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A landscape-oriented approach to urbanisation and early state formation on the Konya and Karaman plains, Turkey

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  02 July 2020

Michele Massa*
Affiliation:
British Institute at Ankara, UK
Christoph Bachhuber
Affiliation:
University of Oxford, UK
Fatma Şahin
Affiliation:
Çukurova University, Turkey
Hüseyin Erpehlivan
Affiliation:
Bilecik University, Turkey
James Osborne
Affiliation:
University of Chicago, USA
Anthony J. Lauricella
Affiliation:
University of Chicago, USA
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Abstract

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This paper synthesises the data and results of the Konya Regional Archaeological Survey Project (2016–2020) in order to address the earliest evidence for cities and states on the Konya and Karaman plains, central Turkey. A nested and integrative approach is developed that draws on a wide range of spatially extensive datasets to outline meaningful trends in settlement, water management and regional defensive systems during the Bronze and Iron Ages. The significance of the regional centre of Türkmen-Karahöyük for a reconstruction of early state polities between the 13th and eighth centuries BCE is addressed. In light of this regional analysis, it is tentatively suggested that, during the Late Bronze Age, Türkmen-Karahöyük was the location of the city of Tarḫuntašša, briefly the Hittite capital during the reign of Muwatalli II. More assuredly, based on the analysis of the newly discovered Middle Iron Age TÜRKMEN-KARAHÖYÜK 1 inscription, it is proposed that Türkmen-Karahöyük was the seat of a kingdom during the eighth century BCE that likely encompassed the Konya and Karaman plains.

Özet

Özet

Bu makale Konya Bölgesi Arkeolojik Yüzey Araştirmasi Projesi'nin (2016–2020) verilerini ve sonuçlarini Orta Anadolu'da Konya ve Karaman ovalarindaki en erken şehirlere ve eyaletlere dair kanitlarin saptanmasi amaciyla sentezlemektedir. Tunç Çagi ve Demir Çaği'ndaki yerlesim, su kaynaklarinin yönetimi ve bölgesel savunma sistemlerine dair eğilimleri ortaya koymak için çok çeşitli mekansal veri setlerinden yararlanan, iç içe ve bütünleştirici bir yaklaşim geliştirilmiştir. M.Ö. 13. ve sekizinci yüzyillar arasindaki erken devlet rejimlerinin anlaşilabilmesi için bölgesel bir merkez olan Türkmen-Karahöyük'ün önemi ele alinmiştir. Bu bölgesel analizler işiğinda Türkmen-Karahöyük'ün, Geç Tunç Çaği'nda, II. Muwatalli'nin hükümranliği sirasinda Hitit başkenti olan Tarḫuntašša olarak konumlandirilmasi önerilebilmektedir. Daha kesin olarak, yeni keşfedilen TÜRKMEN-KARAHÖYÜK 1 Orta Demir Çaği yazitinin analizine dayanarak, Türkmen-Karahöyük'ün M.Ö. sekizinci yüzyilda muhtemelen Konya ve Karaman ovalarini kapsayan bir kralliğin merkezi olduğu da ileri sürülmektedir.

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© British Institute at Ankara 2020
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