Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Building in the Shadow of Death: Monastery Construction and the Politics of Community Reconstitution in Sixteenth-Century Mexico

  • Ryan Crewe (a1)
Extract

Around the year 1550, an indigenous tlacuilo (painter-scribe-historian) in Tepechpan, a small altepetl north of Mexico City, narrated the tumultuous events through which he had lived. In Figure 1, we see an excerpt of this tlacuilo's contribution to the town's annals, the Tira de Tepechpan, which depicts a sequence of events from 1545 to 1549. On the left, beneath the glyph for the year 1545, the tlacuilo paints a dangling corpse, its arms crossed and eyes shut, with blood spurting from the nose and mouth. Here the tlacuilo is telling us of the 1545 hueycocolixtli, the “great sickness” that killed at least a third of the population, according to conservative estimates. Among the victims was Tepechpan's ruler, the crowned figure wrapped in funeral cloth above the year glyph.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Building in the Shadow of Death: Monastery Construction and the Politics of Community Reconstitution in Sixteenth-Century Mexico
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Building in the Shadow of Death: Monastery Construction and the Politics of Community Reconstitution in Sixteenth-Century Mexico
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Building in the Shadow of Death: Monastery Construction and the Politics of Community Reconstitution in Sixteenth-Century Mexico
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
References
Hide All

1. See Diel, Lori Boornazian, The Tira de Tepechpan: Negotiating Place under Aztec and Spanish Rule (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2008), 17, 6–87, and 91.

2. George Kubler classified these constructions into three groups according to size and artistic ornamentation. The largest structures had high “vaults or richly decorated wooden ceilings” and “elaborate conventual layouts in two stories with . . . vaulted walks.” Next were “medium size, well-built churches” with “two-storied conventual buildings.” Churches in these two categories had vaults as high as 24 meters and ranged from 40 to 60 meters in length. Finally, Kubler mentions “small edifices of permanent construction” whose adjoining convents were often incomplete. This description underrates many of the structures listed, including the Dominican monastery at Coyoacán, which took considerable time to build and still overshadows the modern structures around it, or the Franciscan monastery at Erongarícuaro, a stone structure that boasts skilled stonework, itself a sign of community investment. Of a total 87 structures listed in Kubler's data set, 59 structures rank in the first two categories. See Kubler, George, Mexican Architecture in the Sixteenth Century (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1948), Vol. 1, 2427, and Vol. 2, 274.

3. These structures are frequently referred to by a misnomer, “fortress monasteries,” the remnant of a now debunked argument that these structures served a defensive function. See Kubler, George, “Mexican Urbanism in the Sixteenth Century,” Art Bulletin (1942): 160171.

4. Galende, Pedro G., Angels in Stone: Augustinian Churches in the Philippines (Manila: San Agustín Museum, 1996).

5. Dean, Carolyn and Leibsohn, Dana, “Hybridity and its Discontents: Considering Visual Culture in Colonial Spanish America,” Colonial Latin American Review 12:1 (1995): 5.

6. Kubler, Mexican Architecture, Vol. 1, 30; Kubler, “Mexican Urbanism,” 160–161; Van Oss, A. C., Church and Society in Spanish America (Amsterdam: Aksant, 2003). See also Fraser, Valerie, The Architecture of Conquest: Building the Viceroyalty of Peru, 1535–1635 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990).

7. Fernández, Miguel Ángel, La Jerusalén indiana. Los conventos-fortaleza mexicanos del siglo XVI (Mexico City: Smurfit, 1992); Hernández, Luís Javier Cuesta, Arquitectura del Renacimiento en Nueva España (Mexico City: Universidad Iberoamericana, 2009); Lara, Jaime, City, Temple, Stage: Eschatological Architecture and Liturgical Theatrics in New Spain (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 2004).

8. Gonzalbo, Pablo Escalante, “El patrocinio del arte indocristiano en el siglo XVI. La iniciativa de las autoridades indígenas en Tlaxcala y Cuauhtinchan,” in Patrocinio, colección, y circulación de las artes, Curiel, Gustavo, ed. (Mexico City: UNAM, 1997), 215235; Bargellini, Clara, “Representations of Conversion: Sixteenth-Century Architecture in New Spain,” in The Word Made Image: Religion, Art, and Architecture in Spain and Spanish America, 1500–1600 (Boston: Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, 1998), 9798; Reyes-Valerio, Constantino, Arte indocristiano (Mexico City: INAH, 2000); Edgerton, Samuel Y., Theaters of Conversion: Religious Architecture and Indian Artisans in Colonial Mexico (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2001); Peterson, Jeanette Favrot, The Paradise Garden Murals of Malinalco: Utopia and Empire in Sixteenth-Century Mexico (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1993); Wake, Eleanor, Framing the Sacred: The Indian Churches of Early Colonial Mexico (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2010); Duverger, Christian, Agua y fuego: arte sacro indígena de México en el siglo XVI (Mexico City: Santander Serfín, 2003); Olmos, Carlos Chanfón, Historia de la arquitectura y el urbanismo mexicanos, 2 vols. (Mexico City: Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1997); Kiracofe, James B., “Architectural Fusion and Indigenous Ideology in Early Colonial Teposcolula: The Casa de la Cacica, a Building at the Edge of Oblivion,” Anales del Instituto de Investigaciones Estéticas 66 (1995): 4584.

