Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Bibliography on Prenatal and Natal Influences in Twins*

  • Bronson Price
Abstract

The author agrees with earlier writers that most of the differences observed in monozygotic pairs are due to unusual or extreme environmental factors acting before or during the twins' birth. Although they are typical of development in twins, these environmental factors can hardly be considered typical of development in other individuals. This point, as a review of the literature shows, is often overlooked by those who study twins in the childhood or adult age ranges. As a result the inferences drawn from twin differences are frequently mistaken, or at least quite exaggerated so far as the significance of postnatal influences in non-twins is concerned. At the same tihe, if allowance is made for the environmental biases peculiar to twin studies, the findings may be said to establish more about the importance of heredity in the medical and behavior sciences than most investigators have thought. In the author's opinion the largest single source of bias is the mutual circulation that exists during prenatal development of the majority of monozygotic pairs. Data on that circulation's difference-producing effects are reviewed and related to studies of mature twins. Effects of lateral inversions (asymmetry reversals) and of “natal” factors (chiefly conditions of delivery) are also reviewed, and methods of judging the importance of all three of the biasing conditions are outlined. Need for obtaining systematic and complete information about the natal factors is stressed.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Bibliography on Prenatal and Natal Influences in Twins*
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Bibliography on Prenatal and Natal Influences in Twins*
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Bibliography on Prenatal and Natal Influences in Twins*
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Footnotes
Hide All
*

Editor's note: This list, with comments, was prepared by Price in 1950 and reproduced in mimeograph with the title “References to Twin Studies”. Mentioned in the 1950 paper, it was widely distributed in response to requests. We reproduce it here as mimeographed except for addition of four references given by Price in a later correspondence, a correction in one author's name, and corrections made by Price on his own copy.

Footnotes
References
Hide All
Abbott, K.H., Camp, J.D. 1947. Extensive symmetrical cerebral calcification and chorioretinitis in identical twins (toxoplasmosis?). Bull. Los Angeles Neur. Soc, 12: 3847.
Abt, I.A. 1925. Diseases and fate of twins. N. York State J.M., 25: 511519.
Adair, F.L. 1930. Fetal malformations in multiple pregnancy. Am. J. Obst., 20: 539552.
Adams, F. 1849. The Genuine Works of Hippocrates (Vol. 1). London: Sydenham Society.
Ahlfeld, F. 18751879. Beitraege zur Lehre von den Zwillingen. Arch. Gynaek., 7: 210286, 9: 196–261, 11: 160–172, 14: 321–360.
Ahlfeld, F. 1900. Rukovodstvo k akusherstvu. St. Petersburg: Sovremmennaya Meditsina.
Ahlfeld, F. 1902. Wie stellt sich das Zahlenverhaeltnis der eineiigen Zwillingen zu den Zweieiigen. Zschr. Geburtsh., 47: 230235.
Ahlfeld, F. 1903. Lehrbuch der Geburtshilfe. Leipzig: Grunow.
Anderson, F.N., Schneidemann, N.V. 1933. A study of triplets including theories of their possible genetic relationships. Genet. Psychol. Monog., 14: 93176.
Apert, E. 1923. Les Jumeaux: Etude Biologique, Physiologique et Médicale. Paris: E. Flammarion.
Ardashnikov, S.N., Lichtenstein, E.A., Martynova, R.P., Soboleva, G.V., Postnikova, E.N. 1936. The diagnosis of zygosity in twins; three instances of differences in taste acuity in identical twins. J. Hered., 27: 465468.
Arestad, F.H., McGovern, M.A. 1949. Hospital service in the United States. J. Am. M. Ass., 140: 2397.
Arey, L.B. 1922. Direct proof of the monozygotic origin of human identical twins. Chorionic fusion and augmented twinning in the human tube. Anat. Rec., 23: 245261.
Arieti, S. 1944. An interpretation of the divergent outcome of schizophrenia in identical twins. Psychiat. Quart., 18: 587599.
Assus, A., Laffont, A. 1950. La recherche des groupes sanguins dans le diagnostic de la gémellité unizygotique. Bull. Ass. Gyn. Obst. (Suppl. Gyn. Obst., Paris) 2: 436437.
Bacsich, P., Smout, C.F.V. 1937. Some observations on the fetal vessels of the human placenta with an account of the corrosion technique. J. Anat., 72: 358364.
Ballantyne, J.W. 1905. Manual of Antenatal Pathology and Hygiene (Vol. 2). The Embryo. New York: Wm. Wood.
Barker, R.G. 1947. The somatopsychologic problem. Psychosom. M., 9: 192196.
Becker, P.E. 1948. Genetische und klinische Fragen bei Pickscher Krankheit (Mitteilung eines diskordanten eineiigen Zwillingspaares). Nervenarzt, 19: 355364.
Benda, C.E. 1945. The late effects of cerebral birth injuries. Medicine, Bait., 24: 71110.
Bernheim-Karrer, J. 1929. Ernaehrungsstudien an eineiigen Zwillingen. Zschr. Kinderh., 47: 427442. (One of the early twin-control experiments).
Bertillon, L.-A. 1874. Des combinaisons de sexe dans les grossesses gémellaires (doubles ou triples), de leur cause, et de leur caractére ethnique. Bull. Soc. Anthrop. Paris. 9: 267290.
Blaskeslee, A.F., Banker, H.J. 1930. Identical twins as biological controls in educational and other human problems. Proc. Am. Philos. Soc., 69: 379384.
Blatz, W.E., Chant, N., Charles, M.W., Fletcher, M.I., Ford, N., Harris, A.L., Macarthur, J.W., Mason, M., Millichamp, D.A. 1937. Collected Studies on the Dionne Quintuplets. Toronto: Univ. Toronto Press.
Bonnevie, K. 1924. Studies on papillary patterns of human fingers. J. Genetics. 15: 1111.
Borchardt, L. 1931. Intestinaler Infantilismus und Basedowsche Krankheit als Ursache wesentlicher Verschiedenheiten bei eineiigen Zwillingen. Zschr. menschl. Vererb., 16: 123129.
Borgstroem, CA. 1939. Eine Serie von kriminellen Zwillingen. Arch. Rassenb. 33: 334343.
Bossik, L.J. 1934. On the roles of heredity and environment in the physiology and pathology of childhood. Proc. Gorky Medico-Biol. Inst. Vol. 3. Moscow: Biomedgiz.
Bouterwek, H. 1934. Asymmetrien und Polaritaet bei erbgleichen Zwillingen. Arch. Rassenb., 28: 241280. (For critiques of Bouterwek's view that intrageminal asymmetries cause marked personality differences see also Schiller 1936, Fischer 1939, and Gottschaldt 1939).
Bracken, H. von 1936 a. Verbundenheit und Ordnung im Binnenleben von Zwillingspaaren. Zschr. paed. Psychol. 37: 6581.
Bracken, H. von 1936 a. Ueber die Sonderart der subjectiven Welt von Zwillingen. Arch. ges. Psychol., 97: 97105.
Bracken, H. von 1939 a. Wahrnehmungstaeuschungen und scheinbare Nachbildgroesse bei Zwillingen. Arch. ges. Psychol. 103: 203230.
Bracken, H. von 1939 b. Das Schreibtempo von Zwillingen und die sozialpsychologischen Fehlerquellen der Zwillingsforschung. Zschr. menschl. Vererb. 23: 278298.
Bradway, K.P. 1937. Birth lesions in identical twins. Am. J. Ortho-psychiat., 7: 194203.
Brander, T. 1935. Ueber die Bedeutung der Exoge-nese fuer die Enstehung des Schwachsinnes, beleuchtet durch Untersuchungen an Zwillingen. Mschr. Kinderh., 63: 276293.
Brander, T. 1937 a. Ueber die Bedeutung des unternormalen Geburtsgewichts fuer die weitere koer-perliche und geistige Entwicklung der Zwillinge. Zschr. menschl. Vererb., 21: 306313.
Brander, T. 1937 b. Ueber die Zwillingsforschung und ihre Beruehrungspunkte mit der Kinderheilkunde. Acta Paediat. Upps. 21: 5136.
Brander, T. 1940. Welche prognostische Bedeutung hat die Reihenfolge bei der Geburt fuer die Zwillinge. Zur Frage Erblichkeit der angeborenen spastischen Hemiplegien. Acta Paediat. Upps. Suppl., 28-1: 100122.
Brody, D. 1938. Twin resemblances in mechanical ability, with reference to the effects of practice on performance. Child Develop. 8: 207216.
Browne, F.J. 1946. Antenatal and Postnatal Care (6th ed.). London: J. & A. Churchill.
Brucker, W.H. 1944. The influence of heredity and environment on the caries picture of monozygotic twins. J. Am. Dent. Ass., 31-B: 931940.
Brugger, K. 1939. Die Vererbung geistiger Stoerungen. Verh. Schweiz, naturforsch. Ges. 119 (part 2): 7778.
Buettner, O. 1920. Christian Friedrich Schatz, 1841-1920. Zbl. Gynaek., 44: 745749.
Buhl, L. 1861. Klinik der Geburstskunde; Beobachtungen und Untersuchungen (Bd. I). Leipzig: Englemann.
Burkhardt, H. 1929. Ueber ein diskordantes eineiiges Zwillingspaar. Zschr. ges. Neur. Psychiat., 121: 277282.
Burks, B.S. 1928. A summary of the literature on the determiners of the intelligence quotient and the educational quotient. Nat. Soc. Study Educ. Yearbook, Part II, 27: 248253. (On pages 261-262 Burks precisely stated the meaning of the kind of postnatal bias which some reviewers have thought was first noted by later writers).
Burks, B.S. 1938. (Review of studies by Rosanoff and others). J. Abnor. Soc. Psychol., 33: 128133. (Here Burks pointed out that the twin differences which Rosanoff attributed mainly to natal factors were also explainable in terms of “the developmental hazards to which twins are exposed during prenatal life”).
Burks, B.S. 1942. A study of identical twins reared apart under differing types of family relationships. In: Studies in Personality, Honoring L.M. Terman. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Burks, B.S. 1940. Mental and physical developmental patterns of identical twins in relation to organismic growth theory. Nat. Soc. Study Educ. Yearbook, 39: 8596.
Burks, B.S., Roe, A. 1949. Studies of identical twins reared apart. Psychol. Monogr., 63 (No. 5): 162.
Burlingham, D.T. 1946. Twins; observations of environmental influences on their development. Psychoanal. Stud. Child., 2: 6173.
Burnham, R.W. 1940. Case studies of identical twins. J. Genet. Psychol., 57: 323351.
Carter, H.D. 1932. Identical twins reared together. J. Hered., 23: 5366.
Carter, H.D. 1934. Case studies of mature identical twins. J. Genet. Psychol., 44: 154174.
Carter, H.D. 1940. Ten years of research on twins; contributions to the nature-nurture problem. Nat. Soc. Study Educ. Yearbook, Part I. 39: 235255.
Cattell, R.B., Molteno, V.E. 1940. Contributions concerning mental inheritance. II. Temperament. J. Genet. Psychol., 57: 3147.
Chapin, C.L. 1917. A microscopic study of the reproductive system of fetal free-martins. J. Exper. Zool. 23: 453482.
Clarke, J. 1793. Description of an extraordinary production of human generation, with observations. Philos. Trans., 83: 154163.
Claudius, M. 1859. Die Entwicklung der herzlosen Missgeburten. Kiel: Schwers.
Cobb, M.V. 1915. Evidence bearing on the origin of human twins from a single ovum. Science, 41: 501502.
Cockayne, E.A. 1911. Disease in homogeneous twins.Brit. J. Child., 8: 487490.
Cockayne, E.A. 1939. Transposition of the viscera and other reversals of symmetry in monozygotic twins. Biometrika, 31: 285294.
Cohen, J.T., Oliver, CP., Bernick, S. 1942. Dental studies of triplets, I and II. J. Dent. Res., 21: 233–239 and 413420.
Conklin, E.G. 1903. The cause of inverse symmetry. Anat. Anzeiger., 23: 577588.
Conrad, K. 1935. Erbanlage und Epilepsie. I. Untersuchungen an einer Serie von 253 Zwillingspaaren. Zschr. ges. Neur. Psychiat. 153: 271326.
Conrad, K. 1936 a. Erbanlage und Epilepsie. II. Ein Beitrag zur Zwillingskasuistik. Die Konkordanten Eineiigen. Zschr. ges. Neur. Psychiat., 155: 254297.
Conrad, K. 19366. Erbanlage und Epilepsie. III. Ein Beitrag zur Zwillingskasuistik. Die diskordanten Eineiigen. Zschr. ges. Neur. Psychiat., 155:509542.
Conrad, K. 1937. Zwillingspathologie. Fortsch. Neur. Psychiat., 9: 197212.
Conti, E.A., Glenn, J.W. 1946. Hemolytic diseases associated with the Rh factor in twin pregnancies. Am. J. Obst., 52: 446450.
Cook, R.C. 1951. Human Fertility. The Modern Dilemma. New York: Wm. Sloane. (See pages 221222, chapter 11).
Cooper, W. 1775. An account of an extraordinary acephalous birth; letter to William Hunter. Philos. Trans., 65: 311321.
Cornacchione, M., Gotlib, M.H., Huse, W., Taube, J.I. 1950. Twins: one macerated, the other near term and normal; case report. J. Indiana St. M. Ass., 43: 12071210.
Corner, G.W. 1922. The morphological theory of monochorionic twins as illustrated by a series of supposed early twin embryos of the pig. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 33: 389392.
Coulton, D., Hertig, A.T., Long, W.N. 1947. Monoamniotic twins. Am. J. Obst., 54: 119123.
Craike, W.H., Slater, E., Burden, G. 1945. Folie à deux in uniovular twins reared apart. Brain, Lond., 68: 213221.
Creip, L.H. 1942. Allergy in identical twins; a report on seven pairs. J. Allergy, 13: 591598.
Crew, F.E.A. 1947. Twins and triplets, quadruplets and quintuplets. Practitioner, 158: 233244.
Critchley, M. 1939. Identical twins, one suffering from petit mal, both with abnormal electroencephalograms. Proc. Roy. Soc. M., Lond., 32: 1417.
Cromwell, H., Rife, D.C. 1942. Dermatoglyphics in relation to functional handedness. Human Biol., 14: 516526.
Cronin, H.J. 1933. An analysis of the neuroses of identical twins. Psychoanal. Rev., 20: 375387.
Cummins, H. 1930. Dermatoglyphics in twins of known chorionic history, with reference to diagnosis of the twin varieties. Anat. Rec., 46: 179198.
Cummins, H., Mairs, G.T. 1934. Finger prints of conjoined twins and their genetic significance. J. Hered. 25: 237243. (Authors felt that differences in conjoined pairs were “merely” due to their disturbed developmental environment).
Curtius, F. 1930. Nachgeburtsbefunde bei Zwillingen und Aehnlichkeits-diagnose. I. Arch. Gynaek., 140: 361366. (See also Lassen, Steiner).
Dahlberg, G. 1926. Twin Births and Twins from a Hereditary Point of View. Stockholm: A.-B. Tidens Tryckeri.
Dahlberg, G. 1930. Genotypische Asymmetrien. Zschr. Indukt. Abstamm. 53: 133148.
Dahlberg, G. 1942. Methodik zur Unterscheidung von Erblichkeits und Milieuvariationen mit Hilfe von Zwillingen. Hereditas, 28: 409428.
Dahlberg, G. 1943. Genotypic asymmetries. Proc. Roy. Soc. Edinb. 62-B: 2031.
Dahlberg, G. 1945. Nature, nurture, and probability. Nature, 156: 539.
Dahlberg, G. 1948. Environment, inheritance, and random variations, with special reference to investigations on twins. Acta Genet. Stat. M., 1: 1114.
Dahlberg, G., Dahlberg, B. 1942. Ueber Karies und andere Zahnveraenderungen bei Zwillingen. Upsala Laek. Foeren, 47: 395416.
Dahr, P. 1941. Serologische Untersuchungen bei 330 Zwillingspaaren. Zschr. Rassenphysiol. 12: 117.
Daiser, K.W. 1939. Ein Beitrag zum Zwillingsproblem an Hand in der Universitaets-Frauenklinik Tuebingen erfolgten Mehrlingsgeburten der Jahre 1908-1939. Arch. Gynaek., 169: 754796.
Danforth, C.H. 1916. Is twinning hereditary? J. Hered. 7: 194202.
Danforth, C.H. 1919 a. Resemblance and difference in twins. J. Hered. 10: 399409.
Danforth, C.H. 1919 b. A comparison of the hands of a pair of polydactyl Negro twins. Am. J. Phys. Anthrop., 2: 147165.
Danforth, C.H. 1924. The heredity of unilateral variations in man. Genetics, 9: 199211.
Danforth, C.H. 1925. Hereditary doubling suggesting anomalous chromatin distribution in the mouse. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 23: 145147.
Danforth, C.H. 1930. Developmental anomalies in a special strain of mice. Am. J. Anat., 45: 275287.
Danforth, C.H. 1932. Artificial and hereditary suppression of sacral vertebrae in the fowl. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 30: 143145.
Dareste, C. 18731874. Discussion sur les monstres doubles. De la duplicité monstrueuse. Bull, (et Mem.) Soc. Anthrop. Paris, 8: 880–884; 893897; 900; 9: 14–25; 147–155; 321–338.
Demy, G.N. 1944. Erythroblastosis fetalis in identical twins. Am. J. Obst. 47: 554556.
Dennie, C.C. 1924. Heredosyphilitic twins. M. Clin. N. Am., 7: 12191229.
De Siebenthal, R. 1945. Les accouchements géméllaires à la Maternité de Genève de 1934 à 1943. Mschr. Geburtsh. Gynaek., 120: 288328.
De Superville, D. 1739. Some reflections on generation, and on monster, with a description of some particular monsters. Philos. Trans. 41: 294296.
Diehl, K., Verschuer, O. von, 1933. Zwillingstuberkulose; Zwillingsforschung und erbliche Tuberkulosedisposition. Jena: G. Fischer.
Diezel, P. 1949. Rh-Faktor und foetale Erythroblastose bei diskordant eineiigen Zwillingen. Deut. med. Wschr. 74: 958961.
Dods, M. (Transl.) 1871. Augustine, A., The City of God. Edinburgh: T. Clark.
Eckle, C. 1939. Erbcharakterologische Zwillingsuntersuchungen. Zschr. angew. Psychol. Beih. 61. (255 pages).
Edmonds, H.W., Hawkins, J.W. 1941. The relationship of twins, teratomas, and ovarian dermoids. Cancer Res., 1: 896899.
Elben, E. 1821. De Acephalis Sive Monstris Corde Carentibus. Berlin: L. Quien.
Elsaesser, K. 1906. Zur Entstehung von Brachy- und Dolichocephalie durch willkuerliche Beeinflussung des kindlichen Schaedels. Zbl. Gynaek., 30: 422424. (See Walcher).
Engelhorn, E. 1927. Die mehrfache Schwangerschaft und Geburt. In Halban, J. and Seitz, I. (Eds.): Biologie und Pathologie des Weibes (Bd. 7). Berlin: Urban and Schwarzenburg.
Eschricht, 1836. Aeussere maennliche mit inneren weiblichen Genitalen bei einem menschlichen Foetus. Muellers Arch. (1836 vol.): 139144.
Essen-Moeller, E. 1941 a. Empirische Aehnlichkeits-diagnose bei Zwilligen. Hereditas, 27: 150.
Essen-Moeller, E. 1941 b. Psychiatrische Untersuchungen an einer Serie von Zwillingen. Acta Psychiat. Neur. Suppl., 23: 7200.
Euphrat, H. 1888. Ueber das Zwillingsirresein. Allg. Zschr. Psychiat. 44: 194208. (This review of early studies did much to stimulate later work).
Ewen, A.H., Hummason, F. 1947. Ovine freemartin. J. Hered., 38: 149152.
Fabing, H. 1934. Tuberous sclerosis with epilepsy (epiloia) in identical twins. Brain, Lond., 57: 227238.
Falls, H.F. 1947. Inheritance of retinoblastoma. J. Am. M. Ass., 133: 171174.
Favreau, 1925. Communications vasculaire entre placentas biovulaires; le free-martinisme. Bull. Soc. Obst. Gyn. Paris, 14: 384385.
Faxen, N. 1935. Hypothyroidism in one of twins. Acta Paediat., Upps. 17: 565573.
Feldman, W.M. 1937. Fetal diseases, malformations and monstrosities. Brit. Encycl. Med. Practice, 5: 334387.
Fischer, E. 1939. Versuch einer Phaenogenetik der normalen koerperlichen Eigenschaften des Menschen. Zschr. indukt. Abstamm., 76: 45115.
Fisher, G.J. 1866. Diploteratology. II. Classification and nomenclature. Trans. Med. Soc. State of N.Y. (1866 vol.): 207296.
Fisher, R.A. 1927. Triplet children in Great Britain and Ireland. Proc. Roy. Soc, B-102: 286311.
Fisher, R.A. 1929. Twins and twinning. Encycl. Britannica, (14th ed.) 22: 638639. (Apparently prepared before Siemens (1925) confirmed the existence of dichorial monozygoic pairs, this article was not changed until the 1946 printing of the Britannica and was one of the important reference sources perpetuating the idea that all monozygotic pairs were monochorial).
Foerster, A. 1865. Die Missbildungen des Menschen systematisch dargestellt. Jena: F. Mauke.
Ford, F.R. 1926. Cerebral birth injuries and their results. Medicine, Bait. 5: 121194.
Ford, N., Brown, A., McCreary, J.E. 1941. Evidence of monozygosity and disturbance of growth in twins with pyloric stenosis. Am. J. Dis. Child. 61: 4153.
Ford, N., Frumpkin, S. 1942. Monozygosity in mongoloid twins. Am. J. Dis. Child. 63: 847857.
Fortuyn, A.B.D. 1932. Modern research on twins. Q. Rev. Biol., 7: 298306.
Fowler, E.P. 1947. Otosclerosis in identical twins. Ann. Otol. Rhinol. 56: 368378.
Francioni, C. 1919. Sullo studio dei gemelli. Riv. Clin. Pediat., 8: 5782.
Fraser, J. 1923. Placental circulation. Am. J. Obst., 6: 645655.
Freeman, F.N. 1941. Cooperative research with adequate support. J. Educ. Res., 34: 321:326.
Freeman, W. 1935. Symptomatic epilepsy in one of identical twins: a study of the epileptic character. J. Neur. Psychopath., Lond. 15: 210218.
Friedman, M., Kasanin, J. 1943. Hypertension in only one of identical twins; report of a case with consideration of psychosomatic factors. Arch. Int. M., 72: 767774.
Frischeisen-Koehler, I. 1930. Untersuchungen an Schulzeugnissen von Zwillingen. Zschr. angew. Psychol., 37: 385416.
Galton, F. 1875 a. The history of twins as a criterion of the relative powers of nature and nurture. Fraser's Magazine, 12: 566576.
Galton, F. 18756. Short notes on heredity, etc., in twins. J. Anthrop. Inst. Great Brit, and Ireland, 5: 324329.
Galton, F. 1875 c. A theory of heredity. J. Anthrop. Inst. Great Brit, and Ireland, 5: 329348.
Galton, F. 1876. The history of twins as a criterion of the relative powers of nature and nurture. J. Anthrop. Inst. Great Brit, and Ireland, 5: 391406.
Galton, F. 1883. History of twins. In: Inquiries into Human Faculty (1st ed.). New York: MacMillan.
Galton, F. 1907. History of twins. In: Inquiries into Human Faculty (2nd ed.) New York: Everyman's Library.
Galton, F. 1909. Memories of my Life. New York: Dutton and Co.
Gardner, I.C., Newman, H.H. 1943. Studies of quadruplets. V. The only living one-egg quadruplets. J. Hered., 34: 259263.
Gardner, I.C., Newman, H.H. 1944. Studies of quadruplets. VII. The Schenses, four-egg quadruplets. J. Hered., 35: 8388.
Garrison, R.F. 1949. Pyloric stenosis in one of identical twins. J. Pediat. 35: 207209.
Gates, R.R. 1946. Human Genetics (Vol. 2). New York: MacMillan.
Gebbing, M. 1936. Interne und neurologische Zwillingsstudien. Deut. Arch. klin. Med. 178: 472496.
Gedda, L. 1950. Lo studio dei gemelli nella scienza. Minerva med., 41: 213216.
Gemmill, J.F., Stewart, J. 1916. Omphalopagus twins in the human subject. J. Anat., Lond. 50: 316323.
Geoffroy-St. Hilaire, I. 1837. Histoire Générale et Particulière des Anomalies de l'Organisation chez l'Homme et les Animaux, III. Paris: Baillière. (See pp. 1245).
Gesell, A. 1921. Hemihypertrophy and mental defect. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat., 6: 400423.
Gesell, A. 1922. Mental and physical correspondence in twins. Sci. Monthly 14: 305–344 and 415428.
Gesell, A. 1931. The developmental psychology of twins. In: Murchison, C. (Ed.): A Handbook of Child Psychology. Worcester: Clark Univ. Press.
Gesell, A. 1946. Some relationships between maturation and acculturation. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis., 103: 518520.
Gesell, A., Blake, E.M. 1936. Twinning and ocular pathology, with a report of bilateral muscular coloboma in monozygotic twins. Arch. Ophth. 15: 10511071.
Gesell, A., Thompson, H. 1929. Learning and growth in identical infant twins. Genet. Psychol. Monog., 6: 1124.
Gesell, A., Thompson, H. 1941. Twins T and C from infancy to adolescence; a biogenetic study of individual differences by the method of co-twin control. Genet. Psychol. Monogr., 24: 3122.
Geyer, H. 1940. Gegensaetzliche Aeusserung seelischer Anlagen bei erbgleichen Zwillingen. Zschr. menschl. Vererb., 24: 536546.
Gibson, J. 1733. An essay on the nutrition of the fetus in utero. Med. Essays and Observ. Edinb., 1: 171203.
Glaister, J. 1894. William Smellie and his Contemporaries. Glasgow: Maclehose. (In this otherwise valuable and definitive work, Glaister unaccountably and seriously erred in saying (page 193) that Smellie “declined to commit himself” about the independence of maternal and fetal circulations. Smellie clearly concluded his discussion of the problem by committing himself, and was in fact the first obstetrician to do so).
Glatzel, H. 1931. Beitraege zur Zwillingspathologie. Zschr. klin. Med., 116: 632668.
Glees, M. 1940. Ergebnisse von Zwillingsuntersuchungen. Ber. Deut. ophth. Ges., 53: 177181.
Goldenberg, R.R. 1948. Congenital bilateral complete absence of the radius in identical twins. J. Bone Surg., 30-A: 10011003. (This pair were concordant for three defects, and yet discordant in that two digits were missing from one hand of only one twin; cf. Quisenberry 1944).
Goldschmidt, R.B. 1920. Die quantitative Grundlage von Vererbung und Artbildung. Roux Vortr. Aufs. Entwickl. Org., 24: 1163.
Goldschmidt, R.B. 1927. Physiologische Theorie der Vererbung. Berlin: Springer.
Goldschmidt, R.B. 1935. Gen und Ausseneigenschaft, I. Zschr. indukt. Abstamm., 69: 3869.
Goldschmidt, R.B. 1938. Physiological Genetics. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Goldschmidt, R.B. 1940. The Material Basis of Evolution. New Haven: Yale Univ. Press.
Goll, H. 1940. Akrocephalosyndaktylie mit Spalthand bei einem Partner eines eineiigen Zwillingspaares. Zschr. menschl. Vererb., 24: 516535.
Gorer, P.A. 1938. The genetic interpretation of studies on cancer in twins. Ann. Eugen., 8: 219232.
Gordon, R.G., Roberts, J.A.F. 1938. Paraplegia and mongolism in twins. Arch. Dis. Childh., Lond., 13: 7984.
Gosset, W.S. (See Student).
Gottschaidt, K. 1939. Phaenogenetische Fragestellung im Bereich der Erbpsychologie. Zschr. indukt. Abstamm., 76: 118157.
Gottschick, J. 1937. Die Zwillingsmethode und ihre Anwendbarkeit in der menschlichen Erb- und Rassenforschung. Die beiden Hauptfragen der Zwillingsbiologie. Arch. Rassenb., 31: 185–210 and 337394.
Gottschick, J. 1939. Sprachpsychologie. Zwillingsuntersuchungen. Arch. ges. Psychol., 103: 170.
Graewe, H. 1938. Zwillinge und Schule. Erfurt: K. Stenger.
Grebe, H. 1949. Anencephalie bei einem Paarling von eineiigen Zwillingen. Virchows Arch. 316: 116124.
Greulich, W.W. 1934. Heredity in human twinning. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., 19: 391431.
Grillmayr, W., Kohlmann, T. 1949. Diskordante psychiatrische Bilder bei einem eineiigem Zwillingspaar. Wien. Zschr. Nervenh., 2: 441460.
Grueneberg, H. 1947. Animal Genetics and Medicine. London: H. Hamilton.
Gruenwald, P. 1942. Early human twins with peculiar relations to each other and the chorion. Anat. Ree, 83: 267279.
Gruenwald, P. 1947. Mechanisms of abnormal development. Arch. Path., Chic. 44: 398–436, 495–559, and 648664.
Guerich, H. 1937. Kongenitales Ektropium uveae bei eineiigen Zwillingen. Klin. Mbl. Augenh., 99: 345349.
Guldberg, E. 1938. Verschiedengeschlechtige eineiige Zwillinge. Acta Path. Microb. Scand. Suppl., 37: 197223.
Guttmacher, A.F., 19371939. An analysis of 573 cases of twin pregnancy. I. Differences in single and double ovum twinning. II. The hazards of pregnancy itself. Am. J. Obst., 34: 7684. 38: 277–288.
Guttmacher, A.F., Rand, E. 1933. Life in the Making. New York: Viking Press.
Hall, M. 1844. On the circulation in an acardiac fetus. London and Edinb. Mo. J. M. Sci., 3: 541547.
Hamblen, E.C., Baker, R.D., Derieux, G.D. 1937. Roentgenographic diagnosis and anatomic studies of a quintuple pregnancy. J. Am. M. Ass. 109: 1012. (Imbalance in the mutual circulation almost certainly produced the one deformed fetus in this monochorial set, which were the only fully reported monozygotic quintuplets born in this country).
Hamilton, W.J., Boyd, J.D., Mossman, H.W. 1945. Human Embryology. Prenatal Development of Form and Function. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.
Hamlett, G.W., Wislocki, G.B. 1934. Proposed classification for types of twins in mammals. Anat. Ree, 61: 8196. (This classification disregarded dichorial monozygotic cases, the existence of which had been firmly established by the work of Siemens, Curtius, and Lassen at that time).
Hanhart, E., Hautman, F., Schneider, G. 1950. Sur la concordance de l'idiotie chez les jumeaux univi-tellins. Arch. Julius Klaus Stift., 25: 1012.
Harris, R.P. 1874. Historical and analogical record of the Siamese twins. Am. J.M. Sci., 68: 359376.
Hart, D.B. 1912. Numan, the veterinarian and comparative anatomist of Utrecht; a forgotten observer on the free-martin. Trans. Edinb. Obst. Soc, 37: 89129.
Hart, D.B. 1918. John Hunter's free-martin; with remarks on some recent investigations. Edinb. M.J., 20: 8493.
Hart, D., Moody, J.D. 1949. Sex ratio; experimental studies demonstrating controlled variations — preliminary report. Ann. Surg., 129: 550571. (These authors mistakenly assumed that all monozygotic pairs were monochorial).
Hartman, C.G. 1920. The free-martin and its reciprocal; the opossum, man, dog. Science 52: 469471.
Hartman, C.G. 1926. Polynuclear ova and polyovular follicles in the opossum and other mammals, with special reference to the problem of fecundity. Am. J. Anat., 37: 151.
Hartman, C.G., League, B. 1925. Description of a sex-intergrade opossum, with an analysis of the constituents of its gonads. Anat. Rec., 29: 283297.
Hartman, G. 1939. Application of individual taste difference towards phenylthiocarbamide in genetic investigations. Ann. Eugen., 9: 123135.
Hartmann, H. 1933. Ueber Zwillingsforschung in der Psychiatrie. Wien. med. Wschr., 83: 781–785 and 809811.
Hartmann, H., Stumpfl, F. 1933. Ein Beitrag zum Thema; Zwillingsprobleme der Schizophrenie und zur Frage der Vererbung musikalischer Begabung. Zschr. ges. Neur. Psychiat., 143: 349366.
Havranek, J. 1949. Diabète juvenil avec hépatomégalie, nanisme et obésité chez un jumeau né d'une grossesse univitelline. Cas. lék. cesk., 88: 7174.
Hecker, C. 1864. Klinik der Geburtskunde; Beobachtungen und Untersuchunge, II. Leipzig: Englemann.
Heinonen, O. 1924. Ueber die Refraktion bei eineiigen Zwillingen, speziell in Hinsicht der asymmetrischen Faelle. Acta Ophth., 2: 3553.
Helwig-Larsen, H.R. 1947. Situs inversus in one monozygotic twin. Ann. Eugen., 14: 18.
Hempel, C.F. 1850. De Monstris Acephalis. Hafniae: Bianco Luno.
Hensen, V. 1881. Die Physiologie der Zeugung. In: Hermann, L. : Handbuch der Physiologie (Bd. 6). !Leipzig: Vogel.
Herrman, L., Hogben, L. 1932. The intellectual resemblances of twins. Proc. Roy. Soc. Edinb., 53: 105129.
Hill, J.P. 1926. Embryological development of Ha-pale jacchus. J. Anat., Cambridge, 60: 486487.
Hill, J.P. 1932. The developmental history of the primates. Phil. Trans. Roy Soc, London, B221: 45178; with 120 plates. (See p. 100-101 regarding placentation in marmosets).
Hirsch, N.D.M. 1930. Twins, Heredity and Environment. Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press.
Hobbs, G.E. 1941. Mental disorder in one of a pair of identical twins. Am. J. Psychiat. 98: 447450.
Hobbs, J.E., Jaudon, J.C. 1939. A phenomenal single ovum twin pregnancy. Am. J. Obst., 38: 504509.
Hodgkin, Cooper A. 1836. The history of an unusuallyformed placenta and imperfect fetus, and of similar examples of monstrous productions; with an account of the structure of the placenta and fetus. Guy's Hosp. Rep., Lond. 1: 218240.
Hofstetter, H.W. 1948. Accommodative convergence in identical twins. Am. J. Optom., 25: 480491.
Holzinger, K 1929. The relative effect of nature and nurture influences in twin differences. J. Educ. Psychol., 20: 241248.
Houston, J. 1836. An account of a human fetus without brain, heart or lungs, with observations on the nature and cause of the circulation in such monsters. Dublin J. M. Sci., 10: 204220.
Houston, J. 1844. On the circulation of the blood in acardiac fetuses; a reply to Marshall Hall. London and Edinb. Mo. J. M. Sci., 4: 238239.
Howard, R.W. 1947. The developmental history of a group of triplets. J. Genet. Psychol. 70: 191204.
Huebner, H. 1912. Die Doppelbildungen des Menschen und der Tiere. Ergebn. allg. pathol. Anat. Mensch. Tiere, 15-11: 1–346 and 922926.
Hueter, C.C. 1845. Der einfache Mutterkuchen der Zwillinge, Leipzig: Elwert.
Hunter, W. 1774. The Anatomy of the Human Gravid Uterus Exhibited in Figures. London: Baker and Leigh.
Huxley, J.S., De Beer, G.R. 1934. The Elements of Experimental Embryology. Cambridge: Univ. Press.
Hyrtl, J. 1870. Die Blutgefaesse der menschlichen Nachgeburt in normalen und abnormen Verhaeltnissen, Wien: Braumueller.
Idelberger, A.-M. 1939. Zwillingsforschung. Zschr. Kinderforschung, 47: 497511.
Idelberger, K. 1939. Zur Frage der anlagemaessigen Entstehung des angeborenen Klumpfusses und seiner Beziehung zu intellektuellen Stoerungen (Untersuchungen an einer unausgelesenen Zwillingsserie von 251 Paaren). Arch. Rassenb., 33: 304333.
Ignatiev, M.V. 1936. On the mathematical interpretation of twin correlations. Proc. Gorky Medico-Genet. Inst., Vol. 4. Moscow: Biomedgiz.
Ingelranz, P., Vanlerenberghe, J., Lachteretz, M. 1950. Maladie de Little chez deux jumeaux monozygotes. Rev. Orthop., 36: 320321.
Jablonski, W. 1922. Ein Beitrag zur Vererbung die Refraktion menschlicher Augen. Arch. Augenheilkunde, 91: 308328.
Jaubert, J.L., LeBarazer, E. 1948. Grossesse gémellaire, univitelline, monoamniotique; hydramnios aigu au septième mois, un fétus anancéphale, un fétus mylacéphale. J. Méd. Bordeaux, 125: 465466.
Jenkins, R.L. 1935. Dissimilar identical twins; results of brain injuries at birth. Am. J. Orthopsychiat., 5: 3942.
Jenkins, R.L., Glickman, E. 1934. Cerebral injury at birth to one of identical twins. Am. J. Dis. Child., 48: 130133.
Jennings, D. 1937. Identical twins., Lancet 2: 655.
Jennings, H.S. 1935. Genetics, N.Y.: Norton. (The discussion in chapter 10, pages 255265, reflects the relatively slight attention which biologists interested in lateral inversions have given to any other factors as likely causes of differences in monozygotic pairs).
Jeune, M., Confavreux, J. 1948. Une paire de jumeaux monoamniotiques en miroir (situs inversus et maladie bleue chez l'un d'eux). Arch. Franc. Pédiat., 5: 252–6.
Johnson, W.T. 1946. Unusual variation in identical twins and its etiology. Dent. Rec, Lond. 66: 307310.
Jones, H.E., Wilson, P.T. — See Wilson and Jones.
Jones, S.H., Younghusband, O.Z., Evans, J.A. 1948. Human parabiotic pygopagus twins with hypertension; report of a case with clinical, psychologic and endocrinologie observations. J. Am. M. Ass., 138: 642645. (The authors allude to fusion of dizygotic twin embryos to explain this pair's differences, most of which were probably due to imbalance in the mutual circulation).
Jost, H., Sontag, L.W. 1944. The genetic factor in autonomic nervous system function. Psychosomat. M. 6: 308310.
Juda, A. 1939. Neue psychiatrisch-genealogische Untersuchungen an Hilfschulzwillingen und ihren Familien. I. Die Zwillingsprobanden und ihre Partner. Zschr. ges. Neur. Psychiat. 166: 365452. (In working up the material of this remarkable investigation the author introduced categories (e.g. for “endogenous” vs. ‘exogenous” causation) which seem arbitrary at best, and the reasoning is often involved. However, most of the basic material is given in full and warrants further study).
Juda, A. 1940. Neue psychiatrisch- … (u.s.w.) II. Die Kollaterallen. III. Aszendenz und Deszendenz. Zschr. ges. Neur. Psychiat. 168: 488–491 and 804826.
Judge, D.J., Rice, E.C., Scalessa, C.F. 1949. Streptococcus meningitis in the newborn with report of cases in identical twins. Clin. Proc. Child. Hosp. Wash., 5: 4347.
Kabakoff, I.B., Ryvkin, I.A. 1934. An investigation of the electrocardiagram in twins. II. The role of heredity and environment in the variability of the electrocardiogram. Proc. Gorky Medico-Biol. Inst., Vol. 3. Moscow: Biomedgiz.
Kadjar, M.K. 1927. Contribution à l'étude de la circulation placentaire dans la grossesse multiple par la méthode stéréoradiographique. Gynécologie, 26: 449467.
Kahler, O.H., Weber, R. 1940. Zur Erbpathologie von Herz und Kreislauferkrankungen; Untersuchungen an einer auslesefrein Zwillingsserie. Zschr. klin. Med., 137: 380–417 and 508575.
Kallmann, F.J. 1941. The scientific goal in the prevention of hereditary mental disease and racial inferiority. Proc. Seventh (1939) Internat. Genetical Cong.; supplementary vol. of J. Genet.
Kallmann, F.J. 1946. The genetic theory of schizophrenia; an analysis of 691 schizophrenic twin index cases. Am. J. Psychiat. 103: 309322.
Kallmann, F.J. 1950. The genetics of psychoses; an analysis of 1,232 twin index families. Congrès International de Psychiatrie. No. 6: 140. Paris: Hermann & Cie.
Kallmann, F.J., Anastasio, M.M. 1947. Twin studies in the psychopathology of suicide. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis., 105: 4055.
Kallmann, F.J., Barrera, S.E. 1942. The heredoconstitutional mechanisms of predisposition and resistance to schizophrenia. Am. J. Psychiat., 98: 544550.
Kallmann, F.J., Barrera, S.E., Hoch, P.H., Kelley, D.M. 1941. The role of mental deficiency in the incidence of schizophrenia. Am. J. Ment. Defic, 45: 514539.
Kallmann, F.J., Reisner, D. 1943 a. Twin studies on genetic variations in resistance to tuberculosis. III. Statistical data on reinfection tuberculosis. J. Hered., 34: 293301.
Kallmann, F.J., Reisner, D. 1943 b. Twin studies on the significances of genetic factors in tuberculosis. Am. Rev. Tuberc. 47: 549574.
Kallmann, F.J., Sander, G. 1948. Twin studies on ageing and longevity. J. Hered., 39: 349357.
Kallmann, F.J., Sander, G. 1949. Twin studies on senescence. Am. J. Psychiat., 106: 2936.
Kampmeier, O.F. 1929. On the problem of “parthenogenesis” in the mammalian ovary. Am. J. Anat., 43: 4576.
Kasanin, J. 1934. A case of schizophrenia in only one of identical twins. Am. J. Psychiat., 91: 2128.
Keeler, C.E. 1929. On the amount of external mirror-imagery in double monsters and identical twins. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 15: 839842.
Kellet, C.E. 1933. On the occurrence of sex-linked variations in twins. Arch. Dis. Child., 8: 279290. (Author's belief that these infants were dizygotic twins hardly seems a more likely explanation of the intrapair difference than possible after-effects, of the mutual circulation).
Kerr, M. 1936. Temperamental differences in twins-Brit. J. Psychol, 27: 4759.
Kiffner, R. 1929. Stereoroentgenbefunde an Zwillings-placenten. Arch. Gynaek., 136: 111121.
.Kindred, J.E. 1944. Twin pregnancies with one twin blighted. Am. J. Obst. 48: 642682. (See also Mills 1949).
Klein, P. 1927. Zur Frage der Diagnose der Eineiigkeit bei Zwillingsschwangerschaft. Arch. Gyn., 130: 788812.
Kleinwaechter, L. 1871. Die Lehre von den Zwillingen. Prag: Haerpfer.
Knauer, A. 1939. Ergebnisse der Zwillingsprobe bei Syringomyelie. Zschr. ges. Neur. Psychiat., 165: 436438.
Koch, H.L. 1927. Some measurements of a pair of Siamese twins. J. Comp. Psycol., 7: 313333.
Koehn, W. 1933. Psychologische Untersuchungen an Zwillingen und Geschwistern ueber die Verebung der Kombinationsfaehigkeit. Arch. ges. Psychol., 88: 131200.
Koehn, W. 1935. Die Vererbung des Charakters; Studien an Zwillingen. Arch. Rassenb. 29: 126.
Komai, T., Fukuoka, G. 1931. A set of dichorionic identical triplets. J. Hered., 22: 233243.
Komai, T., Fukuoka, G. 1934. Postnatal growth disparity in monozygotic twins. J. Hered., 25: 423430.
Korkhaus, G. 1929. Die erste Dentition und der Zahnwechsel in Lichte der Zwillingsforschung. Fierteljschr. Zahnheilk., 45: 414430.
Kranz, H. 1936. Lebensschicksale krimineller Zwillinge. Berlin: Springer.
Kuestner, O. 1883. Ueber Hydramnion bei eineiigen Zwillingen. Arch. Gynaek., 21: 128.
Kuhlmann, K. 1933. Psychologisch-anthropologische Untersuchungen an Zwillingen. Ilmenau: Reiter. (Includes data on MZ pairs showing correspondence between somatic and psychological similarities is not marked).
Laignel-Levastine, Papillault 1929. Différences morphologiques, physiologiques et psychiques de deux jumeaux univitellines lieés à un variacocèle survenue à 10 ans chez l'un d'eux. Schweiz. Arch. Neur. 24: 100104.
Landauer, W. 1941. Teratological correlations and the mechanism of gene expression. Proc. Seventh (1939) Internat. Genetical Cong.; supplementary vol. of J. Genet. (Landauer here considers that, in addition to specific environmental factors which change growth at specific stages, there might also be some fairly general growth-retarding factors which act on the embryo as a whole and cause relatively “drastic deviations”).
Landauer, W. 1947. Insulin-induced abnormalities of beak, extremities and eyes of chickens. J. Exp. Zool., 105: 145172.
Landauer, W. 1948. The phenotypic modification of hereditary polydactylism of fowl by selection and by insulin. Genetics, 33: 133157.
Lange, J. 1928. Ueber Anlage und Umwelt; Zwillingsbiologische Betrachtung. Zschr. Kinderforsch., 34: 377390.
Lange, J. 1931. Crime as Destiny. London: Allen and Unwin.
Lasch, W. 1925. Zur Konstitutionspathologie der “angeborenen Pylorusstenose”. Muench. med. Wschr., 72: 11551156.
Lasker, G.W. 1947. Penetrance estimated by the frequency of unilateral occurrences and by discordance in monozygotic twins. Human Biol. 19: 217230.
Lasker, G.W. Reynolds, H.H. 1948. A cicatrix of the neck associated with anomalous dental occlusion in one of a pair of monozygous twins. Human Biol., 20: 3646.
Lassen, M.-T. 1931 a. Nachgeburtsbefunde bei Zwillingen und Aehnlichkeitsdiagnose. II. Arch. Gynaek., 147: 4864. (See Curtius, Steiner).
Lassen, M.-T. 1931 b. Zur Frage der Vererbung “sozialer und sittlicher Charakteranlagen” (auf Grund von Fragevoegen ueber Zwillinge). Arch. Rassenbiol., 25: 269278.
Lauterbach, C.E. 1925. Studies in twin resemblance. Genetics, 10: 525568.
Le Gras, A.M. 1932. Psychose en Kriminaliteit bij Tweelingen. Utrecht: Kemink and Son.
Le Gras, A.M. 1933. Psychose und Kriminalitaet bei Zwillingen. Zschr. ges. Neur. Psychiat., 144: 198222.
Lehmann, F.E., Huber, W. 1944. Beobachtung von Tubifex ueber die Bildung von Doppeleiern bei der zweiten Reifungsteilung und die Frage der Entstehung ovozytaerer Zwillinge. Arch. Jul. Klaus Stift., 19: 473476.
Lehmann, W. 1937. Diskordantes Auftreten einer schweren Kyphoskoliose bei einem eineiigen Zwillingspaar. Zschr. menschl. Vererb., 20: 237245.
Lehtovaara, A. 1938. Psychologische Zwillingsuntersuchungen. Helsinki: Suom. Tiedeakatemia.
Lemser, H. 1941. Ypophysen Tumor und Zwillingsdiagnose. Proc. Seventh (1939) Internat. Genetical Cong.; supplementary vol. J. Genet.
Lennox, W.G., Collins, A.L. 1945. Intelligence of normal and epileptic twins. Am. J. Psychiat., 101: 764769.
Lennox, W.G., Gibbs, E.L. 1945. The brainwave pattern, an hereditary trait; evidence from 74 “normal” pairs of twins. J. Hered., 36: 233243.
Lenz, F. 1932. Zur genetischen Deutung von Zwillingsbefunden. Zschr. indukt. Abstamm., 62: 153159.
Lenz, F. 1933. Zur Frage der Ursachen von Zwillingsgeburten. Arch. Rassenb., 27: 294318.
Lenz, F. 1935. Inwieweit kann man aus Zwillingsbefunden auf Erbbedingtheit oder Umwelteinfluss schliessen? Deut. med. Wschr., 61-1: 873875.
Lenz, F. 1936. Some remarks on the twin method in the study of human heredity. Research and Progress, 2: 175178.
