1 I am indebted to S. M. Dalley, I. L. Finkel, W. G. Lambert, and C. Wilcke for their comments on a preliminary copy and transliteration of the text. The responsibility for accepting or ignoring their good advice, especially in the enigmatic lines 1–11, is my own.
2 Lambert, W. G. and Millard, A. R., Atra-ḫasīs: the Babylonian story of the Flood (Oxford, 1969), 31–3.
3 The example of the later Poem of Erra, in which tablets I–IV have from 150 to 190 lines each but tablet V has only 61, shows that wide variations from this estimate are possible.
4 Groneberg, B., RA 75 (1981), 127 and 129, Ag II vii 7–22, and Foster, B. R., “Ea and Saltu”, in Essays on the Ancient Near East in memory of J. J. Finkelstein (Hamden, 1977), 79–84.
5 Compare the reference to the Elamites in the astral-mythological commentary BM 55466 i 9 and 22 (King, L. W., Seven Tablets of Creation (London, 1902), I 208–15 and II pl. 68–72, translated by Landsberger, B. in AfK 1 (1923), 69–78).
6 For a contemporary OB reference see the brick inscription of Me-Kūbi dedicated to Inanna (Ištar) at Susa (Scheil, V., MDP 14, 24–25; Sollberger, E. and Kupper, J. R., Inscriptions Royales Sumeriennes et Akkadiennes (Paris, 1971), 257 IV02a). See also the later astrological references cited in n. 14 below.
7 See Farber, W., “Lamaštu”, in RLA VI, 439.
8 von Soden, W., Or. N.S. 25 (1956), 142–3; translation by W. G. Lambert, op. cit., 162.
9 Meier, G., Die assyrische Beschwörungssamlung Maqlû (Berlin, 1937), 33, 120–3.
10 van Dijk, J. J., “Fremdsprachige Beschwörungstexte in der Sudmesopotamischen literarischen Überlieferung”, in Mesopotamien und seine Nachbarn, ed. Nissen, and Renger, (Berlin, 1982), 97–110.
11 Dossin, G., RA 32 (1935), 180–3, AO 6769 lines 17–19; English translation by Oppenheim, A. L., AnBi 12 (1959), 295–6. For current identifications of Babylonian stars and constellations see Reiner, E. and Pingree, D., BiMes 2/2 (Malibu, 1981), 10–16, and the relevant entries in the CAD.
12 Šilejko, V. K., IRAIMK 3 (1924), 144 ff; republished by von Soden, W., ZA 43 (1936), 305–308, and Dossin, G., RA 32 (1935), 179–80.
13 CAD Q 149, 151 and 155 gives references to Elamite bowmen in the first millennium B.C., but bows as such are nowhere described as Elamite.
14 CT 33, 2 Mul-Apin I ii 7; Schroeder, O., KAV 218 (Astrolabe B) i 15, ii 16 and 19, transliterated in Reiner, E., BiMes 2/2, 82. In 5 R 46, 23 the Bow (MUL.BAN) is identified with Ištar of Babylon. In fact the bow is a standard attribute of Ištar in Mesopotamian iconography. Note that in the Epic of Creation VI 86–92 Anu calls the bow with which Marduk had conquered Tiamat his daughter and names it as the “Bow in the sky”.
15 The eventual restoration of lines 38–41 could conceivably alter this interpretation.
16 Identification of mušhuššum with MUL.MUŠ (Hydra) (Gössman, P., Šumerisches Lexicon IV/2 no. 284) is plausible but not proven; the same identification has been suggested for basmum (CAD B 141–2).
17 Reiner, E., BiMes 2/2, 40–41 III 11a–c. See also Gössman, P., Šumerisches Lexicon IV/2 no. 312.