Alexander, Deborah, and Andersen, Kristi. 1993. “Gender as a Factor in the Attribution of Leadership Traits.” Political Research Quarterly 46 (3): 527–45.
Allen, Peter, Cutts, David, and Campbell, Rosie. 2016. “Measuring the Quality of Politicians Elected by Gender Quotas—Are They Any Different?” Political Studies 64 (1): 143–63.
Eggers, Andrew C., Vivyan, Nick, and Wagner, Markus. 2018. “Corruption, Accountability, and Gender: Do Female Politicians Face Higher Standards in Public Life?” Journal of Politics 80 (1): 321–26.
Anzia, Sarah F., and Berry, Christopher R.. 2011. “The Jackie (and Jill) Robinson Effect: Why Do Congresswomen Outperform Congressmen?” American Journal of Political Science 55 (3): 478–93.
Arceneaux, Kevin. 2001. “The “Gender Gap” in State Legislative Representation: New Data to Tackle an Old Question.” Political Research Quarterly 54 (1): 143–60.
Barber, Michael, Butler, Daniel, and Preece, Jessica. 2016. “Gender Inequalities in Campaign Finance.” Quarterly Journal of Political Science 11: 219–48.
Barnes, Tiffany, and Beauliu, Emily. 2014. “Gender Stereotypes and Corruption: How Candidates Affect Perceptions of Election Fraud,” Politics & Gender 10 (3): 365–91.
Barnes, Tiffany D., Beaulieu, Emily, and Saxton, Gregory W.. Forthcoming. “Sex and Corruption: How Sexism Shapes Voters’ Responses to Scandal.” Politics, Groups, and Identities.
Bauer, Nichole M. 2015. “Emotional, Sensitive, and Unfit for Office: Gender Stereotype Activation and Support for Female Candidates.” Political Psychology 36 (6): 691–708.
Bauer, Nichole. 2017.“The Effects of Counterstereotypic Gender Strategies on Candidate Evaluations.” Political Psychology. 38 (2): 279–95.
Bernhard, Rachel. 2017. “Wearing the Pants: The Role of Gendered Leadership Styles in Candidate Evaluations.” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Midwestern Political Science Association.
Becker, Gary. 1957. The Economics of Discrimination. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Bertrand, Marianne, Kamenica, Emir, and Pan, Jessica. 2015. “Gender Identity and Relative Income Within Households.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 130 (2): 571–614.
Bertrand, Marianne and Duflo, Esther. 2017. “Field Experiments on Discrimination.” In Handbook of Field Experiments. Vol. 1. eds. Duflo, Esther and Banerjee, Abhijit. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 309–93.
Besley, Timothy, and Coate, Stephen, 1997, “An Economic Model of Representative Democracy.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 112 (1): 85–114.
Besley, Timothy, Folke, Olle, Persson, Torsten, and Rickne, Johanna. 2017. “Gender Quotas and the Crisis of the Mediocre Man: Theory and Evidence from Sweden,” American Economic Review 107 (8): 2204–42.
Bianchi, Suzanne M. 2006. “Mothers and daughters “do,” fathers “don't do” family: Gender and generational bonds.” Journal of Marriage and Family 68 (4): 812–816.
Bianchi, Suzanne M., Sayer, Liana C., Milkie, Melissa A., and Robinson, John P.. 2012. “Housework: Who Did, Does or Will Do It, and How Much Does It Matter?"” Social Forces 91 (1): 55–63.
Bonica, Adam. 2017. “Professional Networks, Early Fundraising, and Electoral Success.” Election Law Journal 16 (1): 153–71.
Bos, Angela L. 2011. “Out of Control: Delegates' Information Sources and Perceptions of Female Candidates.” Political Communication 28 (1): 87–109.
Box-Steffensmeier, Janet M., de Boef, Suzanna, and Lin, Tse-Min. 2004. “The Dynamics of the Partisan Gender Gap.” American Political Science Review 98 (3): 515–28.
Broockman, David E., and Skovron, Christopher. 2018. “Bias in Perceptions of Public Opinion among Political Elites.” American Political Science Review, 1–22.