Lenz, F. 1948. Ueber die Relativitaet des Begriffs “erblich” in der menschlichen Erbforschung. Grenzgebiete Med., 1: 135141.
Lenz, F. 1950. Zur Geschichte der Zwillingsmethode. Zschr. menschl. Vererb., 29: 820824. (See also Thorndike 1905, Le Gras 1932, and Waarden-burg 1947, for further comments on the puzzling question of just what Galton believed concerning the types of twins).
Leven, L. 1924. Zur methodologischen Bedeutung der Zwillingspathologie. Muench. med. Wschr., 71: 837. (See also pages 11-12, 404, and 590-591).
Levit, S.G., Soboleva, G.V. 1935. Comparative intrapair correlations of fraternal twins and siblings. J. Genetics, 30: 389396.
Levret, A. 1766. L'Art des Accouchemens Demontre par des Principes de Physique et de Méchanique. Paris: D'Houry.
Lewis, A.J. 1934. Acromegaly in one of uniovular twins. J. Neur. Psychopath., Lond. 15: 111.
Lewis, F.L.K. 1944. Pyloric stenosis in identical twins. Brit. M.J. (1944 vol.): 221.
Ley, J. 1929. Un cas d'audimutité idiopathique (aphasie congenitale) chez des jumeaux monozygotiques. Encéphale, 24: 121165.
Liebenam, L. 1938. Zwillingspathologische Untersuchungen aus dem Gebiet der Anomalien der Koerperform. A: Partieller Riesenwuchs. B: Angeborener Pectoralisdefekt. Zschr. menschl. Vererb., 22: 373417.
Lillie, F.R. 1917. The free-martin; a study of the action of sex hormones in the fetal life of cattle. J. Exp. Zool., 23: 371452.
Lillie, F.R. 1923. Supplementary notes on twins in cattle. Biol. Bull., 44: 4778.
Lisch, K., Thums, K. 1937. Diskordantes Vorkommen von Mikrophagie mit Schichtstar und Littlescher Krankheit bei einem eineiigen Zwillingspaar mit Zeichen des Status dysraphicus. Zschr. menschl. Vererb., 21: 220235.
Litt, S., Strauss, H. 1930. Monoamniotic twins, one normal, the other anencephalic; multiple true knots in the cords. Am. J. Obst. 30: 728730.
Little, S.C., Weaver, N.K. 1950. Epilepsy in twins. An analysis of five twin pairs with electro-ence-phalographic studies. Am. J. Dis. Child., 79: 223232.
Littre, E. 1853. Oeuvres Completes d'Hippocrate (Tome VIII). Paris: Bailliére.
Luisa, C.B. 1949. Consideraciones acerca de un parto gemelar con enfermedad hemolitica fetal. Medicina, Madr., 17: 169179.
Lottig, H. 1931. Hamburger Zwillingstudien. Anthropologische und charakterologische Untersuchungen an ein- und zweieiigen Zwillingen. Zschr. ang. Psychol. Beih. 61. (122 pages).
Lotze, R. 1937. Zwillinge; Einfuehrung in die Zwillingsforschung. Oehringen: Ferd. Rau.
Luchsinger, R. 1944. Erbbiologische Untersuchungen an ein- und zweieiigen Zwillingen in Beziehung zur Groesse und Form des Kehlkopfes. Arch. Julius Klaus Stift., 19: 393441.
Luchsinger, R., Hanhart, E. 1949. Ueber erhebliche Manifestationsschwankungen rezessiver Taubheit bei drei eineiigen Zwillingspaaren. Arch. Julius Klaus Stift., 24: 417436.
Ludwig, E. 1927. Ueber die Verteilung der Erbmasse unter eineiige Zwillinge. Schweiz, med. Wschr., 57: 10411042.
Lueneberg, H. (Transl.) 1894. Soranus of Ephesus. Die Gynaekologie, Geburtshilfe, Frauen- und Kinder-Krankheiten, Diataetik der Neugeborenen. Muenchen: Lehrmann.
Lueth, K.F. 1937. Endokrine Stoerungen bei eineiigen Zwillingen. Zschr. menschl. Vererb., 21: 5567.
Lundstroem, A. 1948. Tooth Size and Occlusion in Twins. New York: S. Karger.
Lundstroem, A. 1949. An investigation of 202 pairs of twins regarding fundamental factors in the etiology of malocclusion. Dent. Ree, 69: 251264. (Author notes this is a “concentrated report” of his 1948 monograph).
Lustig, B. 1950. Zur Identitaet von Zwillingsdepression. Nervenarzt, 21: 440442.
Luxenberger, H. 1930. Psychiatrisch-neurologische Zwillingspathologie. Zbl. ges. Neur. Psychiat., 56: 145180.
Luxenberger, H. 1932. Leistungen und Aussichten der menschlichen Mehrlingsforschung fuer die Medizin. Zschr. indukt. Abstamm., 61: 223260.
Luxenberger, H. 1940. Statistik und psychiatrische Erbforschung. In Burgdoerfer, F. (Ed.): Die Statistik in Deutschland (Bd. I). Berlin: F. Zahn.
Macarthur, J.W. 1938. Genetics of quintuplets. I. Diagnosis of the Dionne quintuplets as a monozygotic set. J. Hered., 29: 323329.
Macarthur, J.W., Dafoe, A.R. 1939. Genetics of quintuplets. II. Trends of growth in the Dionne quintuplets. J. Hered., 30: 359364.
Macklin, M.T. 1936. Heredity as the cause of congenital malformations. Am. J. Obst., 32: 258265.
Macklin, M.T. 1940. Analysis of tumors in monozy-gous and dizygous twins recorded in the literature together with a report of 19 unpublished cases. J. Hered., 31: 277286.
Macklin, M.T. 1941. Tumors in monozygous and dizygous twins; a report of 19 cases. Canad. M. Ass. J., 44: 604606.
Marchand, F. 1897. Missbildungen; die Doppelbildungen (monstra duplicia). In: Eulenburg, A.: Real-Encyclopedie der gesammten Heilkunde (Bd. 15). Leipzig: Urban and Schwarzenberg.
Margolis, H.M., Eisenstein, V. 1933. Twins as biologic controls in a study of human constitution; an additional approach to the study of clinical medicine. Ann. Int. M., 6: 14891506.
McClintock, K. 1945. Congenital malformation of the heart in one of identical twins. Arch. Dis. Child., Lond. 20: 4748.
McNemar, Q. 1933. Twin resemblances in motor skills and the effect of practice thereon. J. Genet. Psychol., 42: 7097.
McNemar, Q. 1938. Special review of Newman, Freeman, and Holzinger's “Twins”. Psychol. Bull., 35: 235237. 35: 436–444 (Holzinger's reply). 35: 522–524 (McNemar's rejoinder).
Meckel, H. 1850. Ueber die Verhaeltnisse des Geschlechts, der Lebensfaehigkeit und der Eihaeute bei einfachen und Mehrgeburten. Muellers Arch. Anat. Physiol., 3: 235272.
Meckel, J.F. 1812. Ueber die Zwitterbildungen. Reils Arch. Physiol., 11: 263340.
Meckel, J.F. 1815. De Duplicitate Monstrosa Com-mentarius. Halle: Lib. Orphanotrophel.
Meirowsky, E. 1926. Zwillingsbiologische Untersuchungen mit besonderer Beruecksichtigung der Frage der Aetiologie der Muttermaeler. Arch. Rass. Gesell. Biol., 18: 270296.
Melsom, R. 1945. Dermatological investigations on 22 pairs of identical twins. Acta Derm. Vener., Stockh. 25: 2947.
Menninger, W.C. 1934. The psychological picture of a case of Laurence-Moon-Biedl syndrome. Endocrinology, 18: 583590.
Merriman, C. 1924. The intellectual resemblance of twins. Psychol. Monogr., 33: No. 5.
Mery, J. 1720. Observations faites sur un fétus humain monstrueux. Hist. Acad. Roy. Sci., 2: 814.
Meumann, I. 1935. Testpsychologie Untersuchungen an ein- und zweieiigen Zwillingen. Arch. ges. Psychol., 93: 4281.
Mills, W.G. 1949. Pathological changes in blighted twins. J. Obst. Gyn. Brit. Emp. 56: 619624. (Includes an important critique of Kindred's 1944 paper).
Misbach, L., Stromberg, R.N. 1941. Non-separation as a source of dissimilarities between monozygotic twins; a case report. J. Genet. Psychol., 59: 249256.
Monro, A. 1792. Description of a human male monster. Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinb., 3: 215230.
Montagu, M.F.A. 1944. Heredity and environment in twins. In Glasser, O. (Ed.): Medical Physics. Chicago: Year Book Pub. (Author's attack on what he calls “biologistic bias” among students of twins seems to lack some logic and fairness).
Moore, C.R. 1947. Embryonic Sex Hormones and Sexual Differentiation. Springfield, Ill.: C.C. Thomas.
Moreau, J. 1859. La Psychologie Morbide dans ses Rapports avec la Philosophie de l'Histoire ou de l'Influence des Nevropathies sur le Dynamism Intellectuel. Paris: Librairie V. Masson.
Morgan, T.H. 1934. Embryology and Genetics. New York: Columbia Univ. Press.
Morikawa, N. 1939. Morphologische Untersuchung der Leber. Okajimas Fol. Anat., Jap. 18: 180.
Morison, J.E. 1949. Congenital malformations in one of monozygotic twins. Arch. Dis. Child., Lond. 119: 214218.
Morrill, C.V. 1919. Symmetry reversal and mirror-imaging in monstrous trout and a comparison with similar conditions in human double monsters. Anat. Rec., 16: 265291.
Morsier, G. de, Rey, A. 1944. Modifications du phénotype par un traumatisme cérébral chez une jumelle univitelline. Arch. Jul. Klaus Stift., 19: 463468.
Muller, H.J. 1925. Mental traits and heredity; the extent to which mental traits are independent of heredity, as tested in a case of identical twins reared apart. J. Hered., 16: 432448.
Muller, H.J. 1947. Genetic fundamentals; the work of the genes. In Muller, H.J., Little, C.C., Snyder, L.H.: Genetics, Medicine, and Man., Ithaca: Cornell Univ. Press.
Murray, G.R. 1925. A study of twins in health and disease. Lancet, 1: 529532.
Mutel, M., Vermelin, H. 1922. Contribution à l'étude de la circulation fétoplacentaire dans les gémellaires uniovulaires. Gynec. Obst., Par. 5: 294306. (See also in 1928, Vol. 18: 217).
Nehls, G. 1940. Caries und Paradentose bei Zwillingen. Zschr. menschl. Vererb., 24: 235247.
Nettleship, E. 1912. Some unusual pedigrees of colorblindness. Trans. Ophth. Soc. U.K., 32: 309336.
Newcomb, S. 1904. A statistical inquiry into the probality of causes of the production of sex in human offspring. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Public. No. 11.
Newell, H.W. 1930. Differences in personalities in the surviving pair of identical triplets. Am. J. Orthopsychiat., 1: 6180.
Newman, H.H. 1915. Heredity and organic symmetry in armadillo quadruplets. I. Modes of inheritance of band anomalies. Biol. Bull., 29: 132.
Newman, H.H. 1916. Heredity and organic symmetry in armadillo quadruplets. II. Mode of inheritance of double scutes and a discussion of organic symmetry. Biol. Bull., 30: 173209.
Newman, H.H. 1917. The Biology of Twins. Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press.
Newman, H.H. 1921 a. The experimental production of twins and double monsters in the larvae of the starfish Patiria miniata. J. Exp. Zool., 33: 321352.
Newman, H.H. 1921 a. On the development of the spontaneously parthenogenetic eggs of Asteria (Patiria) miniata. Biol. Bull., 40: 105117.
Newman, H.H. 1922. Twins and the relative potency of heredity and environment in development. Am. Sociol. Soc. Public, 17: 5161.
Newman, H.H. 1923. The Physiology of Twinning. Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press.
Newman, H.H. 1928. Studies of human twins. II. Asymmetry reversal or mirror-imaging in identical twins. Biol. Bull., 55: 298315.
Newman, H.H. 1931 a. Palm-print patterns in twins; on the use of dermatoglyphics as an aid in the diagnosis of monozygoic and dizygotic twins. J. Hered., 22: 4149.