9. Dean and Leibsohn note the lack of social production in studies of hybrid colonial art in “Hybridity and its Discontents.” See also Lefebvre, Henri, The Production of Space (Cambridge: Blackwell, 1991), 1418, 26–30.

10. Archival data for Figures 3 and 4 is drawn from: AGN Mercedes, General de Parte, Indios, Civil, and Tierras; and AGI Contaduría, Escribanía, Gobierno de México, Real Patronato, and Justicia. The AGN records consist mostly of petitions to and responses from the viceregal administration, as well as details on church construction mentioned in litigation brought before the audiencia. AGI records consist of royal treasurers' account books, missionary correspondence, royal cédulas, and litigation brought before the Council of the Indies. Each mention of church construction in these records counts as a sign of construction activity in these decade-by-decade figures.

11. Kubler, for example, drew his data from published primary sources, which showed a peak in construction in the 1570s with about 62 active projects. He also argued that different mendicant constructions peaked in different decades: Augustinians, inattentive to the post-cocolixtli crisis, peaked in the 1550s, while Franciscans and Dominicans adjusted to circumstances and peaked in the 1570s. My archival data overturns these figures: construction peaked in the 1550s at 122 projects (rather than 55), and construction projects for all religious orders peaked in that decade. Kubler, Mexican Architecture, Vol. 1, 65.

12. de Betanzos, Domingo to Dominican procuradores,1545, in Colección de documentos para la historia de México, 2 vols., Icazbalceta, Joaquín García, ed. (Mexico City: Porrúa, 2004), Vol. II, 200201.

13. Van Bath, B. H. Slicher, “The Calculation of the Population of New Spain, especially for the period before 1570,” Boletín de Estudios Latinoamericanos y del Caribe 24 (1978): 6795; Prem, Hanns J., “Disease Outbreaks in Central Mexico during the Sixteenth Century,” in Secret Judgments of God: Old World Disease in Colonial Spanish America, Cook, Noble David and Lowell, W. George, eds. (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1992); Whitmore, Thomas M., Disease and Death in Early Colonial Mexico: Simulating Amerindian Depopulation (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1992); Livi-Bacci, Massimo, Conquest: The Destruction of the American Indios (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2008), 135.

14. Hanns J. Prem, “Disease Outbreaks in Central Mexico during the Sixteenth Century,” 34; Cook, Noble David, Born to Die: Disease and New World Conquest, 1492–1650 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998), 100103; Diel, Tira de Tepechpan; Dibble, Charles E., ed., Codex en Cruz (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1981); Noguez, Xavier, ed., Tira de Tepechpan: Códice colonial procedente del Valle de México (Mexico City: Biblioteca Enciclopédica del Estado de México, 1978), 142; Zavallos, Juan Manuel Pérez, ed., La fundación de San Luís Tlaxialtemalco según los Títulos Primordiales de San Gregorio Atlapulco, 1519–1606 (Mexico City: Instituto Mora/Gobierno del Distrito Federal, 2003), 58; INAH, Colección Antigua, Tomo 273, Vol. II, Anales Mexicanos 1, 433; Anales de Tlatelolco y Mexico 1, 610; Anales de Quecholac (1519–1642), 949; Anales de Tepeaca, 401.

15. Cook, Born to Die, 100; de Sahagún, Bernardino, Florentine Codex: General History of the Things of New Spain, 13 vols., Anderson, Arthur J. O. and Dibble, Charles E., eds. (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 2012 [1950]), Vol. I, 99.

16. Solís, Eustaquio Celestino and García, Luís Reyes, eds. Anales de Tecamachalco, 1398–1590 (Mexico City: Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1992), 70.

17. Gruzinski, Serge, The Conquest of Mexico: The Incorporation of Indian Societies into the Western World, 16th-18th Centuries (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1993), 8081; Terraciano, Kevin, The Mixtecs of Colonial Oaxaca (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001), 362; Austin, Alfredo López, Textos de medicina náhuatl (Mexico City: UNAM, 1975), 40, 138–139.