Brooks, Deborah J. 2013. He Runs, She Runs: Why Gender Stereotypes Do Not Harm Women Candidates. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Burden, Barry, Ono, Yoshikuni, and Yamada, Masahiro. 2017. “Reassessing Public Support for a Female President.” Journal of Politics 79 (3): 1073–8.
Burrell, Barbara C. 1985. “Women's and Men's Campaigns for The U.S. House of Representatives, 1972–1982 A Finance Gap?” American Politics Research 13 (3): 251–72.
Burrell, Barbara C. A. 1994. Woman's Place is in the House: Campaigning for Congress in the Feminist Era. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
Bursztyn, Leonardo, Fujiwara, Thomas, and Pallais, Amanda. 2017. “Acting Wife: Marriage Market Incentives and Labor Market Investments.” American Economic Review 107 (11): 3288–319.
Campbell, Rosie, and Childs, Sarah. 2014. “Parents in Parliament: Where's Mum?” The Political Quarterly 85 (4): 487–92.
Campbell, Rosie, Cowley, Philip, Vivyan, Nick, and Wagner, Markus. 2016. “Legislator Dissent as a Valence Signal.” British Journal of Political Science, FirstView published, 1–24.
Carnes, Nicholas. 2016. “Why Are There So Few Working-Class People in Political Office? Evidence from State Legislatures.” Politics, Groups, and Identities 4 (1): 84–109.
Carroll, Susan J. 1994. Women as Candidates in American Politics, 2nd ed. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Carroll, Susan J., and Sanbonmatsu, Kira. 2013. More Women Can Run: Gender and Pathways to the State Legislatures. New York: Oxford University Press.
Carroll, Susan, and Schreiber, Ronnee. 1997. “Media Coverage of Women in the 103rd Congress,” in Women, Media, and Politics, ed. Pippa Norris. New York: Oxford University Press, 131–48.
Clayton, Amanda. 2015. “Female Leadership, Electoral Gender Quotas and Women's Political Engagement: Evidence from a Randomized Policy Experiment.” Comparative Political Studies 48 (3): 333–69.
Crowder-Meyer, Melody. 2017. “Barber, Bus Driver, Childcare Provider, Candidate? Uncovering the gendered development of political ambition among ordinary Americans.” Paper presented at Midwestern Political Science Association Conference.
Crowder-Meyer, Melody and Cooperman, Rosalyn. Forthcoming. “Can't Buy Them Love: How Party Culture among Donors Contributes to the Party Gap in Women's Representation.” Journal of Politics
Crowder-Meyer, Melody, and Lauderdale, Benjamin E.. 2014. “A Partisan Gap in the Supply of Female Potential Candidates in the United States.” Research & Politics 1 (1): 1–7.
Darcy, Robert, Welch, Susan, and Clark, Janet. 1994. Women, Elections & Representation. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.
Deason, Grace, Greenlee, Jill S., and Langner, Carrie A.. 2015. “Mothers on the Campaign Trail: Implications of Politicized Motherhood for Women in Politics.” Politics, Groups, and Identities 3 (1): 133–48.
Dittmar, Kelly. 2015. Navigating Gendered Terrain: Stereotypes and Strategy in Statewide Races. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Dolan, Kathleen. 2004. “The impact of candidate sex on evaluations of candidates for the US House of Representatives.” Social Science Quarterly 85 (1): 206–217.
Dolan, Kathleen. 2008. “Is There a ‘Gender Affinity Effect’ in American Politics? Information, Affect, and Candidate Sex in U.S House Elections.” Political Research Quarterly 61 (1): 79–89.
Dolan, Kathleen. 2014. “Gender Stereotypes, Candidate Evaluations, and Voting for Women Candidates: What Really Matters?” Political Research Quarterly 67 (1): 96–107.
Dolan, Kathleen, and Ford, Lynne E.. 1997. “Change and Continuity among Women State Legislators: Evidence from Three Decades.” Political Research Quarterly 50 (1), 137–51.
Druckman, Jamie N., and Kam, Cindy D.. 2011. “Students as Experimental Participants: A Defense of the ‘Narrow Data Base’.” In Handbook of Experimental Political Science, eds. Druckman, James N., Green, Donald P., Kuklinski, James H., and Lupia, Arthur. New York: Cambridge University Press, 41–57.