Newman, H.H. 19316. Differences between conjoined twins in relation to a general theory of twinning. J. Hered., 22: 201215.
Newman, H.H. 1934. Brief reply to Reichle's article. J. Hered., 25: 3738.
Newman, H.H. 1940 a. The question of mirror-imaging in human one-egg twins. Human Biol., 12: 2134.
Newman, H.H. 19406. Multiple Human Births. New York: Doubleday Doran.
Newman, H.H. 1941. Aspects of twin research. Sc. Month., 52: 99112.
Newman, H.H., Freeman, F.N., Holzinger, K.J. 1937. Twins. A study of Heredity and Environment. Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press.
Newman, H.H., Patterson, J.T. 1911. The limits of hereditary control in armadillo quadruplers; a study of blastogenic variation. J. Morph., 22: 855926. (See also 1910, Vol. 21).
Newman, H.H., Quisenberry, W.B. 1944. One-egg twins with spina bifida and Polydactyly. J. Hered., 35: 309314.
Norinder, Y. 1946. Twin Differences in Writing-Performance. A study of Heredity and School Training. Lund: H. Ohlssons. (Includes, pages 164, a valuable review of psychological studies of twins).
Numan, A. 1844. Mémoire sur les vaches stériles, connues sou le nom d'hermaphrodites, comparées à d'autres animaux portant des vices de conformation de l'appareil sexuel. J. Vet. Agrie Belgique, 3: 75–91, 115–134, and 155182.
Oestlyngen, E. 1945. Ueber erbliche und umweltliche Bedingtheit der Variabilitaet von Handschriften; eine Studie ueber Zwillingsschriften. Acta Psychiat., 20: 75106.
Oldag, 1920. Schatz. Mschr. Geburtsh. Gynaek., 52: 268270.
Orel, H. 1929. Laengen- und Massen Wachstum von Zwillingen; kleine Beitraege zur Vererbungswissenschaft. Zschr. Kinderh., 48: 114.
Ostertag, M., Spaich, D. 1936. Diskordantes Auftreten einer isolierten kongenitalen Dextrokardie bei einem eineiigen Zwillingspaar. Zschr. menschl. Vererb., 19: 577584.
Owen, R.D. 1945. Immunogenetic consequences of vascular anastomoses between bovine twins. Science, 102: 400401.
Parpart, A.K. (Ed.) 1946. Chemistry and physiology of growth; Summary. Princeton Univ. Bicent. Conf., Series I, Conf. 2.
Paterson, J.H. 1949. Hysteria in one of a pair of identical twins. J. Neur. Psychiat., Lond. 12: 160164.
Pearson, K. 1924. The Life, Letters and Labours of Francis Galton. II. Researches of Middle Life. Cambridge: Univ. Press.
Penrose, L.S. 1937. Congenital syphilis in a monovular twin. Lancet, 1: 322.
Perez, M.L., Firpo, J.R., Baldi, E.M. 1947. Sobre les anastomosis circulatorias de las placentas dizígóticas. Obst. Gyn. Latin-Am., 5: 522.
Perlstein, M.A., Lecount, E.R. 1927. Pygopagus twins; the history and necropsy report of the twins Rosa-Josepha Blazek. Arch. Path., Chic. 3: 171192.
Petoe, E. 1946. The psycho-analysis of identical twins, with reference to inheritance. Internat. J. Psychoanal., Lond. 27: 126129.
Pfister, A. 1937. Beobachtungen an eineiigen Zwillingspaaren. Arch. Jul. Klaus Stift., 12: 587629.
Poll, H. 1914. Ueber Zwillingsforschung als Hilfsmittel menschlicher Erbkunde. Zschr. Ethnol., 46: 87105.
Popenoe, P. 1922. Twins reared apart. J. Hered. 13: 142144.
Porak, C. 1900. Sur un monstre thoraco-xiphopage. Bull. Acad. Méd., Paris. 44: 334370 (See page 354 ff.).
Portal, P. 1685. La Practique des Accouchemens Soutenue d'un Grand Nombre d'Observations. Paris: G. Martin.
Potter, E.L., Fuller, H. 1949. Multiple pregnancies at the Chicago Lying-in Hospital, 1941 to 1947. Am. J. Obst., 58: 139146.
Price, B. 1949. Toward reducing ambiguities in twin studies. Proc. Eighth (1948) Internat. Cong. Genetics. Hereditas 35 (Supp.): 643644.
Prochownik, 1920. Friedrich Schatz. Arch. Gynaek., 113: vxviii.
Pusey, W.A., Ratner, H. 1934. Acne in one of identical twins. Arch. Derm. Syph., Chic. 29: 706.
Quick, A.J., Conway, J.P. 1949. Hemophilia in twins. Am. J. Med., 7: 841843.
Quigley, J.K. 1935. Monoamniotic twin pregnancy; a case record with review of the literature. Am. J. Obst., 29: 354362.
Quisenberry, W.B. 1944. Spina bifida and Polydactyly in one-egg twins. Virginia M. Month., 71: 309311.
Reed, G.E. 1935. Uniovular twins; schizophrenia and tuberculosis. Canad. M. Ass. J., 32: 180182.
Reichle, H.S. 1929 a. The diagnosis of the type of twinning. I. Dermatoglyphics. Biol. Bull., 56: 164176.
Reichle, H.S. 1929 b. The diagnosis of mono-ovular twinning. II. Clinical aspects. Biol. Bull., 56: 313326.
Reichle, H.S. 1934. The diagnosis of monozygotic twinning. J. Hered., 25: 3337.
Reinhard, W.E. 1948. Ueber diskordantes Auftreten des angeborenen Kumpfusses bei eineiigen Zwillingen. Deut. med. Rschau., 2: 130132.
Renssen, W. 1942. A case of discordant ptosis in monozygotic twins. Genetica, Gravenh. 23: 247256.
Rexroad, C.N. 1932 Recent studies of twin resemblance. Psycol. Bull., 29: 204217.
Reynolds, E.L., Schoen, G. 1947. Growth patterns of identical triplets from 8 through 18 years. Child Developm., 18: 130151. (Summarizes measurements taken on the Kramer set).
Riddle, O. 1923. On the cause of twinning and abnormal development in birds. Am. J. Anat., 32: 199252.
Rife, D.C. 1933 a. Genetic studies of monozygotic twins. I. A diagnostic formula. J. Hered., 29: 339345.
Rife, D.C. 1933 a. Genetic studies of monozygotic twins. II. Finger-patterns and eye color as criteria of monozygosity. J. Hered., 24: 407414.
Rife, D.C. 1933 c. Genetic studies of monozygotic twins. III. Mirrorimaging. J. Hered., 24: 443446.
Rife, D.C. 1935. Twin differences in intelligence. J. Educ. Psychol., 26: 709712.
Rife, D.C. 1938 a. Contributions of the 1937 National Twins' Convention to research. J. Hered., 29: 8390.
Rife, D.C. 1938 b. Simple modes of inheritance and the study of twins. Ohio J. Sci., 38: 281293.
Rife, D.C. 1939. The study of twins. Sc. Month., 47: 238245. (Author considers that monozygotic pairs showing reversed handedness are genoty-pically ambidextrous, and that the handedness of such individual twins has been affected by intrauterine position).
Rife, D.C. 1940. Handedness, with special reference to twins. Genetics, 25: 178186.
Rife, D.C. 1941. Heredity and twins. Sci. Mo., 53: 148154.
Rife, D.C. 1943. Genetic interrelationships of dermatoglyphics and functional handedness. Genetics, 28: 4148.
Rife, D.C. 1950. An application of gene frequency analysis to the interpretation of data from twins. Human Biol., 22: 136145.
Rife, D.C., Cummins, H. 1943. Dermatoglyphics and “mirror-imaging”. Human Biol., 15: 5464. (Authors hold that “conditions in utero… have no effect on bilateral asymmetries of dermatoglyphics”).
Rife, D.C., Price, B., Snyder, L.H. 1938. Twin light on nature versus nurture; review of “Twins” by Newman, Freeman, and Holzinger. J. Hered., 29: 2126. (The expression gamma = 2irfr on page 25 was misprinted; it should read gamma = 2(ir — fr).
Roberts, J.A.F. 1935. Twins. Eugen. Rev., Lond. 27: 2532.
Roberts, J.A.F. 1947. High grade mental deficiency in relation to differential fertility. J. Ment. Sci., Lond. 93: 289295.
Robertson, E.C., Tatham, C.M., Walker, N., Ford., Weaver M.R. 1947. The effect of added thiamine on growth, vision, and learning, using identical twins. J. Nutrit., 34: 691700.
Romanus, T. 1947. Psoriasis in twins. Hereditas, 33: 297300.
Rosanoff, A.J. 1935. Some clinical manifestations of traumatic decerebration. Psychiat. Quart., 9: 116128.
Rosanoff, A.J., Handy, L.M., Rosanoff, I.A. 1934. The etiology of epilepsy with special reference to its occurrence in twins. Arch. Neur. Psychiat., Chic. 31: 11651193.
Rosanoff, A.J., Handy, L.M., Plesset, I.R. 1937. The etiology of mental deficiency with special reference to its occurrence in twins; a chapter in the genetic history of human intelligence. Psychol. Monog., 48: Whole No. 216.
Rosanoff, A.J., Handy, L.M., Plesset, I.R. 1941. The Etiology of Child Behavior Difficulties, Juvenile Delinquency and Adult Criminality with Special Reference to their Occurrence in Twins. Sacramento: Calif. State Dept. of Institutions.
Roux, W. 1888. Beitraegezur Entwickelungsmechanik des Embryo. Virchows Arch., 114: 113153.
Rush, B. 1812. Medical Inquiries and Observations upon the Diseases of the Mind. Philadelphia: Kimber and Richardson. (Rush, pages 4851, was the first to publish a report on monozygotic twins who both suicided, and to generalize concerning the “hereditary sameness of organization of the nerves, brain, and blood vessels on which… the predisposition to madness depends”).
Sanders, J. 1934. Homosexuelle Zwillingen. Genetica, 16: 401434.
Sangvichien, S. 1937. A thoracophagus, one with harelip and cleft palate. Anat. Rec., 67: 157158.
Scammon, R.E. 1925. Fetal malformations. In Abt, I. A. (Ed.): Pediatrics (Vol. 6). Philadelphia: Saunders. (Schatz's views on acardii were dismissed by Scammon, who felt “general primary perversion of development” was a satisfactory explanation of such cases).
Schachter, M. 1947. Vitiligo généralisé chez un jumeau univitellin. Syndrome diéncephalo-pitui-taire probable. Profil neuropsychologique. Ann. Pediat., Basel. 179: 337344.
Schachter, M. 1950. Régression affective et psychomotrice chez des jumelles univitellines; rôle des facteurs mésologiques. Arch. Internat. Neur., 69: 170173.
Schaper, G. 1950. Diskordantes Auftreten spastischer Pylorusstenose bei eineiigen Zwillingen. Kindei-raertzl. Prax., 18: 244246.
Schatz, F. 1868. Der Geburtsmechanismus der Kopfendlagen nach zum grossen Theil neuen Anschauungen dargestellt. Leipzig: Wigand.
Schatz, F. 1875. Zur Frage ueber die Quelle des Fruchtwassers und ueber Embryones papyracei. Arch. Gynaek., 7: 336338.
Schatz, F. 1882. Eine besondere Art von einseitiger Polyhydramnie mit anderseitiger Oligohydramnie bei eineiigen Zwillingen (Makrocardii). Arch. Gynaek., 19: 329369.
Schatz, F. 1884. Die Gefaessverbindungen der Pla-centakreislaeufe eineiiger Zwillinge, ihre Entwicklung und ihre Folgen. I. Die Gefaessverbindungen an der ausgebildeten Placenta. Arch. Gynaek., 24: 337399.
Schatz, F. 1885. Die Gefaessverbindungen der Pla-centakreislaeufe eineiiger Zwillinge, ihre Entwicklung und ihre Folgen. II. Die Entwicklung der Gefaessverbindungen und ihre Folgen; A. Die Entwicklung. Arch. Gynaek., 27: 172.
Schatz, F. 1887 a. Die Gefaessverbindungen der Pla-centakreislaufe eineiiger Zwillinge, ihre Entwickln und ihre Folgen. II. Die Entwicklung der Gefaessverbindungen und ihre Folgen; B. Die Folgen. Arch. Gynaek., 29: 419442.