18. Zumárraga to Prince Philip, 1547, in Cuevas, P. Mariano, ed., Documentos inéditos del siglo XVI para la historia de México, [1914] 2 vols. (Mexico City: Porrúa, 1975), 143; de Torquemada, Fray Juan, Monarquía indiana, 3 vols. (Mexico City: Porrúa, 1967), 643; Sahagún, Florentine Codex, Vol. 1, 99; Motolinía to Charles V, 1555, in García Icazbalceta, Colección de documentos, Vol. I, 264; Fray Bernardo de Albuquerque to the Indies Council, 1554, in Cuevas, Documentos inéditos, 181.

19. Whitmore, Thomas M., Disease and Death in Early Colonial Mexico: Simulating Amerindian Depopulation (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1992), 118119.

20. McCaa, Robert, “Spanish and Nahuatl Views on Smallpox and Demographic Catastrophe in Mexico,” Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 25:3 (1995): 417419, 423.

21. Motolinía to Charles V, 1555, in Joaquín García Icazbalceta, Colección de documentos, Vol. I, 264.

22. García, Elena Bernal and Zambrano, Ángel Julián García, “El altepetl colonial y sus antecedentes prehispánicos: contexto teórico-historiográfico,” in Christlieb, Federico Fernández and Zambrano, Ángel Julián García, eds. Territorialidad y paisaje en el altepetl del siglo XVI (Mexico City: Fondo de Cultura Económica, 2006), 33, 74–76; Olivera, Mercedes, Pillis y macehuales: las formaciones sociales y los modos de producción de Tecali del siglo XII al siglo XVI (Mexico City: INAH, 1978), 133.

23. Motolinía to Charles V, 1555, in Icazbalceta, Colección de documentos, Vol. I, 264; Terraciano, Mixtecs of Colonial Oaxaca, 362; Acuña, René, Relaciones geográficas del siglo XVI (Mexico City: UNAM, 1986), Vol. 2, 144; y Troncoso, Francisco del Paso, ed., Papeles de Nueva España (Madrid, 1905), Vol. VI, 46, 67, Vol. V, 49, 100, Vol. IV, 80, 59, Vol. VI, 278, 57, 245, 315; Gerhard, Peter, “Congregaciones de indios en la Nueva España antes de 1570,” Historia Mexicana 103 (1977): 354356; Fray Domingo de la Anunciación on Indian Tributes, 1554, in Cuevas, Documentos inéditos, 241; Gerhard, Peter, A Guide to the Historical Geography of New Spain (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1993), 105; Troncoso, Paso y, ed., Relaciones geográficas de México (Mexico City: Cosmos, 1979), 6769); Zavala, Silvio, Libros de asientos de la gobernación de la Nueva España: período del virrey don Luís de Velasco, 1550–1552 (Mexico City: Archivo General de la Nación, 1982), 430; Lockhart, James, Berdan, Frances, and Anderson, Arthur J. O., eds. and trans., The Tlaxcalan Actas: A Compendium of the Records of the Cabildo de Tlaxcala (1545–1627), (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1986), 43; Baracs, Andrea Martínez, Un gobierno de indios: Tlaxcala, 1519–1750 (Mexico City: Fondo de Cultura Económica, 2008), 204; Sahagún, Florentine Codex, Vol. 1, 99.

24. Zumárraga to Prince Philip, 1547, in Cuevas, Documentos inéditos, 141; Borah, Woodrow and Cook, S. F., The Population of Central Mexico in 1548: An Analysis of the Suma de Visitas de Pueblos (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1960), 12, 21; y Troncoso, Francisco del Paso, ed., Suma de visitas (Madrid, 1905), 43.

25. Cuevas, Documentos inéditos,141.

26. Civil suit, Tepechpan vs. Temascalapa, over cabecera rights (Preliminary sentence, 1551), Archivo General de Indias [hereafter AGI], Justicia, leg. 164, no. 2, fols. 328v–330r.

27. Account ledgers (1540–1550), AGI Contaduría, leg. 661.

28. Viceregal license for Augustinian monasteries, 1550, Archivo General de la Nación [hereafter AGN], Mercedes, Tomo 3, Tomo 135, fol. 61v; Viceregal license for Franciscan monasteries, Teutalco, Xalacingo, and Tepexique, 1550, AGN Mercedes, Vol. 3, exp. 150, fol. 65r; Viceregal license for Augustinian monastery, Guango, 1550, AGN Civil, Vol. 1271, fol. 205r.