Folke, Olle, and Rickne, Johanna. 2017. All the Single Ladies: Job Promotions and the Durability of Marriage. Paper presented at the American Political Science Association Annual Conference.
Fox, Richard L. 1997. Gender Dynamics in Congressional Elections. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
Fox, Richard L. 2013. “Congressional Elections: Where are We on the Road to Gender Parity?” In Gender and Elections: Shaping the Future of American Politics, 3rd ed. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Fox, Richard L., and Lawless, Jennifer L.. 2004. “Entering the arena? Gender and the decision to run for office.” American Journal of Political Science 48 (2): 264–80.
Fox, Richard L., and Lawless, Jennifer L.. 2011. “Gendered Perceptions and Political Candidacies: A Central Barrier to Women's Equality in Electoral Politicsm.” American Journal of Political Science 55: 59–73.
Fox, Richard L., and Lawless, Jennifer L.. 2014. “Uncovering the origins of the gender gap in political ambition.” American Political Science Review 108 (3): 499–519.
Franceschet, Susan, Krook, Mona Lena, and Piscopo, Jennifer, eds. 2012. The Impact of Gender Quotas. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Frechette, Guillaume, Maniquet, Francois, and Morelli, Massimo. 2008. “Incumbents' Interests and Gender Quotas.” American Journal of Political Science 52 (4): 891–909.
Fulton, Sarah A. 2012. “Running Backwards and in High Heels: The Gendered Quality Gap and Incumbent Electoral Success.” Political Research Quarterly 65 (2): 303–14.
Fulton, Sarah, Maestas, Cherie D., Maisel, L. Sandy, and Stone, Walter J.. 2006. “The Sense of a Woman: Gender, Ambition, and the Decision to Run for Congress.” Political Research Quarterly 59 (2): 235–48.
Gaddie, Ronald K., and Bullock, Charles S.. 1997. “Structural and elite features in open seat and special US House elections: Is there a sexual bias?.” Political Research Quarterly 50 (2): 459–68.
Gay, Claudine, and Tate, Katherine. 1998. “Doubly Bound: The Impact of Gender and Race on the Politics of Black Women.” Political Psychology 19 (1): 169–84.
Gay, Claudine. 2004. “Putting race in context: Identifying the environmental determinants of Black racial attitudes.” American Political Science Review 98 (4): 547–62.
Gimenez, Alejandra Teresita, Karpowitz, Christopher F., Monson, J. Quin, and Preece, Jessica Robinson. 2017. “Selection Effects and Self-Presentation: How the Double Bind Strangles Women's Representation.” Paper presented at the Midwest Political Science Association Conference.
Glick, Peter, Zion, Cari, and Nelson, Cynthia. 1988. “What Mediates Sex Discrimination in Hiring Decisions?” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 55 (2): 178–86.
Goldberg, Abbie E., Smith, JuliAnna Z., and Perry-Jenkins, Maureen. 2012. “The Division of Labor in Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual New Adoptive Parents.” Journal of Marriage and Family 74 (4): 812–28.
Groves, Robert M., Couper, Mick P., Presser, Stanley, Singer, Eleanor, Tourangeau, Roger, Acosta, Giorgina Piani, and Nelson, Lindsay. 2006. “Experiments in Producing Nonresponse Bias.” Public Opinion Quarterly 70 (5): 720–36.
Hainmueller, Jens, Hopkins, Daniel J., and Yamamoto, Teppei. 2014. “Causal inference in conjoint analysis: understanding multidimensional choices via stated preference experiments.” Political Analysis 22 (1): 1–30.
Hainmueller, Jens, Hangartner, Dominik, and Yamamoto, Teppei. 2015. “Validating Vignette and Conjoint Survey Experiments against Real-world Behavior.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112: 2395–400.
Hill, Seth J. 2015. “Institution of Nomination and the Policy Ideology of Primary Electorates.” Quarterly Journal of Political Science 10 (4): 461–87.
Holman, Mirya R., Merolla, Jennifer L., and Zechmeister, Elizabeth J.. 2016. “Terrorist Threat, Male Stereotypes, and Candidate Evaluations.” Political Research Quarterly 69 (1): 134–47.
