , “Organizational Size, Complexity and Formalization,” American Sociological Review (1967), 903912

Frank M. Bryan , “The Metamorphosis of a Rural Legislature,” Polity (1968), 191212

M. Bryan , “Who is Legislating,” National Civic Review (December, 1967), 627633

John W. Loy Jr., “Social Psychological Characteristics of Innovators,” American Sociological Review (1969), 7382

Norman Meller , “Legislative Staff Services: Toxin, Specific, or Placebo for the Legislature's Ills,” The Western Political Quarterly (June, 1967), 381389

Richard Hofferbert , “Classification of American State Party Systems,” Journal of Politics (1964), 550567

Thomas R. Dye , “Malapportionment and Public Policy in the States,” Journal of Politics (1965), 586601

A. H. Birch , “Approaches to the Study of Federalism,” Political Studies (1966), 1533

A. Bristol Goodman , “Westward Movement of Local Government,” The Journal of Land and Public Utility Economics (1944), pp. 2034

Thomas M. Scott in his: “The Diffusion of Urban Governmental Forms as a Case of Social Learning,” The Journal of Politics (1968), 10911108

Leon Festinger , “A Theory of Social Comparison Processes,” Human Relations (1954), 117140

Allan Spitz , “The Transplantation of American Democratic Institutions,” Political Science Quarterly (1967), 386398

Anthony Downs , “Why the Government Budget is too Small in a Democracy,” World Politics (July, 1960), 541563

Fred E. Katz , “Occupational Contact Networks,” Social Forces (1958), 5258

Jack Ladinsky , “Occupational Determinants of Geographic Mobility Among Professional Workers,” American Sociological Review (1967), 253264

Alvin W. Gouldner , “Cosmopolitans and Locals: Toward an Analysis of Latent Social Roles,” Administrative Science Quarterly (1957), 281306

Ira Sharkansky , “Economic Development, Regionalism and State Political Systems,” Midwest Journal of Political Science (1968), 4161

Norton E. Long's emphasis on the importance of information sources in his: “After the Voting is Over,” Midwest Journal of Political Science (1962), 183200

Philip Green , “Science, Government, and the Case of RAND: A Singular Pluralism,” World Politics (1968), 301326

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

American Political Science Review
  • ISSN: 0003-0554
  • EISSN: 1537-5943
  • URL: /core/journals/american-political-science-review
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *