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Summary Guide to Spanish Florida Missions and Visitas With Churches in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries

  • John H. Hann (a1)
Extract

The early European presence in California and in the American Southwest in general is identified with missions. Although missions were equally important in Spanish Florida and at an earlier date, the average American does not associate missions with Florida or Georgia. Indeed, as David Hurst Thomas observed in a recent monograph on the archaeological exploration of a site of the Franciscan mission of Santa Catalina de Guale on Georgia's St. Catherines Island, the numerous missions of Spanish Florida have remained little known even in scholarly circles. And as Charles Hudson has noted, this ignorance or amnesia has extended to awareness of the native peoples who inhabited those Southeastern missions or were in contact with them, even though these aboriginal inhabitants of the Southeast “possessed the richest culture of any of the native people north of Mexico … by almost any measure.” Fortunately, as Thomas remarked in the above-mentioned monograph, “a new wave of interest in mission archaeology is sweeping the American Southeast.” This recent and ongoing work holds the promise of having a more lasting impact than its historical counterpart of a half-century or so ago in the work of Herbert E. Bolton, Fr. Maynard Geiger, OFM, Mary Ross, and John Tate Lanning. Over the fifty odd years since Lanning's Spanish Missions of Georgia appeared, historians and archaeologists have made significant contributions to knowledge about sites in Spanish Florida where missions or mission outstations and forts or European settlements were established. But to date no one has compiled a comprehensive listing from a historian's perspective of the mission sites among them to which one may turn for the total number of such establishments, their general location, time of foundation, length of occupation, moving, circumstances of their demise and the tribal affiliation of the natives whom they served. This catalog and its sketches attempt to meet that need.

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1 Thomas, David Hurst, The Archaeology of Mission Santa Catalina de Guale: I. Search and Discovery, Vol. 63: Part 2, Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History (New York, 1987), pp. 6769.

2 Hudson, Charles, The Southeastern Indians (Knoxville, 1976), p. 3.

3 Thomas, , The Archaeology of Mission Santa Catalina de Guale, p. 81.

4 Larson, Lewis H. Jr., “Historic Guale Indians of the Georgia Coast and the Impact of the Spanish Mission Effort,” in Milanich, Jerald T. and Proctor, Samuel, eds., Tacachale: Essays on the Indians of Florida and Southeastern Georgia During the Historical Period (Gainesville, 1978), p. 120 ; Swanton, John R., Early History of the Creek Indians and Their Neighbors (Washington, 1922), pp. 8081 ; The Indians of the Southeastern United States (Washington, 1946), p. 135; Lanning, John Tate, The Spanish Missions of Georgia (Chapel Hill, 1935), p. 10.

5 Lowery, Woodbury, The Spanish Settlements Within the Present Limits of the United States, 1513–1561 (New York and London, 1911), pp. 164169, 448–452.

6 Hann, John H., “Translation of the Ecija Voyages of 1605 and 1609 and the González Derroterro of 1609,” Florida Archaeology, 2 (1986), p. 28. de Oviedo, Gonzalo Fernando y Valdés, , Historia general y natural de las Indias, islas y tierra-firme del mar oceano (Madrid, 1851), 3, p. 631.

7 Swanton, , Final Report of the United States De Soto Expedition Commission (Washington, D.C., 1985), p. 86.

8 Priestly, Herbert Ingram, ed. and trans., The Luna Papers. Documents Relating to the Expedition of Don Tristán de Luna y Arellano for the Conquest of La Florida in 1559–1561 (2 vols.: Deland, 1928), I, pp. XXXV, xxxvii, lviii, lxii; II, 211, 275; Hann, , “Florida”s Terra Incognita: West Florida”s Natives in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century,” The Florida Anthropologist, 41 (1988), p. 79.

9 Boyd, Mark F., “Expedition of Marcos Delgado from Apalachee to the Upper Creek Country in 1686,” Florida Historical Quarterly 16 (1937), pp. 1416, 28; Hann, , “Florida”s Terra Incognita,” pp. 96, 98–99; Priestly, , The Luna Papers, 1, xxxviii–xxxix, xlvii; II, 309.

10 Gannon, Michael V., The Cross in the Sand: The Early Catholic Church in Florida, 1513–1870, (Gainesville, 1983), 27.

11 Barrientes, Bartolomé, Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, Founder of Florida, trans, by Kerrigan, Anthony (Gainesville, 1965), pp. 106109.

12 Felix Zubillaga, S.J., Monumenta Antiquae Floridae (Rome, 1946), pp. 324, 471–475, 511.

13 Maynard Geiger, O.F.M., The Franciscan Conquest of Florida (1573–1618). (Washington, D.C., 1937), p. 55 ; Shea, John Gilmary, The Catholic Church in Colonial Days 1521–1763 (New York, 1886), p. 151.

14 Solís de Méras says 30 soldiers, but Arva Moore Parks, Where the River Found the Bay. Historical Study of the Granada Site, Miami, Florida, vol. 2 of Griffin, John W. et al., Archaeology and History of the Granada Site (Tallahassee, n.d.), pp. 2324, says 12 soldiers based on a letter to the king by Pedro Menéndez de Avilés.

15 Barrientes, , Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, pp. 219229 ; de Barcia Carballido, Andrés González y Zúñiga, , Ensayo cronológico para la historia general de la Florida, trans, by Kerrigan, Anthony (Gainesville, 1951), pp. 131132, 136–137, 139; Hann, , Mission to the Calusas. Marquardt, William H., ed. (Gainesville, in press); Lowery, , The Spanish Settlements …, 1562–1574, p. 346 ; Lyon, Eugene, The Enterprise of Florida. Pedro Menéndez de Avilés and the Spanish Conquest of 1565–1568. Paperback, ed. (Gainesville, 1983), pp. 201203 ; Zubillaga, , Monumenta, pp. 317329, 385, 415–416.

16 In contrast to the Calusa, the Tequesta had seemed well disposed, having spared Spanish mutineers from Fort San Mateo stranded in their territory, and Menéndez de Avilés had rescued Tequesta’s daughter from Chief Carlos (Parks, Where the River, pp. 22–23).

17 Griffin et al., Archaeology, passim; de Velasco, Juan López, Geografia y descripción universal de las Indias (1571–1574) (Madrid, 1894), p. 84 ; Parles, Where the River, passim; Zubillaga, , Monumenta, pp. 234235, 304–307, 317–329, 370–371.

18 Hann, , “Translation of the Ecija Voyages,” pp. 2628, 45–47; Lyon, “Santa Elena: a Brief History of the Colony, 1566–1587,” University of South Carolina, Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology, Research Manuscript Series, # 193; Zubillaga, , Monumenta, pp. 314317, 321–326, 398–405, 506–511.

19 Jones, Grant, “The Ethnohistory of the Guale Coast Through 1684,” in Thomas, David Hurst et al., The Anthropology of St. Catherines Island. I. Natural and Cultural History, Vol. 55: part 2, in Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History (New York, 1978), p. 181 ; Lanning, , The Spanish Missions, p. 13.

20 Barrientes, , Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, pp. 96100, 106, 121, 135; Barcia Carballido, González de y Zúñiga, , Ensayo cronológico, p. 129 ; Zubillaga, , Monumenta, pp. 360365, 421–428, 471–479.

21 Zubillaga, , Monumenta, pp. 413421, 471–479.

22 Hann, , “Twilight of the Mocama and Guale Aborigines As Portrayed in the 1695 Spanish visitation,” Florida Historical Quarterly, 66 (1987), pp. 1215, 17–19.

23 Barrientes, , Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, pp. 101104 ; Lowery, , The Spanish Settlements … 1562–1574, pp. 347348, 353; Zubillaga, , Monumenta, pp. 317328, 398–405.

24 Hann, , “Translation of the Ecija Voyages,” pp. 78 ; “Twilight of the Mocama and Guale,” pp. 9–10. In 1605 Ecija described the chief of Escamacu as “the principal one of that land.” Ecija attached the name Orista to a feature farther north than Santa Elena, alluding to it as the “bar of Crista, which is in the latitude of thirty-two degrees and one-fourth.”

25 Zubillaga, , Monumenta, pp. 317328, 398–405, 471–479.

26 Zubillaga, , La Florida. La Mission Jesuítica (1566–1572), (Rome, 1941), p. 364.

27 Clifford, M. Lewis, SJ, and Albert, J. Loomie, SJ, The Spanish Jesuit Mission in Virginia 1570–1572 (Chapel Hill, 1953), passim; Zubillaga, , Monumenta, pp. 471479.

28 Deagan, Kathleen, “Cultures in Transition: Fusion and Assimilation Among the Eastern Timucua,” in Milanich, and Proctor, , Tacachale, p. 101 ; Lowery, , The Spanish Settlements … 1562–1574, pp. 269272, 289–290, 356–357.

29 Lowery, , The Spanish Settlements..1562–1574, p. 272, note 2.

30 Pablo de Hita Salazar, Letter io the Queen, August 24, 1675, St. Augustine, AGI, Santo Domingo 839, SC.

31 Barrientes, , Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, pp. 134135 ; Lowery, , The Spanish Settlements … 1562–1574, pp. 289290.

32 Fray Pedro de Bermejo, Letter to Fray Blas de Montes (part of), September 14, 1602, St. Augustine, AGI, Santo Domingo 235, WLC, reel 2 of the Florida State University Library copy.

33 Juan de Ayala y Escobar, Letter to the King, April 18, 1717, St. Augustine, AGI, Santo Domingo 843, SC; Antonio de Benavides, Letter to the King, March 8, 1723, St. Augustine, AGI, Santo Domingo, 865, SC; Crane, Verner W., The Southern Frontier, 1670–1723 (Ann Arbor, 1956), p. 17 ; Swanton, John R., Early History of the Creek Indians and Their Neighbors (Washington, D.C., 1922), p. 90.

34 Bermejo, Letter … 1602.

35 Gannon, , “Sebastian Montero, Pioneer American Missionary, 1566–1572,” Catholic Historical Review, pp. 51, 31; Lowery, , The Spanish Settlements … 1562–1574, p. 276 ; Zubillaga, , Monumenta, pp. 317328.

36 de la Vega, Garcilaso, The Florida of the Inca, ed. and trans, by Varner, John Grier and Varner, Jeannette Johnson (Austin, 1951), pp. 328331.

37 de Barcia Carballido, González y Zúñiga, , Ensayo cronológico, p. 139 ; Lowery, , The Spanish Settlements … 1562–1574, p. 276 ; Serrano, Manuel y Sanz, , Documentos históricos de la Florida y la Luisiana siglos XVI al XVIII (Madrid, 1912), pp. 132133.

38 Although both the Tacatacuru of the Cumberland Island region and the Saturiba of the lower course of the St. Johns and the coast from the mouth of the St. Marys to below St. Augustine spoke the same Mocama dialect of the Salt Water Timucua, they represent distinct cultural traditions in their ceramics and in the style of their shell middens. (See Deagan, , “Cultures in Transition,” pp. 9093 ; Hann, , “Twilight of the Mocama and Guale,” p. 2.)

39 Zubillaga, , Monumenta, pp. 471479.

40 de Oré, Luis Jerónimo, OFM, The Martyrs of Florida (1513–1616), trans, by Geiger, Maynard, OFM (New York, 1936), p. 43.

41 Oré, The Martyrs, pp. 33–34.

42 Milanich, , “Tacatacuru and the San Pedro de Mocama Mission, Cumberland Island, Georgia,” Florida Historical Quarterly, 50, (1972), p. 287.

43 Geiger, , Biographical Dictionary of the Franciscans in Spanish Florida and Cuba (1528–1841). “Franciscan Studies,” 21 [Patterson, N.J., 1940]), p. 119.

44 de Barcia Carballido, González y Zúñiga, , Ensayo cronológico, 177 ; Shea, , The Catholic Church, p. 152.

45 García, Genaro, Dos antiguas relaciones de la Florida (Mexico, 1902), p. 187.

46 Ruidiaz, Eugenio y Caravia, , La Florida su conquista y colonización por Pedro Menéndez de Avilés (2 vols., Madrid, 1893), p. 498.

47 Shea, , The Catholic Church, p. 151.

48 Geiger, , Biographical Dictionary, pp. 119124 ; The Franciscan Conquest, p. 55.

49 Lanning, , The Spanish Missions, p. 240, note 3.

50 Lanning, , The Spanish Missions, pp. 145146.

51 Lanning, , The Spanish Missions, p. 239, note 3.

52 Serrano, y Sanz, , Documentos históricos, p. 171.

53 Diego Dávila, Report Concerning the Pastoral visitation That the Bishop of Cuba Made to the Provinces of Florida Presented to H. M. in the Council of the Indies, June 26, 1606, AGI, Santo Domingo 235, WLC, reel 2.

54 Lanning, , The Spanish Missions, p. 123.

55 Ruidiaz, y Caravia, , La Florida, 2, pp. 497498.

56 Fray Francisco de Pareja, Letter to Fray Bias de Montes, September 14, 1602, St. Augustine, AGI, Santo Domingo 235, WLC, reel 2.

57 Pareja, Letter … 1602.

58 Dávila, Report.

59 Bishop Diego Ebelino de Compostela, Letter to the King, September 28, 1689, Havana, AGI, Santo Domingo 151, SC; Hita Salazar, Letter … 1675.

60 Hann, , “Twilight of the Mocama and Guale,” p. 11.

61 Deagan, , “Cultures in Transition,” p. 106 ; Hann, , “Twilight of the Mocama and Guale,” p. 7 ; Thomas, , The Archaeology of Mission Santa Catalina de Guale, pp. 9091. Joseph de Zuñiga y Zerda, letter to the King, June 22, 1701, St. Augustine, AGI, Santo Domingo 840, JTCC, reel 5.

62 Fray Baltasar López, Letter to Fray Blas de Montes, September 15, 1602, St. Augustine, AGI, Santo Domingo 235, WLC, reel 2.

63 Geiger, , Biographical Dictionary, p. 119 ; López, Letter … 1602; Ross, Mary, “The Restoration of the Spanish Missions in Georgia,” The Georgia Historical Quarterly, 11 (1926), p. 177 ; Ruidiaz, y Caravia, , La Florida, 2, pp. 497498.

64 López, Letter … 1602.

65 Ruidiaz, y Caravia, , La Florida, 2, p. 497.

66 Oré, The Martyrs, p. 48.

67 Dávila, Report.

68 Deagan, , “Cultures in Transition,” pp. 101102 ; Serrano, y Sanz, , Documentos históricos, p. 132 ; Thomas, , The Archaeology of Mission Santa Catalina de Guale, p. 93.

69 Wenhold, Lucy L., A I7th Century Letter of Gabriel Díaz Vara Calderón, Bishop of Cuba, Describing the Indians and Indian Missions of Florida, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 95 (16) (Washington, D.C., 1936), p. 10.

70 Boyd, , “Enumeration of Florida Spanish Missions in 1675 with Translations,” Florida Historical Quarterly, 27 (1948), p. 183.

71 Domingo de Leturiondo, Visitation of the Provinces of Apalachee and Timucua, 1677–1678, AGI, EC, leg. 156B, SC.

72 Milanich, , “Tacatacuru,” p. 283.

73 Thomas, , The Archaeology of Mission Santa Catalina de Guale, pp. 9394.

74 Deagan, , “Cultures in Transition,” pp. 101102.

75 Serrano, y Sanz, , Documentos históricos, p. 132.

76 Oré, The Martyrs, p. 98.

77 López, Letter … 1602.

78 Dávila, Report; Serrano, y Sanz, , Documentos históricos, p. 171.

79 Lanning, , The Spanish Missions, pp. 7071, 80.

80 Thomas, , The Archaeology of Mission Santa Catalina de Guale, p. 93.

81 Geiger, , Biographical Dictionary, p. 119 ; Ruidiaz, y Caravia, , La Florida, 2, p. 497.

82 Fray Bias de Montes, extracts of letter, September 16, 1602, St. Augustine, AGI, Santo Domingo, 232, WLC, reel 2. The settlements were Tocoy, St. Julian, Filache, Antonico, Eguale, Anacabili, and Mayaca.

83 Dávila, Report. The villages were Filache, Elanogue, Calvai, Yacay (?).

84 Ross, , “The Restoration,” p. 186.

85 Oré, The Martyrs, p. 126.

86 Hita Salazar, Letter to the King, St. Augustine, March 8, 1680, AGI, Santo Domingo 226, WLC, reel 4.

87 Goggins, John M., Space and Time Perspective in Northern St. Johns Archeology, Florida (“Yale University Publications in Anthropology” no. 47, p. 25, [New Haven, 1952]), note 11.

88 B. Calvin Jones, personal communication, July 21, 1988.

89 Jones, , “The Ethnohistory,” 179: Thomas, , The Archaeology of the Mission Santa Catalina de Guale, p. 102.

90 Jones, , “The Ethnohistory,” pp. 179, 183.

91 Geiger, , The Franciscan Conquest, p. 87 ; de Barcia Carballido, González y Zúñiga, , Ensayo cronológico, p. 182 ; Lanning, pp. 87–88.

92 Geiger, , The Franciscan Conquest, p. 87 ; de Barcia Carballido, Gonzalez y Zúñiga, , Ensayo cronológico, p. 182 ; Serrano, y Sanz, , Documentos históricos, pp. 188189 ; Thomas, , The Archaeology of Mission Santa Catalina de Guale, pp. 102107.

93 Bolton, Herbert E., ed., Arredondo’s Historical Proof of Spain’s Title to Georgia (Berkeley, California, 1925), pp. 3537.

94 Hann, , “Twilight of the Mocama and Guale,” pp. 1224.

95 Hann, , “Translation of Alonso de Leturiondo’s Memorial to the King of Spain,” Florida Archaeology, 2 (1986), p. 197.

96 Thomas, , “Indians and Spaniards in the Old Old South,” paper given in Tallahassee, March 11, 1987.

97 Geiger, , Biographical Dictionary, p. 119 ; The Franciscan Conquest, p. 236.

98 Oré, The Martyrs, p. 113.

99 Geiger, , The Franciscan Conquest, p. 234.

100 Geiger, , Biographical Dictionary, p. 119.

101 Bolton, , Arredondo’s Historical Proof, p. 15 ; Lanning, , The Spanish Missions, pp. 71, 90.

102 Hann, , “Twilight of the Mocama and Guale,” pp. 910.

103 Antonio de Arguelles, Record of the Visitation of the Province of Guale and Mocama, 1677–1678, AGI, EC, leg. 156B, SC, 527v-528; Benito Ruiz de Salazar Vallesilla, Order to Antonio de Arguelles, April 22, 1648, St. Augustine, AGI, Santo Domingo 23. Translation furnished by Eugene Lyon.

104 Hann, , “Twilight of the Mocama and Guale,” p. 5.

105 Bolton, , Arredondo’s Historical Proof, p. 15 ; Lanning, , The Spanish Missions, pp. 90, 203.

106 Geiger, , The Franciscan Conquest, pp. 234, 236, 247.

107 Serrano, y Sanz, , Documentos históricos, p. 132.

108 Boyd, Enumeration,” p. 183. Bishop Calderón gave the distance between Guadalquini and San Felipe as nine leagues (Wenhold, A 17th Century Letter, 10).

109 Bolton, , Arredondo’s Historical Proof, pp. 3639.

110 Juan de Pueyo, General Visitation of the Provinces of Guale and Mocama Made by the Captain, Don Juan de Pueyo, 1695, AGI, EC, leg. 157A, SC, 113.

111 Garcia, , Dos antiguas relaciones, p. 93 ; Lanning, , The Spanish Missions, p. 89 ; Serrano, y Sanz, , Documentos históricos, pp. 177178.

112 Lanning, , The Spanish Missions, p. 4.

113 Serrano, y Sanz, , Documentos históricos, pp. 177182.

114 Dávila, Report.

115 Serrano, y Sanz, , Documentos históricos, p. 132.

116 Boyd, Enumeration,” 182183 ; Wenhold, , A 17th Century Letter, 10. It was spelled in that form, “Asaho,” in 1680 as well, but with a double “s” and without the accent mark.

117 This is probably a manifestation of Lanning’s erroneous belief that the Spanish missions of Georgia, in contrast to those of Florida, were built of tabby rather than wattle and daub.

118 Lanning, , The Spanish Missions, p. 8.

119 Argüelles, Record of the Visitation, p. 527.

120 Bolton, , Arredondo’s Historical Proof, pp. 3940.

121 Ebelino de Compostela, Letter to the King … 1689.

122 Thomas, , The Archaeology of Mission Santa Catalina de Guale, pp. 9498.

123 Lanning, , The Spanish Missions, p. 3 ; Oré, The Martyrs, pp. 43, 78–79.

124 Geiger, , The Franciscan Conquest, p. 113.

125 Lanning, , The Spanish Missions, p. 4.

126 King of Spain, February 26, 1660, AGI, Santo Domingo 225, WLC, reel 3. It is conceivable that it was at this time that the Tolomatans returned to obedience to the Spanish authorities and that relocation was the penalty imposed on them for their recalcitrance.

127 Jones, , “The Ethnohistory,” p. 195, figure 17, pp. 205–208; Thomas, , The Archaeology of Mission Santa Catalina de Guale, pp. 99102.

128 Lanning, , The Spanish Missions, p. 3. This site contained one of Mary Ross’ and Lanning’s “tabby missions,” that archaeologists proved were much more modern structures. Ross incorrectly identified the “Mansfield Place” and its tabby structures with Tupiqui-Espogache (see Ross, , “The Restoration,” 193).

129 Geiger, , The Franciscan Conquest, p. 104 ; Oré, The Martyrs, p.75.

130 Lanning, , The Spanish Missions, pp. 34. Here Lanning is referring, of course, to Ross, who had preceded Lanning as one of Bolton’s students in the study of the Georgia missions and who, according to Johanna Mendelsohn, was given what had been “Mary Ross’ territory” after the publication of The Debatable Land sparked the tabby mission controversy (see Mendelsohn, Johanna, Mary Letitia Ross Papers: A Descriptive Inventory, ed. by Ellingson, Paul [Atlanta, 1979], p. 16). However, Lanning’s maintenance of the “tabby thesis” (albeit with more restraint) would seem to cast doubt on that hypothesis.

131 Ross, , “The Restoration,” pp. 179180.

132 Ross, , “The Restoration,” pp. 192193.

133 Jones, , “The Ethnohistory,” p. 208.

134 Geiger, , The Franciscan Conquest, p. 248.

135 Argüelles, , Record of the Visitation, pp. 526527.

136 Bolton, , Arredondo’s Historical Proof, pp. 3940.

137 Ebelino de Compostela, Letter to the King … 1689.

138 Pueyo, General Visitation, pp. 115v.–120.

139 Jones, , “The Ethnohistory,” pp. 204, 207; Thomas, , The Archaeology of Mission Santa Catalina de Guale, p. 99.

140 Dávila, Report; Oré, The Martyrs, passim; Ross, , “The Restoration,” pp. 180185.

141 Lanning, , The Spanish Missions, p. 4.

142 Lanning, , The Spanish Missions, p. 260, note 6.

143 Serrano, y Sanz, , Documentos históricos, pp. 183, 185.

144 Dávila, Report. Geiger and Grant Jones’ identification of Tuguepe, a Salchiche leader, with the mico of Tupiqui seems unfounded (see Hann, , “Twilight of the Mocama and Guale,” 18 and note 68). Similarly unfounded was Ross’ equation of Espogue and Espogache as variants of the same name in her discussion of the bishop’s visit (see Ross, , “The Restoration,” 193). The record of the bishop’s visitation speaks clearly of his having “the chief of the said village [Espogache] and he of Fasquiche and he of Çapala and he of Espogue.”

145 Bolton, , Arredondo’s Historical Proof, p. 15 ; Lanning, , The Spanish Missions, p. 90.

146 Lanning, , The Spanish Missions, p. 71.

147 de Barcia Carballido, González y Zúñiga, , Ensayo cronológico, p. 182.

148 Lanning, , The Spanish Missions, pp. 90, 157.

149 Dávila, Report.

150 Serrano, y Sanz, , Documentos históricos, pp. 188189, 191.

151 Swanton, , Early History, p. 82 ; Indians of the Southeastern United States, p. 128. For other factors see Hann, , “Twilight of the Mocama and Guale,” pp. 1011.

152 Geiger, , The Franciscan Conquest, p. 103.

153 Dávila, Report; Geiger, , The Franciscan Conquest, p. 117 ; Hann, , “Twilight of the Mocamo and Guale,” p. 12 ; Serrano, y Sanz, , Documentos Históricos, pp. 188189, 191.

154 Oré, The Martyrs, pp. 87–88.

155 Dávila, Report.

156 Pueyo, General Visitation, p. 122v.

157 Geiger, , The Franciscan Conquest, p. 87 ; Pareja, Letter … 1602.

158 Fray Alonso de Jesus, Letter to the King, 1630, AGI, Santo Domingo 235, microfilm 28k, reel 36 (letters and dispatches of ecclesiastical persons of Florida) of the P.K. Yonge Library of Florida History.

159 Dávila, Report; Lanning, , The Spanish Missions, p. 239, note 3; Montes, Letter … 1602.

160 Lanning, , The Spanish Missions, pp. 80, 239, note 3; Montes, Letter … 1602.

161 Serrano, y Sanz, , Documentos históricos, p. 170.

162 López, Letter … 1602.

163 Deagan, , “Cultures in Transition,” p. 98.

164 Serrano, y Sanz, , Documentos históricos, p. 170.

165 Lanning, , The Spanish Missions, p. 139.

166 Hann, , “Translation of the Ecija Voyages,” pp. 4849.

167 The Spanish word here is “lengua” which one might assume from the context to be a copyist error for “legua” or league. Swanton appears to have made that assumption in placing Napa one league from San Pedro (see Swanton, , Early History, p. 327). Lengua, however, can mean a “neck of land extending into the ocean” like a tongue, the literal meaning of lengua, which makes excellent sense in this context.

168 López, Letter … 1602. Citing what appears to be the same source, Lanning gave the population as 150 (see Lanning, , The Spanish Missions, p. 251, note 6).

169 Bushnell, Amy, “Santa Maria in the Written Record,” research report for the Florida State Museum, 1986, p. 1 ; Deagan, , “Cultures in Transition,” p. 102.

170 Dávila, Report; Serrano, y Sanz, , Documentos históricos, p. 171.

171 Lanning, , The Spanish Missions, p. 145.

172 Lanning, , The Spanish Missions, pp. 67 ; López, Letter … 1602; Ross, , “The Restoration,” p. 185. Lanning described his second Santa María as “the focal point for the mainland Timucuans, who used to assemble on the banks of the St. Marys River in the Indian village of Tlathlothlaguphta” (see Lanning, , The Spanish Missions, p: 6).

173 Bushnell, , “Santa Maria,” p. 1.

174 Lanning, , The Spanish Missions, p. 6.

175 López, Letter … 1602.

176 Dávila, Report; Serrano, y Sanz, , Documentos históricos, p. 171

177 Lanning, , The Spanish Missions, p. 239, note 3.

178 Lanning, , The Spanish Missions, pp. 136, 147.

179 Geiger, , The Franciscan Conquest, p. 234.

180 López, Letter … 1602.

181 López, Letter … 1602.

182 Lanning, , The Spanish Missions, p. 146.

183 Dávila, Report.

184 Pareja, Letter … 1602.

185 Geiger, , The Franciscan Conquest, pp. 186, 234.

186 Lanning, , The Spanish Missions, p. 146.

187 Pareja, Letter … 1602.

188 Pareja, Letter … 1602.

189 Dávila, Report.

190 Lanning, , The Spanish Missions, pp. 146, 239, note 3.

191 Dávila, Report; Pareja, Letter … 1602.

192 Lanning, , The Spanish Missions, pp. 79, 80, 146, 239, note 3.

193 Hann, , “Translation of the Ecija Voyages,” p. 48.

194 Dávila, Report; Pareja, Letter … 1602.

195 Pareja, Letter … 1602; Serrano, y Sanz, , Documentos históricos, p. 167.

196 Lanning, , The Spanish Missions, p. 239, note 3.

197 Pareja, Letter … 1602.

198 Hann, , “Translation of the Ecija Voyages,” p. 48.

199 Lowery, , The Spanish Settlements … 1562–1574, p. 453. The name appeared also as that of a Timucua chief, who was a subject to Outina. Chief Carabay lived on the St. Johns River 12 leagues from St. Augustine (see Lowery, , The Spanish Settlements … 1562–1574, p. 258).

200 Dávila, Report; Serrano, y Sanz, , Documentos históricos, p. 184.

201 Oré, The Martyrs, pp. 130, 136, note 26.

202 Lanning, , The Spanish Missions, p. 5.

203 Geiger, , The Franciscan Conquest, p. 247 ; Oré, The Martyrs, p. 130.

204 Ruiz de Salazar Vallesilla, Order to Antonio de Argüelles, July 11, 1650, St. Augustine, AGI, Santo Domingo 23. Translation furnished by Eugene Lyon.

205 Alonso de Aranguíz y Cotes, Order to Antonio de Argüelles, June 29, 1661, St. Augustine, AGI, Santo Domingo 23. Translation furnished by Eugene Lyon.

206 Boyd, , “Enumeration,” pp. 182183 ; Wenhold, , A 17th Century Letter, p. 10.

207 Argüelles, Record of the visitation, pp. 526–527.

208 Bolton, , Arredondo’s Historical Proof, pp. 3638 ; Serrano, y Sanz, , Documentos históricos, pp. 216219.

209 Bolton, , Arredondo’s Historical Proof, pp. 3841 ; de Barcia Carballido, Gonzalez y Zúñiga, , Ensayo cronológico, p. 312.

210 Pueyo, General Visitation, p. 116v.

211 Bushnell, “Santa Maria.”

212 Thomas, , The Archaeology of Mission Santa Catalina de Guale, p. 98.

213 Hann, , “Translation of the Ecija Voyages,” p. 46 ; Lanning, , The Spanish Missions, p. 13.

214 Geiger, , The Franciscan Conquest, p. 234 ; Milling, Chapman J., Red Carolinians, (Chapel Hill, 1940), pp. 104, 111; Swanton, , The Indians of the Southeastern United States, p. 209.

215 Oré, The Martyrs, pp. 112–114, 127.

216 Milanich, , “The Western Timucua: Patterns of Acculturation and Change,” in Milanich, and Proctor, , eds., Tacachale, p. 78 ; López, Letter … 1602.

217 Serrano, y Sanz, , Documentos históricos, p. 133.

218 Hann, , “Demographic Patterns and Changes in Mid-Seventeenth Century Timucua and Apalachee,” Florida Historical Quarterly, 64 (1986), pp. 375378.

219 Wenhold, , A 17th Century Letter, p. 8.

220 Boyd, , “Enumeration,” p. 187.

221 Ebelino de Compostela, Letter … 1689.

222 Joaquín de Florencia, General Inspection that the Captain Joaquín de Florencia Made of the Provinces of Apalachee and Timucua. … November 5, 1694; Andrés García, Autos made officially against Santiago, native to the village of San Pedro, 1695: AGI, EC, leg. 157A, cuaderno I, SC; Boyd, , “Further Considerations of the Apalachee Missions,” The Americas, 9 (1953), pp. 473479.

223 Hann, , “Demographic Patterns,” pp. 378, 379; Milanich, , “The Western Timucua,” pp. 75, 79–80.

224 Oré, The Martyrs, pp. 113–114.

225 Oré, The Martyrs, p. 114; Serrano, y Sanz, , Documentos históricos, p. 162.

226 Boyd, , “Enumeration,” p. 187 ; Boyd, , Smith, Hale G. and Griffin, John W., Here They Once Stood: The Tragic End of the Apalachee Missions (Gainesville, 1951), p. 37 ; Ebelino de Compostela, Letter … 1689; Hann, , “Demographic Patterns,” pp. 377378 ; “Translation of Governor Rebolledo’s 1657 Visitation of Three Florida Provinces and Related Documents,” Florida Archaeology, 2 (1986), p. 105.

227 Milanich, personal communication, April 1988.

228 Oré, The Martyrs, pp. 133–134.

229 Oré, The Martyrs, pp. 133–134, note 7; Serrano, y Sanz, , Documentos históricos, p. 133.

230 Geiger, , The Franciscan Conquest, pp. 234235.

231 López, Letter … 1602.

232 Oré, The Martyrs, pp. 114, 120.

233 Jesus, Letter … 1630, Oré, The Martyrs, pp. 127–129; Serrano, y Sanz, , históricos, p. 133.

234 Hann, , “Demographic Patterns,” pp. 375377 ; “Translation of Governor Rebolledo’s 1657 visitation,” pp. 104–105.

233 Oré, The Martyrs, p. 129.

236 Hann, , “Demographic Patterns,” pp. 375376 ; Domingo de Leturiondo, (partial report on the service record of Captain Juan Francisco de Florencia, January 29, 1671), AGI, Santo Domingo 225, WLC, reel 4.

237 Boyd, , “Enumeration,” p. 187.

238 Wenhold, , A 17th Century Letter, p. 8.

239 Ebelino de Compostela, Letter … 1689.

240 Jones, B. Calvin, personal communication, 1986.

241 Oré, The Martyrs, p. 129.

242 Jesus, Letter … [1630], Serrano, y Sanz, , Documentos históricos, p. 132.

243 Hann, , “Demographic Patterns,” pp. 375376 ; “Translation of Governor Rebolledo’s 1657 visitation,” p. 106.

244 Boyd, , “Enumeration,” p. 187.

245 Wenhold, , A 17th Century Letter, p. 8.

246 Ebelino de Compostela, Letter … 1689.

247 Oré, The Martyrs, pp. 129–130.

248 Serrano, y Sanz, , Documentos históricos, p. 132.

249 Milanich, , “The Western Timucua,” p. 60.

250 Pareja, Letter … 1602.

251 Lanning, , The Spanish Missions, p. 170. Citing a “communication of 1602 from Pareja,” Lanning gave the distance of Ocone from San Pedro as three leagues.

252 Extracts from the inquiry that Governor Gonzalo Méndez de Canzo opened. Inquiry by a party in Florida before Pedro de Ybarra, his successor, year of 1603. Services rendered in Florida. AGI, Santo Domingo 232, JTCC, reel 4.

253 Laguna usually has the meaning of pond or lake, but it can also have the meaning of its English equivalent, “lagoon.”

254 Ruiz de Salazar Vallesilla, Order to Captain Alonso de Argüelles, January 27, 1646, St. Augustine, AGI, Santo Domingo 23. Translation furnished by Eugene Lyon.

255 Serrano, y Sanz, , Documentos históricos, p. 132.

256 Lanning, , The Spanish Missions, pp. 8, 170.

257 Geiger, , The Franciscan Conquest, p. 247.

258 Serrano, y Sanz, , Documentos históricos, pp. 74, 87, 91, 95, 132.

259 Bolton, , Arredondo’s Historical Proof, 21 ; Lanning, , The Spanish Missions, p. 203 ; Serrano, y Sanz, , Documentos históricos, pp. 74, 132.

260 Francisco Menéndez Marquez and Pedro Beneditt Horruytiner, Order to Antonio de Argüelles, December 1, 1647, St. Augustine, AGI, Santo Domingo 23. Translation furnished by Eugene Lyon.

261 Swanton, , The Early Creeks, pp. 322, 324.

262 Deagan, , “Cultures in Transition,” p. 102 ; Thomas, , The Archaeology of Mission Santa Catalina de Guale, p. 93.

263 Boyd, , “Enumeration,” p. 183.

264 Boyd, , “Enumeration,” p. 183.

265 Argüelles, Record of the Visitation, pp. 527–528.

266 Thomas Menéndez Marquez and Joaquín de Florencia, Letter to the King, April 20, 1697, St. Augustine, AGI, Santo Domingo 230, JTCC, reel 4; Pueyo, General Visitation, pp. 120v–122.

267 Geiger, , The Franciscan Conquest, p. 248.

268 Luis Horruytiner, Letter to the King, November 15, 1633, St. Augustine, AGI, Santo Domingo 233, WLC, reel 2; Lanning, , The Spanish Missions p. 203. The seventy leagues from St. Augustine mentioned by Lanning as the location of Satuache was not presented in this source as the location of Satuache, but rather as that of the place where the five Englishmen had been hiding from the natives for three years after the shipwreck.

269 Horruytiner, Letter … 1633.

270 Lanning, , The Spanish Missions, p. 203.

271 Lanning, , The Spanish Missions, p. 203.

272 Serrano, y Sanz, , Documentos históricos, p. 132.

273 Francisco Menéndez Marquez and Pedro Beneditt Horruytiner, Order to Antonio de Argüelles, November 14, 1646, St. Augustine, AGI, Santo Domingo 23. Translation furnished by Eugene Lyon.

274 Boyd, , “Enumeration,” p. 182.

275 Argüelles, Record of the Visitation, p. 526.

276 Geiger, , The Franciscan Conquest, p. 248.

277 Oré, The Martyrs, pp. 127, 134, notes 12 and 13.

278 Deagan, , “Cultures in Transition,” pp. 8990, 97–98; López, Letter … 1602.

279 Lanning, , The Spanish Missions, p. 239, note 3.

280 de la Calle, Juan Diez, Noticias sacras e reales de los dos imperios de las Yndias Occidentales desta Nueva España. 2 vols, (published in 1659). [Notes taken from it by Woodbury Lowery], WLC, reel 4. Serrano, y Sanz, , Documentos históricos, pp. 132133, reproduced a slightly different version of this list, also taken from Diez de la Calle’s work it seems.

281 Benavides, Letter to Andrés de Pez, November 10, 1722, St. Augustine, AGI, Santo Domingo 842, SC.

282 Alonso de Jesus, Letter … 1630; Serrano, y Sanz, , Documentos históricos, p. 132.

283 Jesus, Letter … [1630]; Serrano, y Sanz, , Documentos históricos, p. 132 ; Thomas, , The Archaeology of Mission Santa Catalina de Guale, p. 89.

284 Hann, , “Translation of Governor Rebolledo’s 1657 visitation,” p. 105.

285 Hann, , “Demographic Patterns,” pp. 374, 376–377; “Translation of Governor Rebolledo’s Visitation,” p. 105; Jesus, Letter … [1630]; Serrano, y Sanz, , Documentos históricos, p. 132.

286 Leturiondo, (partial report).

287 Spellman, Charles W., “The ‘Golden Age’ of the Florida Missions, 1632–1674,” Catholic Historical Review, 51 (1963), p. 355.

288 Hann, , “Translation of Governor Rebolledo’s 1657 visitation,” pp. 105106.

289 Hann, , “Demographic Patterns,” p. 377 ; “Translation of Governor Rebolledo’s Visitation,” pp. 104–105; Serrano, y Sanz, , Documentos históricos, p. 132.

290 Hann, , “Translation of Governor Rebolledo’s Visitation,” p. 104 ; Serrano, y Sanz, , Documentos históricos, p. 132.

291 Milanich, personal communication, June of 1988.

292 Hann, , “Translation of Governor Rebolledo’s 1657 Visitation,” p. 105.

293 Pearson, Fred Lamar Jr., “Spanish-Indian Relations in Florida: A Study of Two Visitas, 1657–1678,” (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Alabama, 1968), p. 109.

294 Deagan, , “Fig Springs: the Mid-Seventeenth Century in North Central Florida,” Historical Archaeology, 6 (1972), p. 24 ; Milanich, , “The Western Timucua,” p. 75.

295 Juan Marques Cabrera, Letter to the King, 1680. Report on the religious existing in the missions of Florida and on the villages in which there are doctrinas, December 6, 1680, St. Augustine, AGI Santo Domingo 226, WLC, reel 4.

296 Boyd, , “Enumeration,” 187.

297 Bishop Gabriel Díaz Vara Calderón, Relación de lo que está descubierto en todo el distrito de La Florida y expecificación de los naturales de cada parte y inclinaziones, 1675, AGI, Santo Domingo 151 (microfilm copy furnished by William H. Marquardt). Wenhold rendered this more freely as “Twelve leagues from Santa Fé is the mission of Santa Catalina, with Ajohica 3 leagues away and Santa Cruz de Tarmica 2” (see Wenhold, , A 17th Century Letter, p. 8). The Spanish text is “y desde Sta Fee a doze leguas la de S.ta Cat ta y atres la de Ajohica y a dos la de S.ta cruz de Tarmica.’

298 Leturiondo, Visitation, pp. 603–604.

299 Bolton, , Arredondo’s Historical Proof, p. 40 ; Marques Cabrera, Autos (on the destruction of Santa Catalina de Ahoica), March, 1686, St. Augustine, AGI, Santo Domingo 839, reel 9 of 28B of the P. K. Yonge Library of Florida History of the University of Florida.

300 Deagan, , “Fig Springs,” p. 23.

301 Deagan, , “Fig Springs,” p. 23.

302 Brent R. Weisman, Letter to John Hann, June 8, 1988, Gainesville, Fla.; James Miller, personal communication, June, 1988.

303 Leturiondo, Visitation, pp. 594–600.

304 Hann, , “Translation of Governor Rebolledo’s 1657 Visitation,” p. 104.

305 Boyd, , “Enumeration,” p. 187 ; Ebelino de Compostela, Letter … 1689.

306 Boyd, , “Enumeration,” p. 187 ; Wenhold, , A 17th Century Letter, p. 8.

307 Menéndez Marquez and Florencia, Letter … 1697.

308 García, Autos … 1695.

309 Hann, , “Translation of Governor Rebolledo’s 1657 Visitation,” p. 104 ; Serrano, y Sanz, , Documentos históricos, p. 132.

310 Boyd, , “Enumeration,” p. 187 ; Ebelino de Compostela, Letter … 1689; Wenhold, , A 17th Century Letter, p. 8.

311 Florencia, General Inspection, pp. 90–91; Leturiondo, Visitation, pp. 587–590; Menéndez Marquez and Florencia, Letter … 1697.

312 Hann, , “Demographic Patterns,” p. 375 ; “Translation of Governor Rebolledo’s 1657 Visitation,” pp. 104–105.

313 Boyd, , “Enumeration,” p. 187 ; Wenhold, , A 17th Century Letter, p. 8.

314 Menéndez Marquez and Florencia, Letter … 1697.

315 Boyd, , “Enumeration,” p. 187 ; Ebelino de Compostela, Letter … 1689.

316 Jones, B. Calvin and Shapiro, Gary, “Nine Mission Sites in Apalachee” (paper presented at the 1987 Society for Historical Archaeology, Savannah).

317 The Fidalgo of Elvas, Relaçam verdadeira dos trabalhos q ho gouernador dõ Fernão de Souto e certes fidalgos portugueses passarom no descobrimeo da prouincia da Frolida [sic], facsimile of the original Portuguese edition (Deland, 1932), p. 59; de Oviedo, Gonzalo Fernández y Valdés, , Historia general y natural de las Indias, islas y Tierra-Firme del mar oceano (Madrid, 1851), 1, 534 ; Diego de Rebolledo, Residencia of Governor Benito Ruiz de Salazar Vallecilla, 1657, AGI, EC, leg. 155B, microfilm roll 27–F, P. Κ. Yonge Library of Florida History.

318 Hann, , “Translation of Governor Rebolledo’s 1657 Visitation,” pp. 101103 ; Rebolledo, Residencia … 1657; Serrano, y Sanz, , Documentos históricos, p. 132. In de Soto’s time Asile was spoken of as being “subject to Apalachee,” indicating possibly that it was a hostage village.

319 Rebolledo, Residencia … 1657.

320 Boyd, , “Enumeration,” p. 186 ; Wenhold, , A 17th Century Letter, p. 8.

321 Menéndez Marquez and Florencia, Letter … 1697.

322 Boyd, , “Enumeration,” 186 ; Ebelino de Compostela, Letter … 1689.

323 Jones and Shapiro, “Nine Mission Sites.”

324 Hann, , Apalachee: The Land between the Rivers (Gainesville, 1988), pp. 9699.

325 Oré, The Martyrs, pp. 112–118.

326 Hann, , “Translation of Governor Rebolledo’s 1657 Visitation,” p. 100.

327 Boyd, , “Enumeration,” p. 185 ; Wenhold, , A 17th Century Letter, p. 8.

328 Menéndez Marquez and Florencia, Letter … 1697.

329 Rebolledo, Residencia … 1657.

330 Hann, , Apalachee, p. 170, note 10.

331 Bushnell, , “Patricio de Hinachuba: Defender of the Word of God, the Crown of the King, and the Little Children of Ivitachuco,” American Indian Culture and Research Journal, 3 (1979), p. 12 ; Boyd, , “Enumeration,” p. 185 ; Ebelina de Compostela, Letter … 1689.

332 Hann, , “Translation of Governor Rebolledo’s 1657 Visitation,” pp. 101, 102, 112.

333 Boyd, , Smith, and Griffin, Here They Once Stood, pp. 12, 14, 16, 92; Bushnell, , “Patricio de Hinachuba,” pp. 9, 10, 12–13; Hann, , Apalachee, pp. 271, 276, 277, 279–280.

334 Jones and Shapiro, “Nine Mission Sites.”

335 Hann, , “Translation of Governor Rebolledo’s 1657 Visitation,” p. 99 ; Serrano, y Sanz, , Documentos históricos, p. 132.

336 Boyd, , “Enumeration,” p. 185 ; Boyd, , Smith, , and Griffin, , Here They Once Stood, p, 48 ; Ebelino de Compostela, Letter … 1689; Menéndez Marquez and Florencia, Letter … 1697; Wenhold, , A 17th Century Letter, p. 8.

337 Boyd, , Smith, , and Griffin, , Here They Once Stood, pp. 12, 26.

338 Boyd, , Smith, , and Griffin, , Here They Once Stood, pp. 107136 ; Jones and Shapiro, “Nine Mission Sites;” Morrell, L. Ross and Jones, B. Calvin, “San Juan de Aspalaga (A Preliminary Architectural Study),” Florida Bureau of Historic Sites and Properties Bulletin (Tallahassee: 1970), p. 26.

339 Hann, , Apalachee, p. 44 ; Serrano, y Sanz, , Documentos históricos, p. 132.

340 Hann, , Apalachee, pp. 191192.

341 Hann, , “Translation of Governor Rebolledo’s 1657 Visitation,” p. 98.

342 Boyd, , “Enumeration,” p. 185 ; Ebelino de Compostela, Letter … 1689.

343 Boyd, , “Enumeration,” p. 185 ; Wenhold, , A 17th Century Letter, p. 8.

344 Menéndez Marquez and Florencia, Letter … 1697.

345 Hann, , Apalachee, p. 371.

346 Boyd, , “Enumeration,” p. 185 ; Hann, , “Translation of Governor Rebolledo’s 1657 Visitation,” p. 97 ; royal officials, Letter to the King, June 8, 1675, St. Augustine, AGI, Santo Domingo 839, SC; Serrano, y Sanz, , Documentos históricos, p. 132 ; Wenhold, , A 17th Century Letter, p. 8.

347 Boyd, , “Enumeration,” p. 185.

348 Menéndez Marquez and Florencia, Letter … 1697.

349 Francisco de Romo de Urisa, Letter to Joseph de Zúñiga y la Cerda, October 22, 1702, San Luis, AGI, Santo Domingo 858, SC, filed under 1707, pp. 13061–13059 (pp. 33–35 in the bundle).

350 Boyd, , Smith, , and Griffin, , Here They Once Stood, pp. 12, 48–49; Hann, , Apalachee, pp. 54, 281; Higginbotham, Jay, Old Mobile, Fort Louis de la Louisiane, 1702–1711 (Mobile, 1977), p. 191.

351 Jones, B. Calvin, “A Semi-subterranean Structure at Mission San Joseph de Ocuya, Jefferson County, Florida,” Bureau of Historic Sites and Properties Bulletin 3 (Tallahassee: 1973), pp. 150 ; Jones and Shapiro, “Nine Mission Sites.”

352 Serrano, y Sanz, , Documentos históricos, p. 133.

353 Boyd, , “Enumeration,” p. 185 ; Wenhold, , A 17th Century Letter, p. 8.

354 Boyd, , Smith, , and Griffin, , Here They Once Stood, p. 52.

355 Menéndez Marquez and Florencia, Letter … 1697.

356 Florencia, General Inspection, pp. 61–63.

357 Boyd, , Smith, , and Griffin, , Here They Once Stood, p. 56.

358 Jones and Shapiro, “Nine Mission Sites;” Morrell, and Jones, , “San Juan de Aspalaga,” pp. 2543.

359 Richard Fuller and B. Calvin Jones, personal communication, May, 1988.

360 Hann, , “Translation of Governor Rebolledo’s 1657 Visitation,” pp. 92, 95.

361 Hann, , Apalachee, p. 53 ; Jones and Shapiro, “Nine Mission Sites;” Serrano, y Sanz, , Documentos históricos, p. 133.

362 Hann, , “Translation of Governor Rebolledo’s 1657 Visitation,” p. 91.

363 Boyd, , “Enumeration,” pp. 184185 ; Wenhold, , A 17th Century Letter, p. 8.

364 Hann, , “Demographic Patterns,” p. 389.

365 Jones and Shapiro, “Nine Mission Sites.”

366 Jones and Shapiro, “Nine Missions Sites.”

367 Hann, , Apalachee, pp. 58, 62; Menéndez Marquez and Florencia, Letter … 1697.

368 Boyd, , Smith, , and Griffin, , Here They Once Stood, pp. 5354, 56, 76, 78, 81.

369 Benavides, Letter to Andrés de Pez … 1722; Hann, , Apalachee, pp. 2829 ; “Translation of Governor Rebolledo’s 1657 Visitation,” pp. 90–91.

370 Florencia, General Inspection, pp. 57–58; Hann, , “Demographic Patterns,” p. 389 ; Leonard, Irving, translator, Spanish Approach to Pensacela, 1689–1693 (Albuquerque, 1939), p. 254, note 3.

371 Hann, , “Translation of Governor Rebolledo’s 1657 Visitation,” p. 90.

372 Boyd, , “Enumeration,” p. 184 ; Hann, , Apalachee, p. 43 ; Leturiondo, Visitation, p. 564; Wenhold, , A 17th Century Letter, p. 8.

373 Ebelino de Compostela, Letter … 1689.

374 Boyd, , “Further Considerations,” pp. 469470.

375 González de Barcia Carballido y Zúñiga, Ensayo cronológico; Hann, , Apalachee, pp. 288, 291, 312, 313.

376 Damián de Vega Castro y Pardo, Letter to the King, August 22, 1639, St. Augustine, AGI, Santo Domingo 225, SC.

377 Hann, , “Translation of Governor Rebolledo’s 1657 Visitation,” p. 87 ; Serrano, y Sanz, , Documentos históricos, p. 133.

378 Boyd, , “Enumeration,” p. 184 ; Ebelino de Compostela, Letter … 1689; Wenhold, , A 17th Century Letter, p. 8.

379 Hann, , Apalachee, pp. 5253.

380 Boyd, , “Further Considerations,” p. 470.

381 Boyd, , Smith, , and Griffin, , Here They Once Stood, p. 50. The Fiestas Juaninas were a celebration in honor of four saints, John, Peter, Paul, and Anthony, whose feasts fell in June in the church calendar.

382 Hann, , Apalachee, pp. 279280, 283.

383 Jones and Shapiro, “Nine Mission Sites.”

384 Shapiro, personal communication, 1987.

385 Diego Peña, Diario deste viaje de Apalache y de la prova de Apalachicolo mandado hazer por el Señor Governador y Capitan General Dn Pedro de Oliver y Fullana … 1716, AGI, SC. bundle no. 4878.

386 Leonard, , Spanish Approach, pp. 230, 266. The governor gave the village’s name as San Cosme y San Damián de Yecambé while Fray Rodrigo de Barrera alluded to it as “village of Ilcombe, a little more than two leagues from San Luis,” although in describing the trek from San Luis, Barrera noted that they “traveled a matter of a league and a half” to reach the Amarillo or Yellow River [the Och-lockonee] and “about another league” to reach Ilcombe.

387 Florencia, General Inspection, p. 57; Hann, , “Florida’s Terra Incognita,” pp. 7374.

388 Hann, , Apalachee, p. 27.

389 Hann, , “Translation of Governor Rebolledo’s 1657 Visitation,” pp. 93, 95; Wenhold, , A 17th Century Letter, p. 8.

390 Hann, , Apalachee, pp. 196199 ; “Translation of Governor Rebolledo’s 1657 Visitation,” pp. 94, 116; Horruytiner, Letter … 1633; Rebolledo, Residencia … 1657; Serrano, y Sanz, , Documentos históricos, p. 133.

391 Wenhold, , A 17th Century Letter, p. 9.

392 Boyd, , “Enumeration,” p. 184 ; Ebelino de Compostela, Letter … 1689.

393 Boyd, Smith, and Griffin, Here They Once Stood, passim; Hann, , Apalachee, pp. 277, 279–282.

394 Hann, , Apalachee, pp. 217221.

395 Hann, , “Translation of Governor Rebolledo’s 1657 Visitation,” p.96 ; Serrano, y Sanz, , Documentos históricos, p. 133.

396 Boyd, , “Enumeration,” p. 185 ; Ebelino de Compostela, Letter … 1689; Wenhold, , A 17th Century Letter, p. 89.

397 Florencia, General Inspection, pp. 67–70; Hann, , Apalachee, pp. 5558 ; Menéndez Marquez and Florencia, Letter … 1697.

398 Leonard, , Spanish Approach, p. 265.

399 Zúñiga y Zerda, Letter to the Viceroy, October 26, 1705, St. Augustine, AGI, Santo Domingo 857, SC.

400 Deagan, , “Cultures in Transition,” p. 1ll ; Swanton, , Early History, pp. 322326.

401 Lowery, , The Spanish Settlements … (1562–1574), pp. 258, 277.

402 Ruiz de Salazar Vallecilla, order … January 27, 1646.

403 Serrano, y Sanz, , Documentos históricos, p. 133.

404 Swanton, , Early History, p. 326.

405 Menéndez Marquez and Florencia, Letter … 1697; Wenhold, , A 17th Century Letter, p. 8.

406 Ebelino de Compostela, Letter … 1689.

407 Boyd, , “Enumeration,” p. 187.

408 Boyd, , “Enumeration,” p. 185.

409 Ebelino de Compostela, Letter … 1689; Florencia, General Inspection, p. 67.

410 Boyd, , “Enumeration,” p. 185 ; Menéndez Marquez and Florencia, Letter … 1697; Wenhold, , A 17th Century Letter, p. 9.

411 Zúñiga y Zerda, Letter … 1705.

412 B. Calvin Jones, personal communication, 1985; Jones and Shapiro, “Nine Mission Sites.”

413 Boyd, , “Enumeration,” p. 185 ; Ebelino de Compostela, Letter … 1689; Florencia, General Inspection, p. 70; Wenhold, , A 17th Century Letter, p. 9.

414 Menéndez Marquez and Florencia, Letter … 1697.

415 Zúñiga y Zerda, Letter … 1705.

416 Hann, , Apalachee, pp. 3637.

417 B. Calvin Jones, personal communication, 1987.

418 Boyd, , “Enumeration,” p. 185 ; Wenhold, , A 17th Century Letter, p. 9.

419 Leturiondo, Visitation, pp. 561v–563.

420 Hann, , Apalachee, p. 77.

421 Ebelino de Compostela, Letter … 1689.

422 Florencia, General Inspection; pp. 69–72; Menéndez Marquez and Florencia, Letter … 1697.

423 Hann, , Apalachee, p. 68, note 9.

424 Hann, , Apalachee, p. 68 ; “Florida’s Terra Incognita,” p. 85; Leonard, , Spanish Approach, p. 241 ; Antonio Matheos, Letter to Juan Marques Cabrera, May 19, 1686, San Luis, AGI, Santo Domingo 224, JTCC, reel 2.

425 Boyd, , “Enumeration,” p. 186 ; Hita Salazar, Letter … August 24, 1675, St. Augustine, AGI, Santo Domingo, 839, SC.

426 Hann, , “Florida’s Terra Incognita,” pp. 71, 72, 73–74.

427 Juan Fernández de Florencia, Autos concerning the Tumult of the Chacatos, 1675, San Carlos de los Chacatos and San Luis de Talimali, AGI, EC, leg. 156, pp. 119–142, SC; Hann, , “Florida’s Terra Incognita,” pp. 6368, 71.

428 Boyd, , “Enumeration,” p. 186 ; Leonard, , Spanish Approach, pp. 267268 ; Wenhold, , A 17th Century Letter, p. 9.

429 Leonard, , Spanish Approach, pp. 267268.

430 Hann, , “Florida’s Terra Incognita,” pp. 7071, 73.

431 Ebelino de Compostela, Letter … 1689; Hann, , “Florida’s Terra Incognita,” pp. 73, 74.

432 Wenhold, , A 17th Century Letter, p. 9.

433 Wenhold, , A 17th Century Letter, p. 9.

434 Boyd, , “Enumeration,” p. 186 ; Fernández de Florencia, Letter to Pablo de Hita Salazar, August 30, 1678, San Luis de Talimali, AGI, Santo Domingo 226, WLC, reel 4.

435 Fernández de Florencia, Autos concerning the Tumult of the Chacatos, p. 125; Hann, , “Florida’s Terra Incognita,” p. 88.

436 Boyd, , “Expedition of Marcos Delgado,” pp. 6, 13–14, 17, 22, 30; Florencia, General Inspection, pp. 57, 72–73; Hann, , “Florida’s Terra Incognita,” p. 72 ; Leonard, , Spanish Approach, p. 230, 267.

437 Lanning, , The Spanish Missions, p. 8.

438 Boyd, , “Enumeration,” pp. 182183.

439 Argüelles, Record of the Visitation, p. 527; Wenhold, , A 17th Century Letter, p. 10.

440 Bolton, , Arredondo’s Historical Proof, p. 39.

441 Boyd, , “Enumeration,” p. 183.

442 Díaz Vara Calderón, Relación … 1675.

443 Argüelles, Record of the Visitation, p. 529; Boyd, , “Enumeration,” p. 183 ; Wenhold, , A 17th Century Letter, p. 10.

444 Ebelino de Compostela, Letter … 1689.

445 Hann, , “Twilight of the Mocama and Guale,” pp. 2122 ; Pueyo, General Visitation, pp. 123–129.

446 Hann, , “Twilight of the Mocama and Guale,” pp. 12, 21–24; Diego de Jaen, Record of the response by Diego de Jaen to the charges lodged against his conduct as the lieutenant of Guale by the natives of that province during the 1695 Visitation of Guale and Mocama made by Don Juan de Pueyo, AGI, EC, leg. 157A, SC, pp. 143, 145–146, 151–153; Pueyo, General Visitation, pp. 123–124.

447 Bushnell, , “Santa Maria,” p. 8 ; Hann, , “St. Augustine’s Fallout from the Yamasee War,” Florida Historical Quarterly, 68 (1989), pp. 182, 184.

448 Thomas, , The Archaeology of Mission Santa Catalina de Guale, p. 93.

449 Swanton, , Early History, p. 324 ; Thomas, , The Archaeology of Mission Santa Catalina de Guale, p. 93.

450 Deagan, , “Cultures in Transition,” pp. 101102.

451 Boyd, , “Enumeration,” p. 183.

452 Argüelles, Record of the Visitation, pp. 528v–529; Hann, , “Twilight of the Mocama and Guale,” pp. 1921 ; Pueyo, General Visitation, pp. 114–115.

453 Boyd, , “Enumeration,” p. 183 ; Ebelino de Compostela, Letter … 1689; Menéndez Marquez and Florencia, Letter … 1697; Pueyo, General Visitation, pp. 120–121.

454 Ebelino de Compostela, Letter … 1689.

455 Argüelles, Record of the Visitation, pp. 526–527.

456 Hann, , “Twilight of the Mocama and Guale,” pp. 12, 19; Pueyo, General Visitation, pp. 116–120.

457 Zúñiga y Zerda, General Visitation at Santa Mana, February 7, 1701; Order, November 5, 1702, AGI, Santo Domingo 858, JTCC, reel 6.

458 Bullen, Ripley and Griffin, John W., “Survey of Amelia Island,” Florida Anthropologist 5 (1952), 3764.

459 Dickinson, Jonathan, Jonathan Dickinson’s Journal or God’s Protecting Providence, eds., Andrews, Evangeline Walker and Andrews, Charles McLean (Stuart, Fla., 1981), p. 66.

