Published online by Cambridge University Press: 23 December 2013
It was in 1908 that D. G. Hogarth first published information about a “Central Basis” (Pl. XI (a), Fig. 1) that he had excavated in 1904 and 1905 in the Artemision at Ephesus, and for many decades his words remained the authoritative statement concerning the early sanctuaries not only in Ephesus, but also in the rest of the classical world. A colloquium in the British Museum in 1984, however, demonstrated that there were issues, raised by numismatists and art historians, that continued to be at odds with the results of Hogarth's excavations, and that could only be solved by a further examination of the “central basis” in question.
As early as 1986, under the northern outer rim of the crepidoma of the archaic dipteros (Croesus temple), a square base had been discovered which obviously formed the centre of a distinct cult area. A flood stratum of sand, which was typical of all the parts of the Artemision we had excavated, appeared under the base. Fortunately, the low level of the ground water made it possible to measure this stratum (66 cm.) and to observe beneath it a new culture stratum—a pavement made of yellow marly limestone slabs—that had previously escaped detection. This observation gave rise to the hope that more discoveries could be expected under Hogarth's “central basis”.
2 Kagan, D., AJA 86, 1982, 351CrossRefGoogle Scholar ff. and Price, M., in: Studies in Numismatic Method, presented to P. Grierson (1983) 1 ffGoogle Scholar. I would also like to thank S. Morris and A. Johnston for their considerable help and the British Academy for making it possible to me to do research in England in 1989. A first draft of the translation of this article was made by R. D. McGirr.
4 Hogarth op. cit. 55 ff.; Atlas Pl. I, II; It is interesting that Löwy, E., SBWien 213, 1932, 3 ffGoogle Scholar. dated the base A (also B and C) in the Kroisos period. In doing this he was correct.
10 Hogarth op. cit. Pl. XLVII f.; Strong, D. E., Catalogue of the Carved Amber (BM Cat., 1966) 41 ffGoogle Scholar., Pl. If.
12 Reference from W. D. Niemeier; for the Bronze Age in Ephesos, ÖJh 57, 1986/1987, Beibl. 1 ffGoogle Scholar.
14 Following an idea of J. Coulton.
15 Price op. cit.; Kagan op. cit.
16 See above, note 10.
19 Concerning the origin of amber in general: Strong op. cit. 7 ff.; Catacchio, N. Negroni, Padusa 20, 1984, 91 ff.Google Scholar; Rottländer, R. C. A., Acta Praeh. et Arch. 4, 1973, 1 ff.Google Scholar; Harding, A., Hughes-Brock, H., mit Anhang von, C., Beck, W., BSA 69, 1974, 145 ff.Google Scholar; Beck, , Savaria 16, 1982, 11 ff.Google Scholar; Beck, , Sprincz, E., Acta Arch. Hung. 35, 1983, 171 ff.Google Scholar; Malinowski, T., Savaria 16, 1982, 11 ff.Google Scholar; Bouzek, J., “The Aegean, Anatolia, and Europe”, SIMA 29, 1985, 54 ff.Google Scholar; Hughes-Brock, , J. of Baltic Studies 16, 1985CrossRefGoogle Scholar (reference from H. Hughes-Brock).
20 For women's jewelry with amber teardrops, of the archaic graves of Chiaramonte in Basilicata: Bianco, S., in Archeologia, Arte e Storia alle Sorgenti del Lao (Catalogo della Mostra), Matera (1988) a cura di Paola Bottini, 89 ff.Google Scholar esp. fig. 36; Catacchio, N. Negroni in: Un decennio di Ricerche archeologiche II Quad. Ric. Scient. 100, Roma (1978) 175 ffGoogle Scholar. (reference from A. Mastrocinque)
24 Concerning the tree of life in the ancient orient: Kepenski, Chr., L'arbre stylisé en Asie occidentale au 2e mill. a. J. C. (1982)Google Scholar
25 The excavation in 1989 made it clear that also to the north and south of the “central basis” only one row of columns had existed; it is worth mentioning, however, that Schaber, W., Die archaischen Tempel der Artemis von Ephesos (1982)Google Scholar postulated a dipteral design for Hogarth's temple C.
27 Drerup, H. in Festschrift F. Hiller (1986) 3 ff.Google Scholar; Ainian, A. J. Mazarakis, in Early Greek Cult Practice ed. Hägg, R., Marinatos, N., Nordquist, G. C. (1988) 105 ff.Google Scholar; also Bammer, in: Archéologie de l'espace sacrificielle dans l'Antiquité classique (1990)Google Scholar in print
28 Rupp, D. W., Greek Altars of the Northeastern Peloponnese (UMI, 1980)Google Scholar, ders., in Archéologie de l'espace sacrificielle loc. cit.
30 I would like to thank my following co-workers: G. Hochholdinger, Ch. Ertel, N. Patocka, G. Grabherr, J. Fürnholzer, M. Philipp, R. Posamentir, U. Arikan, F. Polat, B. Ulutuğ, W. Dollhäubl, J. Krämmer, C. Kralik, U. Muss, C. Meran-Kahane, M. Laubenberger, F. X. Prasczaits and E. Karhan. Apart from the budgeted funds of the Bundesministerium für Wissenschaft und Forschung, the Artemision project was sponsored by the following institutions: Fonds zur Förderung der Wissenschaftlichen Forschung, Hochschuljubiläumsstiftung der Stadt Wien, Gesellschaft der Freunde von Ephesos, Jubiläumsfonds der Österreichischen Nationalbank, and Incentive Tours.