Schatz, F. 1887 a. Die Gefaessverbindungen der Pla-centakreislaufe eineiiger Zwillinge, ihre Entwicklung und ihre Folgen. II. B. Die Folgen: (1) Allgemeiner Theil, (2) Specieller Theil. Arch. Gynaek., 30: 169–240 and 335381.
Schatz, F. 18971900. Die Gefaessverbindungen der Placentakreislaufe eineiiger Zwillinge, ihre Entwicklung und ihre Folgen. III. Die Acardii und ihre Verwandten. Arch. Gynaek., 53: 144182; 55: 485–615; 58: 1–82; 60: 81–146, and 201–251.
Schatz, F. 1900 a. Klinische Beitraege zur Physiologie des Foetus. Berlin: A. Hirschwald.
Schatz, F. 1900 b. Systematisches und alphabetisches Inhaltsverzeichniss. Arch. Gynaek., 60: 559584.
Schatz, F. 1910 a. Nachtraege zu meinem Monograph; Die Gefaessverbindungen der Placentakreislaeufe eineiiger Zwillinge, ihre Entwicklung und ihre Folgen. Arch. Gynaek., 92: 1330.
Schatz, F. 1910 a. Klinische Beitraege zur Physiologie der Schwangerschaft. Leipzig: J.A. Barth.
Schiff, F., Verschuer, O. von, 1931. Serologische Untersuchungen an Zwillingen. I. Klin. Wschr. 10-1: 723726.
Schiller, M. 1936. Zwillingsprobleme, dargestellt auf Grund von Untersuchungen an Stuttgarter Zwillingen. Zschr. menschl. Vererb., 20: 284337.
Schilling, R. 1950. Ueber die Stimme erbgleicher Zwillinge. Folia Phoniat., 2: 98119. 2: 205–238.
Schinz, H.R. 1945. Konkordanz, Diskordanz und Penetranz bei eineiigen Zwillingen (Versuch einer elementaren Darstellung). Arch. Jul. Klaus Stift., 20: 1325.
Schultze, B. 1854. Ueber anomale Duplicitaet der Axenorgane. Virchows Arch., 7: 479531.
Schultze, B. 1856. Ueber die Entstehung der Doppelmonstra. Maschr. Geburtsk. Frauenkr., 7: 247285.
Schulz, B. 1939. Ueber Auslesemoeglichkeit beim Sammeln von Zwillingserien. Zschr. Psychiat. Grenzgebiete. 112: 138147.
Schwalbe, E. 1907. Die Morphologie der Missbildungen des Menschen und der Tiere. II. Die Doppelbildungen. Jena: G. Fischer.
Scipiades, E., Burg, E. 1930. Ueber die Morphologie der menschlichen Placenta mit besonderer Ruecksicht auf unsere eigenen Studien. Arch. Gynaek., 141: 577619.
Segall, G. 1948. Taste-blind identical twins with diabetes and other striking characteristics. J. Hered., 39: 228232.
Shah, K.A. 1948. Twins and their medico-social importance. Ind. M. Gaz. 83: 294297.
Sheldon, W. 1938. Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis in one of uniovular twins. Lancet, I: 10481049.
Shordania, J. 1929. Der architektonische Aufbau der Gefaessen der menschlichen Nachgeburt und ihre Beziehungen zur Entwicklung der Frucht. Arch. Gyn., 135: 568598.
Shuttleworth, F.K. 1935. The nature versus nurture problem. J. Educ. Psychol, 26: 561–578 and 655681.
Shuttleworth, F.K. 1938. Rosanoff, Handy, and Plesset on the etiology of mental deficiency; a critical appraisal. J. Educ. Psychol, 29: 374383.
Siemens, H.W. 1923. Einfuehrung in die allgemeine und spezielle Vererbungspathologie des Menschen; ein Lehrbuch fuer Studierende und Aertze. Berlin: Springer.
Siemens, H.W. 1924 a. Die Zwillingspathologie; ihre Bedeutung, ihre Methodik, ihre bisherigen Ergebnisse. Berlin: Springer.
Siemens, H.W. 1924 b. Zur Aetiologie Turmschaedels, nebst Mitteilung einer dermatologischen Methode zur Diagnose Eineiigkeit bei Zwillingen. Virchows Arch., 253: 746765.
Siemens, H.W. 1925 a. Ueber die Eineiigkeitsdiagnose der Zwillinge aus den Eihaeuten und aus dem dermatologischen Befund. Zschr. indukt. Abstamm 37: 122124.
Siemens, H.W. 1925 b. Die Diagnose der Eineiigkeit in geburtshilflicher und in dermatologischer Betrachtung. Arch. Gynaek., 126: 623645.
Siemens, H.W. 1927 a. The diagnosis of identity in twins. J. Hered., 18: 201209.
Siemens, H.W. 1927 b. Das Problem der Erbgleichheit bei eineiigen Zwillingen. Virchows Arch., 264: 323346.
Siemens, H.W. 1932. Die allgemeinen Ergebnisse der menschlichen Mehrlingsforschung. Zschr. indukt. Abstamm., 61: 208222.
Siemens, H.W., Hunold, X. 1924. Zwillingspathologische Untersuchungen der Mundhoehle. Arch. Dermat. Syph., 147: 409423.
Sievers, E. 1934. Bericht aus dem Leben eines erbgleichen Zwillingspaares mit einigen bemerkenswerten psychischen Diskordanzen. Allg. Zschr. Psychiat., 102: 246283.
Simpson, J.Y. 1836. Hermaphroditism. In Todd, R.B.: Cylopedia of Anatomy and Physiology (Vol. 2, pp. 684737). London: Longman's.
Simpson, J.Y. 1844. On the alleged infecundity of females born co-twins with males, with some notes on the average proportion of marriages without issue in general society. Edinb. M. Surg. J., 61: 107119.
Sinclair, J.G. 1949. Placentas from multiple births. Texas Rep. Biol. M., 7: 5057.
Slater, E.T.O. 1938. Twin research in psychiatry; a critical review. J. Neur. Psychiat., Lond. I: 239258.
Slater, E. 1950. The genetical aspects of personality and neurosis. Congrès International de Psychiatrie, No. 6: 119152. (See pages 136-140 and 142).
Smellie, W. 1752. A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Midwifery. The Second Edition, Corrected. London: Wilson and Durham. (1st ed., 1751, is not extant, as only a few copies were published.).
Smith, G. 1947. Psychological tests with twins. Hereditas, 33: 420421. (Author alludes to primary bias, while stressing secondary bias as both a similarity-producing and a difference-producing factor in monozygotic pairs).
Smith, G. 1949. Psychological studies of twin differences, with reference to afterimage and eidetic phenomena as wall as more general personality characteristics. Lund: Gleerup. (See pages 2427.)
Smith, J.C. 1929. Aandssvaghendens aarsagsforhold belyst ved undersoegelser af tvillinger. Meddelelser om Danmarks Antropologi (den Antropol. Komite). 3: 83234.
Smith, J.C. 1930. Das Ursachenverhaeltnis des Schwachsinns beleuchtet durch Untersuchungen von Zwillingen. Zschr. ges. Neur. Psychiat. 125: 678692.
Sontag, L.W., Reynolds, E.L. 1944. Ossification sequences in identical triplets; a longitudinal study. J. Hered., 35: 5764.
Spaeth, J. 1860. Studien ueber Zwillingen. Zschr. Gesell. Aerzte Wien., 3: 225–231 and 241244. (English translation 2 years later in Edinb. M.J. 7 (II): 841-849).
Spaich, D., Ostertag, M. 1936. Untersuchungen ueber allergische Erkrankungen bei Zwillingen. Zschr. menschl. Vererb., 19: 731752.
Spemann, H. 1938. Embryonic development and induction. New Haven: Yale Univ. Press.
Stalpart van Der Wiel, C. 1687. Observationes Ra-riores Medicae Anatomicae Chirurgicae; Centuria Prior. Leyden: Petrus van der Aa.
Steiner, F. 1935. Nachgeburtsbefunde bei Mehrlingen und Aehnlichkeitsdiagnose. III. Arch. Gynaek., 159: 509523. (See also Curtius; Lassen).
Steiner, F. 1936. Beobachtungen zur Basedowschen Krankheit, des Biedl-Lawrenceschen Syndrome und der Cholelithiasis. Zschr. menschl. Vererb., 20: 7377.
Stern, C. 1949. Principles of Human Genetics. San Francisco: Freeman and Co.
Stern, C., Enders, T. 1948. The frequencies of twins relative to age of mothers in American populations. Genetics, 33: 263272.
Stockard, C.R. 1921. A probable explanation of polyembryony in the armadillo. Am. Natur., 55: 6268.
Stockard, C.R. 1921. Developmental rate and structural expression; an experimental study of twins, “double monsters”, and single deformities; and the interaction among embryonic organs during their origin and development. Am. J. Anat., 28: 115278.
Stocks, P. 1930. A biometric investigation of twins and their brothers and sisters. I. Ann. Eugen., 4: 49108.
Stocks, P., Karn, M.N. 1933. A biometric investigation of twins and their brothers and sisters. II. Ann. Eugen., 5: 155.
Strandskov, H.H., Edelen, E.W. 1946. Monozygotic and dizygotic twin birth frequencies in the total, the “white” and the “colored” U.S. population. Genetics, 31: 438446.
Strassmann, P. 1904. Mehrfache Schwangerschaft. In Winckel, F. (Ed.): Handbuch der Geburtshuelfe (Bd. I). Wiesbaden: Bergmann.
Streeter, G.L. 1919. Formation of single-ovum twins. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 30: 235238.
Streeter, G.L. 1930. Focal deficiencies in fetal tissues and their relation to introuterine amputation. Carn. Inst. Wash. Contrib. Emb. 22 (No. 126): 144.
Strupler, W. 1947. Diskordante Missbildungen bei eineiigen Zwillingen. Arch. Jul. Klaus Stift., 22: 169220.
Student (Gosset, W.S.) 1931. The Lanarkshire milk experiment. Biometrika, 23: 398406. (Includes, on page 405, the first discussion of the statistical efficiency of twin-control work).
Stumpfl, F. 1936 a. Die Urspruenge des Verbrechens dargestellt am Lebenslauf von Zwillingen. Leipzig: Thieme.
Stumpfl, F. 1936 a. Ueber Diskordanz bei psychopathischen Zwillingen. Nervenarzt, 9: 385392.
Sullivan, L.R. 1919. The “Samar” united twins. Am. J. Phys. Anthrop., 2: 2124.
Szendi, B. 1936. Ujabb nezopontok az ikerkutatas teren. Orvosi Hetilap, 80: 389390.
Szendi, B. 1938 a. Ueber die Bedeutung der Struktur der Eihaente und des Gefaessnetzes der Placenta auf Grund von 112 Zwillingsgeburten. Arch. Gynaek., 167: 108129.
Szendi, B. 19386. Beitraege zur intrauterin Zwillingspathologie. Arch. Gynaek., 165: 624625.
Szendi, B. 1939. Double monsters in the light of recent biological experiments and investigations regarding heredity; contribution to the problem of the determination of sex. J. Obst. Gynec. Brit. Emp., 46: 836847. (This is apparently the same as the author's 1939 article in German in Arch. Gyn., 169: 59-72).
Taniguchi, T. (Ed.) 19371940. Zwillingsanatomie; Erbbiologische Untersuchungen des Menschen, Lief I-V. Yotsuda, Tokyo: Anatomisches Institut der Keio Universitaet. (Not seen; reference kindly furnished by J.N. Spuhler who notes it is a conveniently arranged collection of reprints from Fol. anat. Jap.).
Targowla, R., Lamanche, A., Daussy, H. 1927. Débilité mentale, troubles du charactère et débilité motrice chez deux sœurs jumelles. Atteinte disséminée fruste du névraxe. Encéphale, 22: 487489.
Thoma, R. 1896. Textbook of General Pathology and Pathological Anatomy. London: A. and C. Black. (Includes an extensive discussion of acardii).
Thorndike, E.L. 1905. Measurements of twins. Arch. Philos. Psychol. Sci. Meth., No. 1.