29. Kubler, Mexican Architecture, Vol. 1, 23–24, 30, 36–38, 60–67; Van Oss, Church and Society, 137.

30. Eleanor Wake, Framing the Sacred, 86–89.

31. Wake, Framing the Sacred, 58.

32. For a nuanced analysis of how Mesoamerican ritual spaces interacted with the changing politics of the mission enterprise, see Laura Gallegos, Ledesma, Génesis de la arquitectura mendicante del siglo XVI en el plan de las Amilpas y las Cañadas de Morelos (Mexico City: INAH, 2012); and Solari, Amara, Maya Ideologies of the Sacred: The Transfigurations of Space in Colonial Yucatan (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2013). See also Martínez, Bernardo García, Los pueblos de la Sierra: el poder y el espacio entre los indios del norte de Puebla hasta 1700 (Mexico City: Colegio de México, 1987), 94; Terraciano, Mixtecs of Colonial Oaxaca, 287–293; Christlieb, Federico Fernández and Torres, Pedro Sergio Urquijo, “Los espacios del pueblo de indios tras el proceso de Congregación, 1550–1625,” Investigaciones Geográficas 60 (2006): 145158.

33. On world-making in Mesoamerican religious architecture, see Carrasco, Davíd, Religions of Mesoamerica (Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press, 1990), 20; Kiracofe, “Architectural Fusion and Indigenous Ideology.”

34. The sedentary Mesoamerican societies in this study roughly shared these cellular forms of organization, as can be seen in terminology: the local state or Nahua altepetl was known as ñuu in Mixtec and as ireta in Purhépecha, while the sub-unit or Nahua calpulli was yuhuitayu in Mixtec. Lockhart, James, The Nahuas after the Conquest (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1992), 1415, 27–28, 54. Schroeder, Susan, Chimalpahin and the Kingdom of Chalco (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1991), 119153; Terraciano, Mixtecs of Colonial Oaxaca, 347–348; Baracs, Rodrigo Martínez, Convivencia y utopia: el gobierno indio y español de la “ciudad de Mechuacan,” 1521–1580 (Mexico City: CONACULTA, 2005), 56; Horn, Rebecca, Postconquest Coyoacán: Nahua-Spanish Relations in Central Mexico, 1519–1650 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1997), 2123.

35. Lockhart, The Nahuas; Schroeder, Chimalpahin, 119–153; Terraciano, Mixtecs of Colonial Oaxaca, 347–348; Martínez Baracs, Convivencia y utopía, 56; Horn, Postconquest Coyoacan, 21–23.

36. Chimalpahin, Domingo, Las ocho relaciones y el memorial de Culhuacan (1607–1637), Tena, Rafael, trans. (Mexico City: Conaculta, 1998), 203205.

37. Boone, Elizabeth Hill, Stories in Red and Black: Pictorial Histories of the Aztecs and Mixtecs (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2000), 128, 239–241; Boone, Elizabeth Hill, “Pictorial Documents and Visual Thinking in Postconquest Mexico,” in Native Traditions in the Postconquest World, Boone, Elizabeth Hill and Cummins, Tom, eds. (Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks, 1998), 181193; van Doesburg, Bas, “The Lienzo of Tlapiltepec: The Royal Historiography of the Coixtlahuaca City-State,” in The Lienzo of Tlapiltepec: A Painted History from the Northern Mixteca, Brownstone, Arni, ed. (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2015), 3573.

38. Diel, Tira de Tepechpan.

39. Boone, Stories in Red and Black, 128; Leibsohn, Dana, Script and Glyph: Pre-Hispanic History, Colonial Bookmaking and the Historia Tolteca-Chichimeca (Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks, 2009), 2122.

40. Bargellini, “Representations of Conversion,” 96; Escalante Gonzalbo, “El patrocinio del arte indocristiano,” 215–235.

41. Escalante Gonzalbo, “El patrocinio del arte indocristiano”; Peterson, Paradise Garden Murals; Reyes Valerio, Arte indocristiano; Bargellini, “Representations of Conversion,” 96.

42. Escalante Gonzalbo, “El patrocinio del arte indocristiano,” 229–231.

43. de Grijalva, Juan, Crónica de la orden de N.P.S. Agustín en las provincias de la Nueva España (Mexico City: Porrúa, 1985), 172173.

44. Lockhart, Tlaxcalan Actas, 90, 123–124; Olmos, Historia de la arquitectura, 22, 26.

45. Wake, Framing the Sacred, 115; Lockhart, Tlaxcalan Actas, 90, 123–124.

46. Carrasco, David, City of Sacrifice: The Aztec Empire and the Role of Violence in Civilization (Boston: Beacon Press, 1999), 6568; Carrasco, Religions, 20–23, 70–77; Diel, Tira de Tepechpan, 67–71, 91.

