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Trading implements in early Troy

  • A. Bobokhyan (a1)
Abstract

The traditional view of Troy as a kind of central site presupposes balance weights and other artefacts that attest weighing procedures among the excavated material. Indeed, already in the works of Homer it is possible to find references to premonetary aspects (for example, the gold standard τάλαντον). The main purpose of this investigation is to provide an archaeological view on the issue of trading implements and their significance in early Troy. The principal group of objects defined as balance weights was unearthed during the excavations of Heinrich Schliemann. By contrast, very little data derive from Wilhelm Dörpfeld's activities at the site. Balance weights are known also from the recent excavations of Manfred Korfmann. In two previous reports I presented the state of balance weights found in the Schliemann and Korfmann excavations (Bobokhyan 2006; 2008a). The aim of this article is to consider the main stages of the investigation of balance weights, with special reference to the excavations of Carl Blegen in Troy. The main problem related to the study of the Trojan balance weights is the lack of knowledge about the archaeological contexts for many of the finds. A considerable number of these implements has been lost or is inaccessible. However, their compilation assists in understanding the abstract way-of-thinking and value perception of the population of ancient Troy. The actual number of balance weights from Troy can be estimated at ca 100. The main period of their appearance is during Troy II–V, less in Troy VI. The principal forms represented are ellipsoid (‘sphendonoid’) and domed, and the materials used most for the weights are haematite as well as granite, basalt, marble and limestone. New research has revealed the existence of multiple weighing systems in Bronze Age Troy, a situation that was typical for mercantile centres such as Tepe Sialk, Susa or Kanes. The investigation of the Trojan balance weights and their contexts hints at the existence of Aegean and eastern Mediterranean, more precisely northern Syrian, directions of contacts.

Troya'nın bir tür merkezi yerleşim olduğuna inanan geleneksel bakış açısı tartı ağırlıklarının ve tartma ile ilintili diğer bulguların Troya'da var olduğunu kabul eder. Gerçekten de Homer'in çalışmalarında para öncesi döneme ait referans olabilecek bilgilere rastlanılmaktadır (örneğin, altın standartı τάλαντον). Bu çalışmanın başlıca amacı ticaretle ilgili veya ticareti tamamlayan unsurlarla bunların Troya için önemine arkeolojik bir açıdan bakmaktır. Çalışılacak buluntu grubu Heinrich Schliemann dönemi kazılarında bulunmuş olan tartı ağırlıklarıdır. Wilhelm Dörpfeld döneminde şaşırtıcı bir şekilde konumuzla ilgili çok az buluntu ele geçmiştir. Tartı ağırlıkları yakın dönemde Manfred Korfmann tarafından yapılmış kazılarda tekrar ortaya çıkmıştır. Daha önceki iki raporda Schliemann ve Korfmann dönemleri kazılarında bulunmuş olan tartı ağırlıklarının durumlarından söz etmiştim (Bobokhyan 2006; 2008a). Bu çalışmanın amacı ise, Troya'da Carl Blegen tarafından yapılan kazılar referans alınarak, tartı ağırlıkları ile ilgili araştırmaların ilk aşamalarının anlatılmasıdır. Konuyla ilgili olarak yapılacak çalışmanın önündeki en büyük engel bulunmuş pekçok ağırlığın ele geçtikleri arkeolojik ortam ile ilgili bilgiye sahip olunmamasıdır. Bu malzemenin çok önemli bir kısmı kaybolmuştur; ya da ulaşılamamaktadır. Yine de, muhtelif kaynaklara dayanılarak antik Troya kentinde yaşayan insanların düşünce biçimlerini ve değeri anlama kabiliyetlerini anlamamız mümkün olmaktadır. Troya'da bulunmuş olan tartı ağırlıklarının 100 civarında olduğunu tahmin etmekteyiz. Gözlendikleri asıl dönem Troya II–V dir. Troya VI da daha az sayıda gözlenmektedirler. Gözlenen ana formlar elipsoit (‘sphendonoid’) ve tepelidir. Pek çoğunda malzeme olarak demir filizi (haematite) kullanılmıştır. Ancak granit, basalt, mermer ve kireçtaşından yapılmış olanlar da vardır. Yeni araştırma Bronz Çağ Troya'sında muhtelif tartma sistemleri olduğunu ortaya koymuştur. Bu durum tipik ticaret şehirleri Tepe Sialk, Susa veya Kanes'le uyum göstermektedir. Troya tartı ağırlıklarının ve bulundukları ortamların değerlendirilmesi Ege ve doğu Akdeniz, daha doğrusu kuzey Suriye ile ilişkilere işaret etmektedir.

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Anatolian Studies
  • ISSN: 0066-1546
  • EISSN: 2048-0849
  • URL: /core/journals/anatolian-studies
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