Hook, Jennifer. 2017. “Women's Housework: New Tests of Time and Money.” Journal of Marriage and Family 79 (1): 179–98.
Inglehart, Ronald, and Norris, Pippa, 2000. “The Developmental Theory of the Gender Voting Gap: Women's and Men's Voting Behavior in Comparative Perspective.” International Political Science Review 21 (4): 441–63.
Iversen, Torben, and Rosenbluth, Frances. 2006. “The Political Economy of Gender: Explaining Cross-National Variation in the Gender Division of Labor and the Gender Voting Gap.” American Journal of Political Science 50 (1): 1–19.
Iversen, Torben, and Rosenbluth, Frances. 2010. Women, Work, and Politics: The Political Economy of Gender Inequality. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Jacobson, Gary. C. 2012. “The Electoral Origins of Polarized Politics: Evidence from the 2010 Cooperative Congressional Election Study.” American Behavioral Scientist 56 (12): 1612–30.
Jalalzai, Farida. 2018. “A Comparative Assessment of Hillary Clinton's 2016 Presidential Race.” Socius 4: 2378023117732441.
Jamieson, Kathleen Hall. 1995. Beyond the Double Bind: Women and Leadership. New York: Oxford University Press.
Jenkins, Shannon. 2007. “A woman's work is never done.” Political Research Quarterly 60 (2): 230–39.
Jeydel, Alana, and Taylor, Andrew J.. 2003. “Are Women Legislators Less Effective? Evidence from the US House in the 103rd-105th Congress.” Political Research Quarterly 56 (1): 19–27.
Junn, Jane. 2017. “The Trump Majority: White Womanhood and the Making of Female Voters in the U.S.” Politics, Groups, and Identities 5 (2). 343–52.
Kahn, Kim F., and Goldenberg, Edie N.. 1991. “Women candidates in the news: An examination of gender differences in US Senate campaign coverage.” Public Opinion Quarterly 55 (2): 180–99.
Kahn, Kim. 1996. The Political Consequences of Being a Woman. New York: Columbia University Press.
Kahn, Kim F. 1992. “Does being male help? An investigation of the effects of candidate gender and campaign coverage on evaluations of US Senate candidates.” Journal of Politics 54 (2): 497–517.
Kalla, Joshua L., Rosenbluth, Frances McCall, and Teele, Dawn. 2018. “Are You My Mentor? A Field Experiment on Gender, Ethnicity, and Political Self Starters.” Journal of Politics 80 (1): 337–41.
Kanthak, Kris, and Woon, Jonathan. 2014. Women Don't Run? Election Aversion and Candidate Entry. American Journal of Political Science 59 (3): 595–612.
Karpowitz, Christopher F., Quin Monson, J., and Preece, Jessica Robinson. 2017. “How to elect more women: Gender and candidate success in a field experiment.” American Journal of Political Science 61 (4): 927–943.
Keeter, S., Kennedy, C., Dimock, M., Best, J., and Craighill, P.. 2006. “Gauging the Impact of Growing Nonresponse on Estimates from a National RDD Telephone Survey.” Public Opinion Quarterly 70 (5): 759–79.
Kenworthy, Lane, and Malami, Melissa. 1999. “Gender inequality in political representation: A worldwide comparative analysis.” Social Forces 78 (1): 235–68.
King, David C., and Matland, Richard E.. 2003. “Sex and the grand old party: An experimental investigation of the effect of candidate sex on support for a Republican candidate.” American Politics Research 31 (6): 595–612.
Kittilson, Miki C., and Fridkin, Kim. 2008. “Gender, candidate portrayals and election campaigns: A comparative perspective.” Politics & Gender 4 (3): 371–92.
Kittilson, Miki C., and Schwindt-Bayer, Leslie A.. 2012. The gendered effects of electoral institutions: Political engagement and participation. New York, Oxford University Press.
Koch, Jeffrey. 2000. “Do Citizens Apply Gender Stereotypes to Infer Candidates Ideological Orientation?” Journal of Politics 62 (2): 414–29.
Koch, Jeffrey. 2002. “Gender Stereotypes and Citizens’ Impressions of House Candidates’ Ideological Orientation.” American Journal of Political Science 46 (2): 453–62.