47. Lockhart, The Nahuas, 15–17, 421.

48. See for example witness testimonies in favor of Temascalapa's claims against Tepechpan, 1561, AGI Justicia, leg. 164, no. 2, fols. 405r, 407v.

49. Leibsohn, Dana, “Colony and Cartography: Shifting Signs on Indigenous Maps of New Spain,” in Reframing the Renaissance: Visual Culture in Europe and Latin America, 1450–1650, Farago, Claire, ed. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995), 6780; Wake, Framing the Sacred, 120; Boone, Stories in Red and Black, 138; Medrano, Ethelia Ruíz, “En el cerro y la iglesia: la figura cosmológica atl-tépetl-oztotl,” in Relaciones: Estudios de Historia y Sociedad, 22:86 (2001): 162163; Mundy, Barbara E., The Mapping of New Spain: Indigenous Cartography and the Maps of the Relaciones Geográficas (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000), 6869, 171; Fernández and Urquijo, “Los espacios del pueblo de indios,” 154.

50. Carrasco, David and Sessions, Scott, eds., Cave, City, and Eagle's Nest: An Interpretive Journey through the Mapa de Cuauhtinchan no. 2 (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2007).

51. Lienzo de Zacatepec, Biblioteca Nacional de Antropología e Historia. See also Relación Geográfica de Misquiahuala, Hidalgo, UT-Benson Library; Van Doesburg, “The Lienzo of Tlapiltepec,” 38–39, 60–61.

52. Lockhart, The Nahuas, 15–17, 421; Civil trial, Temascalapa vs. Tepechpan, 1561, AGI Justicia, leg. 164, no. 2, fols. 405r–408r.

53. García Martínez, Los pueblos de la Sierra, 94.

54. García, María Elena Bernal and Zambrano, Ángel Julián García, “El altepetl colonial y sus antecedentes prehispánicos: contexto teórico-historiográfico,” in Territorialidad y paisaje en el altepetl del siglo XVI, Christlieb, Federico Fernández and Zambrano, Ángel Julián García, eds. (Mexico City: Fondo de Cultura Económica, 2006), 33, 74–76; Olivera, Pillis y macehuales, 33, 74–76; Martínez Baracs, Convivencia y utopia, 216; Christlieb and Torres, “Los espacios del pueblo de indios,” 148.

55. Caballero, Paula López, ed., Los títulos primordiales del centro de México (Mexico City: Conaculta, 2003), 145, 157; Viceregal congregación order, Tequecastlan, 1563, AGN Mercedes, Tomo 6, fol. 416r; Congregación order, Turicado, 1555, AGN Mercedes, Tomo 4, fol. 269r.

56. García Martínez, Los pueblos de la Sierra, 113–114.

57. Christlieb and Torres, “Los espacios del pueblo de indios,” 148; Viceregal congregación order, Molango, 1555, AGN Mercedes, Vol. 4, fol. 160r; y Troncoso, Francisco del Paso, ed., Descripción del arzobispado (Madrid: Sucesores de Rivadeneyra [1571] 1905), Vol. III, 118–119; Viceregal congregación order, Chalco and Tlalmanalco,1558, AGN Mercedes, Vol. 84, exp. 135, fol. 50r.

58. Restall, Matthew, Sousa, Lisa, and Terraciano, Kevin, eds. Mesoamerican Voices: Native-Language Writings from Colonial Mexico, Oaxaca, Yucatán, and Guatemala (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005), 7577; Lockhart, The Nahuas, 44; Gerhard, “Congregaciones de indios,” 350–351; Zavala, Libros de asientos, 315–317, 349; García Martínez, Los pueblos de la Sierra, 151, 155.

59. Lockhart, The Nahuas, 123–124. For a similar congregation process, see Luna, Constantino Medina, ed., Libro de los guardianes y gobernadores de Cuauhtinchan (1519–1640) (Mexico City: CIESAS, 1995), 49.

60. Anguiano, Marina and Chapa, Matilde, “Estratificación social en Tlaxcala durante el siglo xvi,” in La estratificación social en la Mesoamérica prehispánica, Carrasco, Pedro, ed. (Mexico City: INAH, 1976), 126135; Mercedes Olivera, “El despotismo tributario en la región de Cuauhtinchan-Tepeaca,” in Carrasco, ed., La estratificación social, 198–199.

61. Frassani, Alessia, “El centro monumental de Yanhuitlán y su arquitectura: un proceso histórico y ritual,” Desacatos 42 (2013): 145160.