Thums, K. 1936. Neurologische Zwillingsstudien. I. Zur Erbpathologie der multiplen Sklerose. Untersuchungen an 51 Zwillingspaaren. Zschr. ges. Neur. Psychiat., 155: 185253.
Thums, K. 1937. Zwillingsuntersuchungen bei cerebraler Kinderlaehmung (Littlescher Krankheit, angeborener spastischer Hemi-, Di-, und Tétraplégie). Zschr. ges. Neur. Psychiat., 158: 151158.
Thums, K. 1939 a. Die angeborene zerebrale Kinderlaehmung (Littlesche Krankheit). Allg. Zschr. Psychiat., 112: 262293.
Thums, K. 1939 b. Die Ergebnisse der Zwillings-Forschung bei multipler Sklerose. Nervenarzt, 12: 463469.
Thums, K. 1939 c. Das Erblichkeitsproblem bei der multiplen Sklerose. Muench. med. Wschr., 86: 16341638.
Tiedemann, F. 1813. Anatomie der kopflosen Missgeburten. Landshut: J. Thomann.
Timoféeff-Ressovsky, N.W. 1931. Gerichtetes Variieren in der phaenotypischen Manifestierung einiger Genovariationen von Drosophila funebris. Naturwiss., 19: 493497.
Torgersen, J. 1949. Genetic factors in visceral asymmetry and in the development and pathologic changes of lungs, heart, and abdominal organs. Arch. Pathol., 47: 566593.
Townend, B.R. 1950. Twins. Dent. Ree, 70: 217218.
Tshetverikov, N.W. 1936. Some statistical formulae of use in twin studies. Proc. Gorky Medico-Genet. Inst., Vol. 4. Moscow: Biomedgiz.
Tsuchiya, S. 1939. Ueber die Groesse und das Gewicht des Herzens bei den japanischen Zwillingsfeten. Okajimas Fol. Anat., Jap. 18: 8184.
Tuescher, H. 1936. Zur Frage der Entscheidung ueber die Ein- oder Zweieiigkeit bei bichorischen biamniotischen Zwillingen mit Gefaessanastomosen in der Plazenta. Der Erbarzt, No. 10, page: 148149 (Suppl. to Dent. Aerztebl., Bd. 66).
Turnacliff, D.D. 1931. Alopecia areata in twins. Arch. Derm. Syph., Chic. 24: 1122.
Uehlinger, E., Kuensch, K. 1938. Ueber Zwillingstuberculose; Untersuchungen an 46 Paaren. Beitr. klin. Tuberk. 92: 275370.
Ullrich, O. von, 1938. Angeborene Herzhypertrophie mit Endokardfibrose bei zwei eineiigen Partnern von maennlichen Drillingen. Zschr. menschl. Vererb., 21: 585598.
Vaccarezza, R.F., Dutrey, J. 1944. El factor genético en la patogenia de la tuberculosis; su estudio en 286 pares de gemelos. Anales Cátedra Patol. Clin. Tuberc, B. Air. 6: 181231.
Vermelin, H. 1947. A propos de la gémellité. Gyn. Obst., 46: 386387.
Verschuer, O. von 1925. Ein Fall von Monochorie bei zweieiigen Zwillingen. Muench. med. Wschr., 72: 184.
Verschuer, O. von 1927. Die vererbungsbiologische Zwillingsforschung; ihre biologischen Grundlagen. Ergebn. inn. M. Kinderheilk. 31: 35120.
Verschuer, O. von 1931. Ergebnisse der Zwillingsforschung. Verh. Gesell, phys. Anthrop. (Deut. Gesell. Rassenforschung), 6: 165.
Verschuer, O. von 1934. Neue Ergebnisse der Zwillingsforschung. Arch. Gynaek., 156: 362376.
Verschuer, O. von 1939. Twin research from the time of Galton to the present day. Proc. Roy. Soc, Lond. B-128: 6281.
Verschuer, O. von 1940. Statistik der Zwillingsforschung. In Burgdoerfer, F. (Ed.): Die Statistik in Deutschland nach ihrem heutigen Stand (Bd. I). Berlin: P. Schmidt.
Versluys, J.J. 1934. Zwillingspathologischer Beitrag zur Aetiologie der Tumoren. Zschr. Krebsforsch. 41: 239259.
Vignes, H. 1925. Des Jumeaux. Revue Anthrop., Par. 35: 211233.
Vogt, A. 1938. Weitere Augenstudien an eineiigen Zwillingen hoeheren Alters ueber die Vererbung der Altersmerkmale. Klin. Mbl. Augenh., 100: 497544.
Vogt, A., Wagner, H., Richner, H., Meyer, G. 1939. Das Senium bei eineiigen und zweieiigen Zwillingen. Arch. Jul. Klaus Stift., 14: 475597.
Voute, P.A. 1936. Tweeling-ondersoek; diagnostiek en methodiek. Maandschr. Kindergeneesk, 5: 202214.
Waardenburg, P.J. 1941. Niewe ervaringen bij tweelingen. Ned. Tschr. Geneesk., 85: 40134014.
Waardenburg, P.J. 1947. Mensch en Maatschappij (Ver. Ned. Nat. Bur. Anthrop.), Vol. 20. (Discussed by Lenz 1950).
Waardenburg, P.J. 1950. Twin research in ophthalmology. Dccum. Ophthal., 4: 154199.
Waddington, C.H. 1932. Experiments on the development of chick and duck embryos cultivated in vitro . Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. B-221: 179230.
Waddington, C.H. 1939. An introduction to modern genetics. New York: MacMillan.
Waddington, C.H. 1940. Organizers and Genes. Cambridge: Univ. Press.
Wagner, G.A. 1927. Zur Diagnose der Eineiigkeit oder Zweieiigkeit der Zwillinge. Med. Klin., Berlin, 23: 936938.
Wagner, G.A. 1929. Der intervilloese Raum. Arch. Gyn., 137: 699708.
Walcher, G. 1905. Ueber die Entstehung von Brachy-und Dolichocephalie durch willkuerliche Beeinflussung des kindlichen Schaedels; vorlaeufige Mitteilung. Zbl. Gynaek., 29: 193196. (See Elsaesser).
Walker, N. Ford 1947. A further description of a set of quadriovular quadruplets (A study of dermal configurations and tooth eruption). Am. J. Obst., 54: 266272.
Wanscher, J.H. 1943. The hereditary background of handwriting; an investigation of the handwritings of monozygotic and dizygotic twins. Acta Psychiat. Neur., 18: 349375.
Warner, R. 1949. Mongolism in one of twins and in another sibling. Am. J. Dis. Child., 78: 573588. (Includes a valuable review of the problem of mongolism in twins).
Waterhouse, J.A.H. 1950. Twinning in twin pedigrees. Brit. J. Soc. M., 4: 197216.
Weber, F. 1924. Die mehrfache Schwangerschaft. In Doederlein, A.: Handbuch der Geburtshilfe (Bd. I). Muenchen: Bergmann.
Weber, F.P. 1927. Facial and aural congenital maldevelopment in one of twins. Proc. Roy. Soc. Med. London 20: 3335 (or 1193–1196).
Weinberg, W. 1901. Beitraege zur Physiologie und Pathologie der Mehrlingsgeburten beim Menschen. Pfluegers Arch., 88: 346430.
Weismann, A. 1893. The Germ-Plasm. A Theory of Heredity, London: Walter Scott, Ltd.
Weiss, P. 1939. Principles of Development. A Text in Experimental Embryology. New York: Holt.
Weitz, W. 1924. Studien an eineiigen Zwillingen. Zschr. klin. M., 101: 115124.
Wells, L.J. 1945. A case of iliothoracopagus (dicephalus tribrachius tripus) with a consideration of the “budding” and “fission” theories of twinning. Anat. Ree, 92: 122.
Wenner, R. 1947. Ueber den plazentaren Blutkreislauf bei eineiigen Zwillingen. Schweiz, med. Wschr., 77: 140141.
Wespi, H. 1941. Schizophrenie bei eineiigen Zwillingen. Kasuistischer Bericht zum Problem “endogen-exogen” im der Schizophrenieforschung. Schweiz. Arch. Neur. Psychiat., 48: 110128.
Westphalen, F. 1897. Ueber den mikrochemischen Nachweis von Eisen in foetalen Organismus nebst Beschreibung eines Falles von Schatz'scher Zwillingsschwangerschaft. Arch. Gynaek., 53: 3146.
Wibaut, F. 1926. (Untitled comment reporting 2 monozygotic pairs discordant for myopia). Klin. Mbl. Augenh., 76: 138.
Wiel (See Stalpart van der Wiel C).
Wiener, A.S., Leff, I.L. 1940. Chances of establishing the non-identity of biovular twins, with special references to individuality tests of the blood. Genetics 25: 187196.
Wigers, F. 1934. Ein Eineiiges, bezueglich Schizophrenie diskordantes Zwillingspaar. Acta Psychiat., Kbh., 9: 541556.
Wilde, K. 1937. Ueber Intelligenzuntersuchungen an Zwillingen. Zschr. indukt. Abstamm., 73: 512516.
Wilde, K. 1941. Mess- und Auswertungsmethoden in erbpsychologischen Zwillingsuntersuchungen. Arch. ges. Psychol., 109: 181.
Wilder, H.H. 1904. Duplicate twins and double monsters. Am. J. Anat., 3: 387472.
Wilder, H.H. 1919. Physical correspondences in two sets of duplicate twins. J. Hered., 10: 410420.
Williams, J.W. 1941. Obstetrics (8th ed.). New York: Appleton-Century.
Wilson, P.T. 1934. A study of twins with special reference to heredity as a factor determining differences in environment. Human Biol., 6: 324354.
Wilson, P.T., Jones, H.E. 1931. A study of like-sex twins. I. The vital statistics and familial data of the sample. II. Their health and disease records. Human Biol., 3: 107–132; 270281.
Wilson, P.T., Jones, H.E. 1932. Left-handedness in twins. Genetics, 17: 560571.
SirThomas, Wilson 1900. Hydramnion in cases of unioval or homologous twins. Tr. Obst. Soc. London, 41: 235274.
Wilson, W.L. 1946. A consideration of the possibility of hereditary diathesis in dental caries. J. Am. Dent. Ass., 33: 455465.
Winckel, F. 1890. A Textbook of Obstetrics. Philadelphia: Blakiston.
Windle, B.C.A. 1892. A note on identical malformations in twins. J. Anat. Physiol., 26: 295299.
Wingfield, A.H. 1928. Twins and Orphans. London: Dent and Sons.
Wislocki, C.B. 1939. Observations on twinning in marmosets. Am. J. Anat. 64: 445483.
Wise, N.B., Comeau, W.J., White, P.D. 1939. Electrocardiograms in twins. Am. Heart J., 17: 701710.
Witschi, E. 1934. Appearance of accessory “organizers” in overripe eggs of the frog. Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. Med., 31: 419420.
Woodworth, R.S. 1941. Heredity and Environment. A Critical Survey of Recently Published Material on Twins and Foster Children. New York: Soc. Sci. Research Council.
Wright, S. 1945. Genes as physiological agents; general considerations. Am. Nat., 79: 289303.
Wurzbach, F.A., Bunkin, I.A. 1949. Unilateral acute hydramnios in uniovular twin pregnancy. J. Obst. Gyn. Brit. Emp., 56: 242245. (Includes a discussion of Schatz's findings).
Yates, N., Brash, H. 1941. An investigation of the physical and mental characteristics of a pair of like twins reared apart from infancy. Ann. Eugen., 11: 89101.
Yerusbalmy, J., Sheerar, S.E. 1940. Studies on twins. II. On the early mortality of like-sexed and unlike-sexed twins. Human Biol., 12: 247263.
Yule, E.P. 1935. The resemblance of twins with regard to perserveration. J. Ment. Sc., 81: 489501.
Zazzo, R. 1940. La méthode des jumeaux. L'Année Psychol., 1942 vol. (delayed 1940-41): 227242.
Zeleny, C. 1911. Experiments on the control of asymmetry in the development of the serpulid Hydroides dianthus . J. Morphol., 22: 927944.
Zilian, E. 1938. Ergebnisse einer psychologischen Untersuchung an erbgleichen und erbungleichen Zwillingen. Zschr. ang. Psychol. Beih. 79: 4250.