Krupnikov, Yanna, and Bauer, Nichole. 2014. “The Relationship Between Campaign Negativity, Gender and Campaign Context.” Political Behavior 36 (1): 167–88.
Krupnikov, Yanna, Piston, Spencer, and Bauer, Nichole. 2016. “Saving Face: Identifying Voter Responses to Black and Female Candidates.” Political Psychology 37 (2): 253–73.
Kunovich, Sheri, and Paxton, Pamela. 2005. “Pathways to Power: The Role of Political Parties in Women's National Political Representation,” American Journal of Sociology 111 (2): 505–52.
Lawless, Jennifer L. 2015. “Female Candidates and Legislators.” Annual Review of Political Science, 18: 349–66.
Lawless, Jennifer L., and Fox, Richard L.. 2010. It Still Takes a Candidate: Why Women Don't Run for Office. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Lawless, Jennifer L., and Pearson, Kathryn. 2008. “The Primary Reason for Women's Underrepresentation? Reevaluating the Conventional Wisdom.” The Journal of Politics 70 (1): 67–82.
MacNell, L., Driscoll, A., and Hunt, A. N.. 2015. “What's in a Name: Exposing Gender Bias in Student Ratings of teaching.” Innovative Higher Education 40 (4): 291–303.
McDermott, Monika L. 1997. “Voting Cues in Low-Information Elections: Candidate Gender as a Social Information Variable in Contemporary United States Elections.” American Journal of Political Science 41 (1): 270–83.
Milkman, Katherine L., Akinola, Modupe, and Chugh, Dolly. 2015. “What happens before? A field experiment exploring how pay and representation differentially shape bias on the pathway into organizations.” Journal of Applied Psychology 100 (6): 1678–1712.
Milyo, Jeffrey, and Schosberg, Samantha. 2000. “Gender Bias and Selection Bias in House Elections.” Public Choice 105 (1), 41–59.
Mo, Hyunjung Cecilia. 2015. “The Consequences of Explicit and Implicit Gender Attitudes and Candidate Quality in the Calculations of Voters.” Political Behavior 37: 357–95.
Moncrief, Gary F., Squire, Peverill, and Jewell, Malcolm E.. 2001. Who Runs for the Legislature? Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Montgomery, Jacob, Nyhan, Brendan, and Torres, Michelle. Forthcoming, “How Conditioning on Post-treatment Variables Can Ruin Your experiment and What To Do About It.” American Journal of Political Science. https://doi.org/10.1111/ajps.12357
Moss-Racusin, Corinne A., Dovidio, John F., Brescoll, Victoria L., Graham, Mark J., and Handelsman, Jo. 2012. “Science Faculty's Subtle Gender Biases Favor Male Students.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109: 16474–79.
Murray, Rainbow. 2014. “Quotas for Men: Reframing Gender Quotas as a Means of Improving Representation for All.” American Political Science Review 108 (3): 520–32.
Niven, David. 1998. “Party Elites and Women Candidates: The Shape of Bias.” Women & Politics 19: 57–80.
O'Brien, Diana Z., and Rickne, Johanna. 2016. “Gender Quotas and Women's Political Leadership.” American Political Science Review 110 (1): 112–26.
Okin, Susan Moller. 1989. Justice, Gender, and the Family. New York: Basic Books.
Palmer, Barbara, and Simon, Dennis. 2006. Breaking the political glass ceiling: Women and congressional elections. New York: Routledge.
Paris, Celia, and Feder, Daniel. 2016. “Candidate Qualifications as Cues for Competence.” Working paper. Paper presented at Midwest Political Science Association Conference.
Paxton, Pamela, and Kunovich, Sheri. 2003. “Women's Political Representation: The Importance of Ideology.” Social Forces 82: 87–113.
Philpot, Tasha S., and Walton, Hanes. 2007. “One of Our Own: Black Female Candidates and the Voters Who Support Them.” American Journal of Political Science 51 (1): 49–62.
Preece, Jessica R., Stoddard, Olga B., and Fisher, Rachel. 2016. “Run, Jane, Run! Gendered Responses to Political Party Recruitment.” Political Behavior 38 (3): 561–77.