62. Restall, Sousa, and Terraciano, eds. Mesoamerican Voices, 75; Lockhart, The Nahuas, 45; Chimalpahin, Las ocho relaciones, 213–217.

63. Horn, Postconquest Coyoacán, 31–34.

64. García Martínez, Los pueblos de la Sierra, 124, 130, 215.

65. Diel, Tira de Tepechpan, 91.

66. Indios of Tecomatlan vs. rulers of Yanhuitlán, 1584, AGI Escribanía de Cámara, leg. 162C; Indios of Atlatlauhca and Tlayacapa vs. indios of Totolapa, 1571, AGI Justicia, leg. 176, no. 2.

67. Lockhart, The Nahuas, 14–15.

68. Icazbalceta, Joaquín García, ed., Cartas de religiosos (Mexico City: Editorial Chávez Hayhoe, 1941), 6970; Viceregal order on jurisdictions in Ecatzingo and Chalco, 1591, AGN Indios, Vol. 6, exp. 249, fol. 63r.

69. Motolinía, Toribio de Benavente, Memoriales, Dyer, Nancy Jo, ed. (Mexico City: El Colegio de México, 1996), 290.

70. Gerhard, Guide to the Historical Geography of New Spain, 278–281; Solís, Eustaquio Celestino and García, Luis Reyes, eds. and trans. Anales de Tecamachalco: 1398–1590 (Mexico City: Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1992), 6477; Anales de Tecamachalco y Quecholac (1520 –1558), INAH, Anales antiguos de México, Vol. 273, Tomo II, 911; AGN Mercedes, Vol. 2, exp. 426, fol. 179r; Anales de Quecholac (1519–1642), INAH, Anales antiguos de México, Colección Antigua, Vol. 273, Tomo II, 949; Kubler, Mexican Architecture, Vol. 2, 470; Paso y Troncoso, ed., Suma de visitas, 206; Martínez, Hildeberto, Tepeaca en el siglo XVI: tenencia de tierra y organización de un señorío (Mexico City: CIESAS, 1984), 135.

71. Prem, Hanns, ed., Matrícula de Huexotzingo: Ms. Mex. 387 der Bibliothèque Nationale Paris (Graz: Akadem, 1974); Gerhard, Guide to the Historical Geography of New Spain, 56, 328–329; NL Ayer ms. 1121, fol. 176v; AGN Mercedes 2, exp. 427, fol. 179v; Paso y Troncoso, ed., Suma de visitas, no. 260; AGN Mercedes, Tomo 3, exp. 256, fol. 123r; Paso y Troncoso, ed., Epistolario, Vol. IV, 138; Torquemada, Monarquía indiana, Vol. I, 315–322.

72. AGN Mercedes, Tomo 4, exp. 145, fol. 42r; AGI Justicia, leg. 156; NL Ayer ms. 1121, fols. 271, 330; Gerhard, Guide to the Historical Geography of New Spain, 96; Grijalva, Crónica de la orden de N.P.S. Agustín, 66.

73. Gerhard, Guide to the Historical Geography of New Spain, 326.

74. Gerhard, Guide to the Historical Geography of New Spain, 45, 155–156, 333–334; García Icazbalceta, ed., Códice franciscano, 15; Church construction agreement between Xipicoya and Talicapa, 1551, in Zavala, Libros de asientos, 325.

75. Gerhard, Guide to the Historical Geography of New Spain, 249; AGN, Bienes Nacionales, Tomo 775, exp. 14, no. 2; LOC Krauss ms. 140, fols. 24v, 31v–32v, 110v–111v, 118r/v, 420; AGN Mercedes, Vol. 6, fol. 378r; Schroeder, Susan, Chimalpahin and the Kingdoms of Chalco (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1991), 103106.

76. Leander, Birgitta, ed., Códice de Otlazpan (Mexico City: INAH, 1967), 74; Account ledger, 1558, AGI Contaduría, leg. 664.

77. Van Oss, Church and Society, 116–117.

78. Bayón, Damián, “The Architecture and Art of Colonial Spanish America,” in Cambridge History of Latin America, Bethel, Lesley, ed. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984), Vol. II, 714; Meli, Roberto, Los conventos mexicanos del siglo XVI: construcción, ingeniería structural y conservación (Mexico City: Porrúa, 2001), 80.

79. Ricard, Robert, The Spiritual Conquest of Mexico, Simpson, Lesley Byrd, trans. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1966), 7778, 170–171; Kubler, Mexican Architecture, Vol. 1, 136–138, 144–145; Van Oss, Church and Society, 105–108.