460 Ebelino de Compostela, Letter … 1689.

461 Hann, , “Twilight of the Mocama and Guale,” pp. 78 ; Pueyo, General Visitation, p. 134.

462 Serrano, y Sanz, , Documentos históricos, p. 132 ; Swanton, , Early History, p. 322 ; Wenhold, , A 17th Century Letter, p. 10.

463 Thomas, , The Archaeology of Mission Santa Catalina de Guale, p. 90.

464 Deagan, , “Cultures in Transition,” p. 106 ; Hann, , “Twilight of the Mocama and Guale,” p. 5 ; King of Spain, Letter … 1660.

465 Henry Baker and Richard Vernon, personal communication, July 20,1988; Deagan, , “Cultures in Transition,” p. 106 ; Goggin, , Space and Time, p. 25, note 11.

466 King of Spain, Letter … 1660.

467 Ebelino de Compostela, Letter … 1689.

468 Boyd, , “Enumeration,” p. 184.

469 Argüelles, Record of the Visitation, p. 530.

460 Menéndez Marquez and Florencia, Letter … 1697.

471 Leturiondo, Visitation, pp. 598–599.

472 Ebelino de Compostela, Letter … 1689; Florencia, General Inspection, pp. 101, 102.

473 Boyd, , “Enumeration,” p. 187 ; Serrano, y Sanz, , Documentos históricos, p. 133 ; Wenhold, , A 17th Century Letter, p. 8.

474 Ebelino de Compostela, Letter … 1689.

475 Deagan, , “Cultures in Transition,” p. 106 ; Thomas, , The Archaeology of Mission Santa Catalina de Guale, p. 88. Deagan noted, however, that it “seems also to have been the site of an earlier Saturiwa village.”

476 Ayala y Escobar, Letter … 1717; Leturiondo, Visitation, passim; Florencia, General Inspection, passim.

477 Ebelino de Compostela, Letter … 1689.

478 Ayala y Escobar, Letter … 1717; Florencia, General Inspection, pp. 102–105; Menéndez Marquez and Florencia, Letter … 1697; Serrano, y Sanz, , Documentos históricos, p. 216 ; Zúñiga y Zerda, Residencia for Governor Laureano de Torres y Ayala, November 16, 1700, St. Augustine, AGI, EC, leg. 157A, microfilm roll 27-P of the P.K. Yonge Library of Florida History.

479 Serrano, y Sanz, , Documentos históricos, p. 133 ; Swanton, , Early History, p. 322.

480 Fray Jacinto Barreda, Memorandum to Pablo de Hita Salazar, 1680, in Pablo de Hita Salazar, Letter to the King, March 8, 1680, St. Augustine, AGI, Santo Domingo 226, WLC, reel 4; Hita Salazar, extracts from Letter to the King, 1680, AGI, Santo Domingo 226, JTCC, reel 3.

481 Council of the Indies, November 27, 1695, Madrid; Franciscan provincial and definitors of Florida, Letter to the King, December 5, 1693, St. Augustine, AGI, Santo Domingo 235 (microfilm furnished by Marquardt; Hann, Mission to the Calusa; King Carlos II, Order, December 30, 1695, Madrid, AGI, Contratación 5544, JTCC, reel 1; Menéndez Marquez and Florencia, Letter … 1697; Juan Solana, Testimony in Reference to the Auto for Jororo, February 6, 1697, St. Augustine, in Laureano de Torres y Ayala, Letter to the King, February 9, 1697, St. Augustine, AGI, Santo Domingo 228, JTCC, reel 3; Swanton, , Early History, p. 322 ; Torres y Ayala, Letter to the King, February 3, 1697, St. Augustine, AGI, Santo Domingo 228, JTCC, reel 3.

482 Council of the Indies, … 1695.

483 Friar from San Antonio Anacape, Testimony, April 12, 1682, St. Augustine, AGI, Santo Domingo 226, JTCC, reel 5.

484 Menéndez Marquez and Florencia, Letter … 1697.

485 Torres y Ayala, Letter to the King, September 19, 1699, St. Augustine, AGI, Santo Domingo 228, JTCC, reel 3.

486 B. Calvin Jones, personal communication, July 21, 1988.

487 Hita Salazar, Letter … 1680; Serrano, y Sanz, , Documentos históricos, p. 133 ; Swanton, , Early History, p. 96.

488 Torres y Ayala, Letter … February 3, 1697.

489 Ayala y Escobar, Letter … 1717; Swanton, , Early History, pp. 96, 326, 339; Indians of the Southeastern United States, 133.

490 Deagan, , Griffin, and Smith, , “Nocoroco, a Timucua Village of 1605,” Florida Historical Quarterly, 27 (1949), pp. 340361 ; Alvaro Mexia, A handy and useful guide and true one for rivers, channels, lagoons, woods, settlements, landing places, shoals, [and] hamlets, which extend from the city of St. Augustine down to the bay of Ais, AGI, Patronato 19, JTCC, Reel 1; Rouse, Irving, A Survey of Indian River Archaeology, Florida (New Haven, 1951), pp. 3439 ; Pedro de Ybarra, Report to the King, 1605, St. Augustine, AGI, Patronato 19, JTCC, reel 1.

491 Marques Cabrera, Letter to the King, June 14, 1681, St. Augustine, AGI, Santo Domingo 226, JTCC, reel 3.

492 Deagan, , “Cultures in Transition,” p. 1ll ; Swanton, , Early History, p. 339.

493 Deagan, , “Cultures in Transition,” p. 111.

494 Solana, Testimony … 1697.

495 Zúñiga y Zerda, Order to Joaquín de Florencia, January 20, 1701, St. Augustine, AGI, Santo Domingo 840, JTCC, reel 5.

496 Fray Bartolomé de Quiñones, Testimony, March 11, 1682, St. Augustine, AGI, Santo Domingo 226, JTCC, reel 5.

497 Menéndez Marquez and Florencia, Letter … 1697; Torres y Ayala, Letter … February 3, 1697.

498 Ayala y Escobar, Letter … 1717; Franciscan provincial and definitors of Florida, Letter … 1693.

499 Council of the Indies … 1695; Dickinson, , Jonathan Dickinson’s Journal, p. 60.

500 Council of the Indies … 1695; Menéndez Marquez and Florencia, Letter … 1697.

501 Dickinson, , Jonathan Dickinson’s Journal, p. 60. Torres y Ayala, Letter to the King, September 16, 1699, St. Augustine, AGI, Santo Domingo 228, JTTC, reel 3.

502 Deagan, , “Cultures in Transition,” p. 111.

503 Solana, Testimony … 1697; Torres y Ayala, Letter … February 3, 1697, and September 16, 1697.

504 Torres y Ayala, Letter … September 16, 1699.

505 Solana, Testimony … 1697.

506 Antonio de Benavides, Testimony of the Investigation Made during the Visitation of the Indian Settlements near St. Augustine, December 1, 1726, St. Augustine, AGI, Santo Domingo 865, SC.

507 Hann, , “Florida’s Terra Incognita,” pp. 72, 89–90.

508 Boyd, , “Expedition of Marcos Delgado,” pp. 1314 ; Hann, , “Florida’s Terra Incognita,” p. 72.

509 Ebelino de Compostela, Letter … 1689.

510 Hann, , “Florida’s Terra Incognita,” p. 73.

511 Francisco Gutiérrez de Vera, Letter to Juan Marquez Cabrera, May 19, 1681, Sabacola, AGI, WLC, reel 4; Hann, , “Florida’s Terra Incognita,” p. 72 ; Lanning, , The Spanish Missions, p. 172.

512 Council of the Indies … 1695; Hann, Missions to the Calusa.

513 Hann, Missions to the Calusa.

514 Joseph Xavier Alaña, S.J. and Joseph Maria Monaco, S.J., Report that Fathers Joseph María Monaco and Joseph Xavier Alaña of the Company of Jesus Present to the Most Illustrious Señor Don Juan Francisco Güemes de Horcasitas, Lt-General of the Royal Armies, Governor and Capt. General of the City of Havana and of the Island of Cuba, About the State in Which They Have Found the Indians of Southern Florida and its Keys, Along with What They Considered Necessary for its Permanent Reduction, Year of 1743, AGI, Santo Domingo 860. There is a better and somewhat different version of this report prepared by Alaña in 1760. It is in AGI, Santo Domingo 1210 (microfilm copy furnished by Eugene Lyon). A Spanish transcript of the defective 1743 version was published in the appendix to Sturtevant, William C., “The Last of the South Florida Aborigines,” pp. 154161, in Milanich, and Proctor, , Tacachale. My translation of this 1743 version appeared in Parks, Where the River, 5665. The defect was a hole in the page that changed “sinco chosas” to “sin chosas” or “five houses” to “without houses.”

515 Bushnell, , “Patricio de Hinachuba,” pp. 1316 ; Hann, , Apalachee, pp. 284286.

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The Americas
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