Quaranta, Mario, and Dotti Sani, Giulia M.. Forthcoming. “Left Behind? Gender Gaps in Political Engagement Over the Life Course in Twenty-Seven European Countries” Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State & Society. https://doi.org/10.1093/sp/jxy005
Rasmussen, Jorgen. 1981. “Female Political Career Patterns & Leadership Disabilities in Britain: The Crucial Role of Gatekeepers in Regulating Entry to the Political Elite.” Polity 13 (4): 600–20.
Rosenthal, Cindy Simon. 1998. When Women Lead: Integrative Leadership in State Legislatures. New York: Oxford University Press.
Rule, Wilma. 1981. “Why women don't run: The critical contextual factors in women's legislative recruitment.” Western Political Quarterly 34 (1): 60–77.
Sanbonmatsu, Kira. 2002. “Gender Stereotypes and Vote Choice.” American Journal of Political Science 46 (1): 20–34.
Sanbonmatsu, Kira. 2006. “Do Parties Know That 'Women Win'? Party Leader Beliefs about Women's Electoral Chances.” Politics & Gender 2 (4): 431–50.
Sanbonmatsu, Kira, and Dolan, Kathleen. 2009. “Do Gender Stereotypes Transcend Party?” Political Research Quarterly 62 (3): 485–94.
Sapiro, Virginia, and Conover, Pamelo Johnston. 1997. “The Variable Gender Basis of Electoral Politics: Gender and Context in the 1992 US Election.” British Journal of Political Science 27 (4): 497–523.
Schwindt-Bayer, Leslie A. 2010. Political Power and Women's Representation in Latin America. New York: Oxford University Press.
Shames, Shauna L. 2017. Out of the Running: Why Millennials Reject Political Careers and Why it Matters. New York: New York University Press.
Silbermann, Rachel. 2015. “Gender roles, work-life balance, and running for office.” Quarterly Journal of Political Science 10 (2): 123–53.
Seltzer, Richard, Newman, Jody, and Leighton, Melissa V.. 1997. Sex as a Political Variable: Women as Candidates and Voters in U.S. Elections. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.
Streb, Matthew J., Burrell, Barbara, Frederick, Brian, and Genovese, Michael A.. 2008. “Social Desirability Effects and Support for a Female American President.” Public Opinion Quarterly 72 (1): 76–89.
Strezhnev, Anton, Hainmueller, Jens, Hopkins, Daniel J., and Yamamoto, Teppei. 2014. Conjoint Survey Design Tool, Version 1.3.
Studlar, Donley T., and McAllister, Ian. 1991. “Political recruitment to the Australian legislature: toward an explanation of women's electoral disadvantages.” Western Political Quarterly 44 (2): 467–85.
Taylor, Paul, Morin, Rich, Cohn, D'Vera, Clark, April, and Wang, Wendy. 2008. A Paradox in Public Attitudes: Men or Women: Who's the Better Leader” Pew Research Center.
Thomsen, Danielle M. Forthcoming. “Ideology and Gender in U.S. House Elections.” Political Behavior.
Thomsen, Danielle M. 2015. “Why So Few (Republican) Women? Explaining the Partisan Imbalance of Women in the U.S. Congress.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 40 (2): 295–323.
Thomsen, Danielle M. 2017. Opting Out of Congress: Partisan Polarization and the Decline of Moderate Candidatess. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Thomsen, Danielle M. and Swers, Michele L.. 2017. “Which Women Can Run? Gender, Partisanship, and Candidate Donor Networks.” Political Research Quarterly 70 (2): 449–463.
Welch, Susan. 1977. “Women as political animals? A test of some explanations for male-female political participation differences.” American Journal of Political Science 21 (4): 711–730.
Welch, Susan, Ambrosius, Margery M., Clark, Janet, and Darcy, Robert. 1985. “The Effect of Candidate Gender on Electoral Outcomes in State Legislative Races. The Western Political Quarterly 38: 464–75.
Zipp, John F., and Plutzer, Eric. 1985. “Gender Differences in Voting for Female Candidates: Evidence from the 1982 Election.” Public Opinion Quarterly 49 (2): 179–97.