80. Motolinía, Memoriales, 347; Kubler, Mexican Architecture, Vol. 1, 144–145.

81. Valderrama, Jerónimo to Philip II, 1564, in Cartas del licenciado Jerónimo Valderrama y otros documentos sobre su visita al gobierno de Nueva España, 1563–1565, Scholes, France V. and Adams, Eleanor B., eds. (Mexico City: Porrúa, 1961), 58.

82. Testimony, Luís Quiab, 1550, in Temascalapa vs. Tepechpan, 1550–1564, AGI Justicia, leg. 164, no. 2, fol. 261r.

83. de Burgoa, Francisco, Geográfica descripción (Mexico City: Archivo General de la Nación, 1934), 291. The long distances that indigenous communities traveled to obtain resources for construction is clearly visible in the abundant viceregal licenses issued to authorize the procurement of lumber, stone, and lime outside community boundaries. A brief sample: License to Cuauhtinchan to use Santiago Tecali quarry, 1579, AGN General, Vol. 2, exp. 131, fol. 28r; License to México-Tenochtitlán to use Cuitláhuac quarry, 1543, AGN Mercedes, Tomo 2, exp. 356, fol. 145v; License to Zacapu to use Puruandiro quarry, 1590, AGN General de Parte, Vol. 2, exp. 1232, fol. 265r; License to cut wood, Teotihuacán, 1565, AGN Mercedes, Vol. 8, fol. 217v.

84. License to Acolmán to cut wood in Texcoco monte, 1576, AGN General de Parte, Vol. 1, exp. 1294, fol. 242v.

85. Lockhart, The Nahuas, 96; Gibson, Charles, The Aztecs under Spanish Rule: A History of the Indians in the Valley of Mexico (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1964), 222; Olivera, Pillis y macehuales, 162–173.

86. Lockhart, Nahuas, 96; Gibson, Aztecs under Spanish Rule, 222; Alonso, Vicenta Cortés, ed., Pintura del gobernador, alcaldes, y regidores de México,“Códice Osuna” (Madrid: Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia, 1993), fols. 7/469r, 14/476r–25/487v, and 37/499–39/501v.

87. Fernández and Zambrano, eds., Territorialidad y paisaje, 260–261.

88. López Caballero, ed., Los títulos primordiales, 168; Haskett, Robert, Visions of Paradise (Norman: Oklahoma University Press, 2005), 257; “Réédification de la ville de Cuernavaca,” in Los títulos primordiales del centro de México, Margarita Menegus, ed. (Mexico City: Conaculta, 2003), 168, 171.

89. Dyckerhoff, Ursula and Prem, Hanns J., “La estratificación social en Huexotzinco,” in Estratificación social en la Mesoamérica prehispánica, Carrasco, Pedro and Broda, Johanna, eds. (Mexico City: INAH, 1976), 165; Anguiano, Marina, “División del trabajo en Tlaxcala a mediados del siglo XVI,” in Padrones de Tlaxcala del siglo XVI y padrón de nobles de Ocotelolco, Rabiela, Teresa Rojas, ed. (Mexico City: CIESAS, 1987), 2838; Marina Anguiano, Matilde Chapa, and Amelia Camacho, introduction, in Teresa Rojas Rabiela, ed., Padrones de Tlaxcala del siglo XVI, 14.

90. Labor for Nexapa Monastery, 1558, AGN Mercedes, Tomo 84, exp. 52, fol. 24v.

91. Burgoa, Geográfica descripción, 291–292; Alonso Caballero, vecino de Yanhuitlán, 1563, AGI México 2564.

92. Duverger, Christian, Agua y fuego: arte sacro indígena de México en el siglo XVI (Mexico City: Océano, 2003), 8081. See also Meli, Los conventos mexicanos, 58; Chanfón Olmos, Historia de la arquitectura, Vol. 1, 139; Kubler, Vol. 1, Mexican Architecture, 136–139.

93. Lockhart, The Nahuas, 55.

94. Wake, Framing the Sacred, 92.

95. Wake, Framing the Sacred, 88–93; Duverger, Agua y fuego; Chanfón, Historia de la arquitectura; Meli, Los conventos mexicanos.

96. García, Antonio Rubial, El convento agustino y la sociedad novohispana (1533–1630) (Mexico City: UNAM, 1989), 204.

97. Lockhart, The Nahuas, 96–97; Hildeberto Martínez, Tepeaca en el siglo XVI, 161–163, 176–178; Rebecca Horn, Postconquest Coyoacán, 91.

98. Beaumont, Fray Pablo, Crónica de Michoacán (Mexico City: Talleres Gráficos de la Nación, 1932), Vol. II, 105.

99. Cortés Alonso, ed., Pintura del gobernador, fol. 7/469r; García, Luís Reyes, introduction, ¿Cómo te confundes? Acaso no somos conquistados? Anales de Juan Bautista (Mexico City: CIESAS, 2001), 34; Lockhart, The Nahuas; Leander, ed., Códice de Otlazpan, 31; Hildeberto Martínez, Tepeaca en el siglo XVI, 176–184.

100. Haskett, Robert, Visions of Paradise: Primordial Titles and Mesoamerican History in Cuernavaca (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2005), 208210, 264–265; Primordial title, San Juan Chamilpa,1732, in Paula López Caballero, Los títulos primordiales, 144–145.

101. Haskett, Visions of Paradise, 257.

102. Lockhart, The Nahuas, 96; Hicks, Frederick, “Prehispanic Background of Colonial Political and Economic Organization in Central Mexico,” in Supplement to the Handbook of Middle American Indians, Vol. 4, Bricker, Victoria and Spores, Ronald, eds. (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1986), 3554.

103. Viceroy to corregidor of Jantetelco on church construction, 1591, AGN Indios, Vol. 5, exp. 157, fol. 113v; Vol. 5, exp. 966, fol. 319r; Kubler, Mexican Architecture, Vol. 2, 512.

104. Moreda, María Teresa Pita, Los predicadores novohispanos del siglo XVI (Salamanca: Editorial San Esteban, 1992), 249.

105. García Icazbalceta, ed., Códice franciscano, 15; de Vetancurt, Agustín, Teatro Mexicano, 4 vols. (Mexico City: Porrúa, 1960), Vol. 4: 4, 70; Paso y Troncoso, ed. “Relaciones geográficas de la Diócesis de Tlaxcala,” Papeles de Nueva España, Vol. VII, 280–281; Order compelling Atlimapaque to labor for Alcoçahuca monastery, 1576, AGN General de Parte, Vol. 1, exp. 726, fol. 141v.

106. Order compelling sujeto labor for Mizantla monastery, 1579, AGN General de Parte, Vol. 2, exp. 407, fol. 84v; Order compelling Analco, sujeto of Xochimilco, 1576, AGN General de Parte, Vol. 1, exp. 604, fol. 124r; Gibson, Aztecs under Spanish Rule, 120; Lockhart, The Nahuas, 209–210.

107. Atlatlauhcan and Tlayacapan vs. Totolapa, 1565, AGI Justicia, leg. 176, no. 2.

108. Order compelling sujeto labor for Tepetotutla monastery, 1575, AGN General de Parte, Vol. 1, exp. 28, fol. 5v; Gerhard, Guide to the Historical Geography of New Spain, 300–306.

109. Viceroy to corregidor of Tepeapulco, 1571, AGN General de Parte, Vol. 1, exp. 191, fol. 38r; Viceroy to corregidor of Tepeapulco, 1575, AGN General de Parte, Vol. 1, exp. 216, fol. 44v.

110. Viceroy to corregidor of Tepeapulco, 1571, AGN General de Parte, Vol. 1, exp. 191, fol. 38r; Viceroy to corregidor of Tepeapulco, 1575, AGN General de Parte, Vol. 1, exp. 216, fol. 44v.

111. Viceroy to corregidor of Tepeapulco, 1575, AGN General de Parte, Vol. 1, exp. 191, fol. 38r.

112. Gerhard, Guide to the Historical Geography of New Spain, 52–53; Carrasco, Pedro, The Tenochca Empire of Ancient Mexico: The Triple Alliance of Tenochtitlán, Tetzcoco, and Tlacopan (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1999), 230; Gibson, Aztecs under Spanish Rule, 18.

113. Paso y Troncoso, ed., Descripción del Arzobispado, 84–86; Gerhard, Guide to the Historical Geography of New Spain, 53.

114. Viceregal order, 1575, AGN General de Parte, Vol. 1, exp. 315, fol. 67v.

115. Primordial title of Sultepeque, in López Caballero, ed., Los títulos primordiales, 305.

116. Grijalva, Crónica de la orden de N.P.S. Agustín, 160.

117. Códice municipal de Cuernavaca, in López Caballero, ed., Los títulos primordiales del centro de México, 179.

118. López Caballero, ed., Los títulos primordiales, 305.

I would like to thank the anonymous reviewers of this article for The Americas for their constructive advice. An earlier version of this article was presented at the annual conference of the Rocky Mountain Council of Latin American Studies (RMCLAS) in 2014.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The Americas
  • ISSN: 0003-1615
  • EISSN: 1533-6247
  • URL: /core/journals/americas
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed