Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

NEW EVIDENCE FOR POLITICAL HIERARCHY AND POWER IN THE NORTHERN MAYA LOWLANDS (a.d. 600–1000)

  • Daniel Graña-Behrens (a1)

Abstract

This paper presents new evidence for hierarchy and power among the Classic Maya (a.d. 300–1000) from the northern lowlands. It expands the list of identified emblem glyphs, and, more particularly, focuses on emblems with numerals by questioning their meaning and function in terms of political organization. Furthermore, the paper centers on syntax, especially on the practice of structuring personal names and titles in order to isolate titles and emblem glyphs, as well as to rank individuals and further advance our understanding of ancient Maya political organization. Finally, a dynastic sequence of rulers and noblemen from the Chan or Kan kingdom (most probably Jaina) is proposed, as well as divergent monumental traditions within the northern region and a re-evaluation of interpolity relationships.

Copyright

Corresponding author

E-mail correspondence to: danielgranabehrens@web.de

References

Hide All
Adams, Richard 1999 Río Azul: An Ancient Maya City. University of Oklahoma, Norman.
Barrera Vásquez, Alfredo 1991 Diccionario Maya: Maya-Español, Español-Maya. Editorial Porrúa, Mexico City.
Barthel, Thomas 1968 El complejo emblema. Estudios de Cultura Maya 7:159193.
Benavides, Antonio, and Grube, Nikolai 2002 Dos monolitos tempranos de Jaina, Campeche, México. Mexicon 24:9597.
Berlin, Heinrich 1958 El glifo emblema en las inscripciones mayas. Journal de la Société des Américanistes 47:111119.
Boot, Erik 2005 Continuity and Change in Text and Image at Chichén Itzá, Yucatán, Mexico: A Study of the Inscriptions, Iconography, and Architecture at a Late Classic to Early Postclassic Maya Site. CNWS Publications, Leiden.
Boot, Erik 2006 A Chochola-Maxcanu Ceramic Vessel in a 1930's Collection in Merida, Yucatan, Mexico: History and Analysis of Image and Text. Wayeb Notes 24:115.
Boot, Erik 2010 An Oxkintok Regional Style Vessel: An Analysis of the Hieroglyphic Texts. Mesoweb. Electronic document, http://www.mesoweb.com/articles/Boot/Oxktintok.pdf.
Braswell, Geoffrey 2015 The Ancient Maya of Mexico: Reinterpreting the Past of the Northern Maya Lowlands. In The Ancient Maya of Mexico: Reinterpreting the Past of the Northern Maya Lowlands, Approaches to Anthropological Archaeology, edited by Braswell, Geoffrey, pp. 140. Routledge, London.
Carmean, Kelli, Dunning, Nicholas, and Karl Kowalski, Jeff 2004 High Times in the Hill Country: A Perspective from the Terminal Classic. In The Terminal Classic in the Maya Lowlands - Collapse, Transition, and Transformation, edited by Demarest, Arthur A., Rice, Prudence M., and Rice, Don S., pp. 424449. University Press of Colorado, Boulder.
Coe, Michael D. 1973 The Maya Scribe and His World. Grolier Club, New York.
Colas, Pierre 2004 Sinn- und Bedeutung klassischer Maya-Personennamen: typologische Analyse von Anthroponymphrasen in den Hieroglypheninschriften der klassischen Maya-Kultur als Beitrag zur allgemeinen Onomastik. Acta Mesoamericana, Vol. 15. Anton Saurwein, Markt Schwaben.
Con Uribe, María José, and Quetzalcoatl Esparza Olguín, Octavio 2016 Recovered History: Stela 11 of Coba. The PARI Journal 17:117.
Cortés de Brasdefer, F. 1996 A Maya Vase from “El Señor Del Petén.” Mexicon 18(1):6.
Covarrubias, Miguel 1961 Arte Indígena de México y Centroamérica. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City.
Covarrubias, Miguel, Burgos Villanueva, Rafael, and Palomo Carrillo, Yola 2013 Dzilam González: Sitio de Control Sociopolítico de la Costa Centro Norte de Yucatan. Estudios de Cultura Maya 44:203228.
Crumley, Carole L. 1995 Heterarchy and the Analysis of Complex Societies. Archeological Papers of the American Anthropological Association 6:15.
Dieseldorff, Erwin 1933 Kunst und Religion der Mayavölker 3: die Datierung der Tempel. L. Friederichsen, Hamburg.
Dunning, Nicholas P. 1992 Lords of the Hills: Ancient Maya Settlement in the Puuc Region, Yucatan, Mexico. Monographs in World Prehistory No. 15. Prehistory Press, Madison.
Dunning, Nicholas P., Weaver, Eric, Smyth, Michael, and Ortegon Zapata, David 2014 Xcoch: Home of Ancient Maya Rain Gods and Water Managers. In The Archaeology of Yucatan: New Directions and Data, edited by Stanton, Travis, pp. 6580. Archaeopress, Oxford.
Dunning, Nicholas P., and Kowalski, Jeff K. 1994 Lords of the Hills. Classic Maya Settlement Pattern and Political Iconography in the Puuc Region, Mexico. Ancient Mesoamerica 5:6395.
Ek, Jerald 2015 The Political and Economic Organization of Late Classic States in the Peninsular Gulf Coast. In The Ancient Maya of Mexico. Reinterpreting the Past of the Northern Maya Lowlands. Approaches to Anthropological Archaeology, edited by Braswell, Geoffrey, pp. 143169. Routledge, London.
Fields, Virgina, and Reents-Budet, Dorie 2005 Lords of Creation: The Origins of Sacred Maya Kingship. Northburgh House, London, and Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Los Angeles.
García Campillo, José Miguel 1995 Antroponimia y toponimia en las inscripciones mayas clásicas de Yucatán, Vols. 1–2. Ph.D. dissertation, Departamento de Historia de America II (Antropología de América), Universidad Complutense, Madrid.
García Campillo, José Miguel 1998 Datos epigráficos para la historia de Jaina durante el periodo clásico. Los Investigadores de la Cultura Maya 6:4652.
Góngora, Ángel 2015 Joo Ajaulel. El reino de Joo, Ichkanntijoo. Podría Dzibilchaltun ser la antigua Ychcaanzihoo? Uniprint, Merida.
Graham, Ian 1992 Corpus of Maya Hieroglyphic Inscriptions, Volume, 4, Part 2: Uxmal. Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University Press, Cambridge.
Graham, Ian, and von Euw, Eric 1992 Corpus of Maya Hieroglyphic Inscriptions, Volume 4, Part 3: Uxmal, Xcalumkin. Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University Press, Cambridge.
Graham, Ian, and von Euw, Eric 1997 Corpus of Maya Hieroglyphic Inscriptions, Volume 8, Part 1: Coba. Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University Press, Cambridge.
Graña-Behrens, Daniel 2006 Emblem Glyphs and Political Organization in Northwestern Yucatan in the Classic Period (a.d. 300–1000). Ancient Mesoamerica 17:105123.
Graña-Behrens, Daniel 2009 Die Maya-inschriften aus Nordwestyukatan, Mexiko. Kalenderangaben, chronologie und kulturgeschichtliche interpretation. 2 vol. Südwestdeutscher Verlag für Hochschulschriften, Saarbrücken.
Graña-Behrens, Daniel 2012 K‘ahk’ Chitam: The Identification of a Ruler of Coba. Mexicon 34:5152.
Graña-Behrens, Daniel 2014 Death and Deer Riding Among the Ancient Maya of Northwest Yucatan, Mexico. In The Archaeology of Yucatan: New Directions and Data, edited by Stanton, Travis, pp. 320. Archaeopress, Oxford.
Graña-Behrens, Daniel 2015 Chichen Itzá - Legende und geschichte. Eine bestandsaufnahme nach mehr als 100 jahren der erforschung des ortes. In Mesoamerikanistik - Archäologie, Ethnohistorie, Ethnographie und Linguistik. Eine Festschrift der Mesoamerika Gesellschaft Hamburg e.V., edited by Frühsorge, Lars, pp. 219249. Shaker, Aachen.
Graña-Behrens, Daniel 2016 The Hieroglyphic Inscriptions of Itzimte-Bolonchen, Campeche, Mexico: Rulers and Political Affairs from Burned Stones. In The Long Silence 2 - Itzimte and its Neighbors: An Architectural Survey of Maya Puuc Ruins in Northeastern Campeche, México, edited by Merk, Stephan, pp. 165188. BoD, Norderstedt.
Graña-Behrens, Daniel 2017 Sabana Piletas and its Neighbours: An Architectural Survey of Maya Puuc. Estudios de Cultura Maya 49:123163.
Gronemeyer, Sven 2004 A Preliminary Ruling Sequence of Cobá, Quintana Roo. Wayeb Notes 14:17.
Gronemeyer, Sven 2016 Filling the Grid? More Evidence for the < t'a > Syllabogram. Research Note 4. Electronic document, http://mayawoerterbuch.de/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/twkm_note_004.pdf.
Grube, Nikolai 1990 The Primary Standard Sequence on Chocholá Style Ceramics. In The Maya Vase Book, Volume 2, edited by Kerr, Justin, pp. 320330. Kerr Associates, New York.
Grube, Nikolai 1994 Hieroglyphic Sources for the History of Northwest Yucatan. In Hidden among the Hills: Maya Archaeology of the Northwest Yucatan Peninsula, edited by Prem, Hanns J., pp. 316358. Von Flemming, Möckmühl.
Grube, Nikolai 2000 The City-States of the Maya. In A Comparative Study of Thirty City-State Cultures: An Investigation Conducted by the Copenhagen Polis Centre, edited by Hansen, Mogens Herman, pp. 547565. Reitzels, Copenhagen.
Grube, Nikolai 2003 Hieroglyphic Inscriptions from Northwest Yucatan: An Update of Recent Research. In Escondido en la Selva, Arqueología en el norte de Yucatán, Segundo Simposio Teoberto Maler, edited by Prem, Hanns J., pp. 339370. Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Mexico City.
Grube, Nikolai 2004 El origen de la dinastía Kaan. In Los Cautivos de Dzibanché, México, edited by Nalda, Enrique, pp. 114131. Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Mexico City.
Grube, Nikolai 2005 Toponyms, Emblem Glyphs, and the Political Geography of Southern Campeche. Anthropological Notebooks 11:89102.
Grube, Nikolai 2008 Monumentos esculpidos: epigrafía e iconografía. In Reconocimiento arqueológico en el sureste del estado de Campeche, México: 1996–2005, edited by Sprajc, Ivan, pp. 177231. BAR International Series 1742. Archaeopress, Oxford.
Grube, Nikolai 2010 Los monumentos esculpidos de Dzehkabtun, Campeche: Epigrafía e iconografía. In Encuentro Internacional: Los Investigadores de la Cultura Maya, 2009, Memorias, Volumen 18, Tomo II, pp. 2539. Universidad Autónoma de Campeche, Campeche.
Grube, Nikolai, and Pallan, Carlos 2011 The Hieroglyphic Stairway of Sabana Piletas, Campeche. In The Long Silence. Sabana Piletas and Its Neighbours, edited by Merk, Stephan, pp. 251262. Acta Mesoamericana, Vol. 21. Anton Saurwein, Markt Schwaben.
Grube, Nikolai, and Delvendahl, Kai 2015 El proyecto arqueológico Uxul. Siete años de investigación científica en el sur de Campeche, México. Revista Trimestral del Centro INAH Campeche, Glifos 5:629.
Grube, Nikolai, Delvendahl, Kai, and Seefeld, Nicolaus 2012 Under the Rule of The Snake Kings: Uxul in the 7th and 8th Centuries. Estudios de Cultura Maya 40:1149.
Grube, Nikolai, and Gaida, Marie 2006 Die Maya. Schrift und Kunst. DuMont, Köln.
Grube, Nikolai, and Quetzalcoatl Esparza Olguín, Octavio 2017 Two Captives from Uxul. Research Note 6. Electronic document, http://mayawoerterbuch.de/two-captives-from-uxul/.
Guenter, Stanley 2014 The Queen of Coba: A Reanalysis of the Macanxox Stela. In The Archaeology of Yucatan, edited by Stanton, Travis, pp. 395421. Archaeopress, Oxford.
Helmke, Christophe 2012 Mythological Emblem Glyphs of Ancient Maya Kings. Contributions in New World Archaeology 3:91126.
Houston, Stephen 2009 A Splendid Predicament: Young Men in Classic Maya Society. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 19:149178.
Houston, Stephen D., and Stuart, David S. 1996 Of Gods, Glyphs and Kings: Divinity and Rulership among the Classic Maya. Antiquity 70:289312.
Jackson, Sarah, and Stuart, David S. 2001 The Aj K'uhun Title: Deciphering a Classic Maya Term of Rank. Ancient Mesoamerica 12:217228.
Kaufman, Terence, and Norman, William 1984 An Outline of Proto-Cholan Phonology, Morphology and Vocabulary. In Phoneticism in Mayan Hieroglyphic Writing, edited by Justeson, John S. and Campbell, Lyle, pp. 77166. Institute for Mesoamerican Studies, Publication No. 9. Institute for Mesoamerican Studies, State University of New York, Albany.
Kelley, David H. 1976 Deciphering the Maya Script. University of Texas Press, Austin.
Kelley, David H. 1982 Notes on Puuc Inscriptions. In The Puuc: New Perspectives, supplement 1, edited by Lawrence Mills, pp. 1–18. Scholarly Studies in the Liberal Arts No. 1. Central College, Pella.
Kerr, Justin 2017 Kerr Maya Vase Database. Electronic document, http://research.mayavase.com/kerrmaya.html, accessed February 14, 2017.
Kremer, Jürgen 1994 The Putun Hypothesis Reconsidered. In Hidden Among the Hills: Maya Archaeology of the Northwest Yucatan Peninsula: First Maler Symposium, University of Bonn 1989, edited by Prem, Hanns J., pp. 289307. Acta Mesoamericana, Vol. 7. Von Flemming, Möckmühl.
Krickeberg, Walter 1959 Una vasija de barro Maya. El Mexico Antiguo 10:275288.
Lacadena García-Gallo, Alfonso 2000 Nominal Syntax and the Linguistic Affiliation of Classic Maya Texts. In The Sacred and the Profane: Architecture and Identity in the Maya Lowlands, edited by Colas, Pierre R., Delvendahl, Kai, Kuhnert, Marcus, and Schubart, Annette, pp. 111128. Acta Mesoamericana, Vol. 10. Anton Saurwein, Markt Schwaben.
Lacadena García-Gallo, Alfonso 2003 El corpus glífico de Ek’ Balam, Yucatán, México. Reports presented to the Foundation for the Advancement of Mesoamerican Studies (FAMSI), October 2003. Electronic document, http://www.famsi.org/reports/ 01057es/index.html, accessed September 17, 2016.
Looper, Mathew, and Polyukhovych, Yuri 2015 A New Drawing of the Inscribed Jade Pendant in the American Museum of Natural History, New York. Electronic document, https://csuchico.academia.edu/YuriyPolyukhovychhttps://csuchico.academia.edu/YuriyPolyukhovych, accessed September 17, 2016.
Magoni, Aline, Johnson, Scott A. J., and Stanton, Travis 2014 A la sombra de Chichen Itzá: Evaluando la iconografía de la region al surest de este sitio durante el Clásico Tardío. In The Archaeology of Yucatan, edited by Stanton, Travis, pp. 297314. Archaeopress, Oxford.
Cárdenas, Maldonado, Rubén, Alexander Voss, and Góngora Sales, Angel 2002 Kalom Uk'uw, Señor de Dzibilchaltún. In La organización social entre los mayas: memoria de la Tercera Mesa Redonda de Palenque, Volumen 1, edited by Tiesler, Vera, Cobos, Rafael, and Robertson, Merle Greene, pp. 79100. Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia, Mexico City.
Cárdenas, Maldonado, Rúben, , and Góngora Sales, Ángel 2014 La region hegemonic de Dzibilchaltun en la época prehispánica. In The Archaeology of Yucatan, edited by Stanton, Travis, pp. 197206. Archaeopress, Oxford.
Marcus, Joyce 1976 Emblem and State in the Classic Maya Lowlands. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington, DC.
Martin, Simon 2005 Of Snakes and Bats: Shifting Identities at Calakmul. The PARI Journal 6:513.
Martin, Simon, and Velásquez García, Erik 2016 Polities and Places: Tracing the Toponyms of the Snake Dynasty. The PARI Journal 17:2333.
Martin, Simon, and Grube, Nikolai 2000 Chronicle of the Maya Kings and Queens. Thames and Hudson, London.
Martin, Simon, Houston, Stephen, and Zender, Marc 2015 Sculptors and Subjects: Notes on the Incised Text of Calakmul Stela 51. Edited by David Stuart. Electronic document, https://decipherment.wordpress.com/2015/01/07/sculptors-and-subjects-notes-on-the-incised-text-of-calakmul-stela-51/, accessed March 16, 2016.
Mathews, Peter 1991 Classic Maya Emblem Glyphs. In Classic Maya Political History: Hieroglyphic and Archaeological Evidence, edited by Culbert, Patrick, pp. 1929. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Mayer, Karl Herbert 1984 Maya Monuments III: Sculptures of Unknown Provenance in Middle America. Von Flemming, Berlin.
Mayer, Karl Herbert 1989 Maya Monuments V: Sculptures of Unknown Provenance in Middle America, Supplement 2. Von Flemming, Berlin.
Mayer, Karl Herbert 1991 Maya Monuments VI: Sculptures of Unknown Provenance, Supplement 3. Von Flemming, Berlin.
Mayer, Karl Herbert 1995 Maya Monuments VII: Sculptures of Unknown Provenance in Middle America, Supplement 4. Von Flemming, Berlin.
Mayer, Karl Herbert 1997 Maya Miscellaneous Texts; Number 1: Maya Miscellaneous Texts in British Museum. Academic Publishers, Graz.
Michelet, Dominique, and Becquelin, Pierre 2001 De Río Bec a Dzibilchaltun: interrogaciones acerca de la ciudad maya clásica desde la perspectiva del Yucatan central y septentrional. In Reconstruyendo la ciudad maya. El urbanismo en las sociedades antiguas, edited by Ciudad Ruiz, Andrés, Josefa Iglesias, Ma, and Martínez, Carmen, pp. 211252. Sociedad Española de Estudios Mayas, Madrid.
Morley, Sylvanus 1915a An Introduction to the Study of Maya Hieroglyphs. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 57. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.
Morley, Sylvanus 1915b The Rise And Fall Of The Maya Civilization In The Light Of The Monuments And The Native Chronicles. In Proceedings of the 19th International Congress of Americanists, edited by Frederick W. Hodge, pp. 140–149. Washington, DC.
Morley, Sylvanus 1946 The Ancient Maya. Stanford University, Stanford.
Philipp, Nondédeo, and Lacadena García-Gallo, Alfonso 2004 Kajtún, un nuevo sitio maya con monumentos esculpidos en la región Río Bec. Journal de la Société des Américanistes 90:183201.
Okoshi Harada, Tsubasa 1992 Los Canules: Análisis etnohistórico del Códice de Calkini. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, Universidad Autónoma Nacional de México, Mexico City.
Okoshi Harada, Tsubasa 2012 Las entidades políticas de las Tierras Bajas del norte al tiempo de la invasion española. Revista Digital Universitaria, UNAM 13. Electronic document, http://www.revista.unam.mx(vol.13/num12/art119/index.html, accessed September 17, 2016.
Pallan Gayol, Carlos 2009 Secuencia dinástica, glifos-emblem as y toponímicos en las inscripciones jeroglíficas de Edzná, Campeche (600–900 a.d.): Implicaciones históricas. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City.
Prager, Christian 2013 Übernatürliche Akteure in der klassischen Maya-Religion. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Philosophische Fakultät, Universität Bonn, Bonn.
Proskouriakoff, Tatiana 1974 Jades from the Cenote of Sacrifice, Chichen Itzá, Yucatan. Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University Press, Cambridge.
Prem, Hanns, and Dunning, Nicholas 2004 Investigacions at Hunto Chac, Yucatan. Mexicon 26:2636.
Ringle, William 1988 Of Mice and Monkeys: The Value and Meaning of T1016, the God C Hieroglyph. Research Reports on Ancient Maya Writing, Vol. 18. Center for Maya Research, Washington, DC.
Ringle, William, Bay, George J., Gallareta, Tómas, and Kelly, David 2009 A New Monument form Huntichmul, Yucatan, Mexico. Research Reports on Ancient Maya Writing 57:119.
Robertson, Merle Green 2016 Rubbings of Maya Sculpture. Electronic document, http://www.precolumbia.org/pari/rubbings/index.html, accessed September 17, 2016.
Rubenstein, Meghan (editor) 2017 Recent Investigations in the Puuc Region of Yucatán. Archaeopress Pre-Columbian Archaeology 8. Archaeopress, Oxford.
Saturno, William, Rossi, Franco D., Stuart, David, and Hurst, Heather 2017 A Maya Curia Regis: Evidences for a Hierarchical Specialist Order at Xultun, Guatemala. Ancient Mesoamerica 28:423440.
Schele, Linda, and Freidel, David 1990 A Forest of Kings. William Morrow, New York.
Schele, Linda, Grube, Nikolai K., and Boot, Erik 1997 Some Suggestions on the K'atun Prophecies in the Books of Chilam Balam in Light of Classic Period History. In Tercer Congreso Internacional de Mayistas, pp. 399432. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City.
Seler, Eduard 1911 Die Stuckfassade von Acanceh in Yucatan. In Gesammelte Abhandlungen zur amerikanischen Sprach- und Altertumskunde, Vol. 5 (1961), pp. 389404. Akademische Druck- und Verlagsanstalt, Graz.
Smyth, Michael, Dunning, Nicholas P., Weaver, Eric, van Beynen, Philip, and Ortegón Zapata, David 2017 The Perfect Storm: Climate Change and Settlement Response in the Puuc Hills Region of Yucatan. Antiquity 91:490509.
Socorro Medina, Martín Cecilia, José Gómez Cobá, María, and Pantoja Díaz, Luis 2014 Las costumbres funerarias en la periferia de Mérida, Yucatan. In The Archaeology of Yucatan, edited by Stanton, Travis, pp. 181196. Archaeopress, Oxford.
Spinden, Herbert 1975 A Study of Maya Art: Its Subject Matter and Historical Development. Dover, New York.
Stanton, Travis (editor) 2014 The Archaeology of Yucatan: New Directions and Data. Archaeopress, Oxford.
Stanton, Travis, Carrillo Sánchez, Ramón, Ceballos Gallareta, Teresa, Eberl, Markus, Jiménez Alvarez, Socorro, and Ramos Pacheco, Julieta 2003 Preliminary Research from Santa Bárbara. Mexicon 25:2433.
Stuart, David 1993 Historical Inscriptions and the Maya Collapse. In Lowland Maya Civilization in the Eight Century a.d., edited by Sabloff, Jeremy A. and Henderson, John H., pp. 321354. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington, DC.
Stuart, David 1995 A Study of Maya Inscriptions. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville.
Stuart, David 1998 “The Fire Enters his House”: Architecture and Ritual in Classic Maya Texts. In Function and Meaning in Classic Maya Architecture: A Symposium at Dumbarton Oaks, 7th and 8th October 1994, edited by Houston, Stephen, pp. 373425. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington, DC.
Stuart, David 2009 The Symbolism of Zacpeten Altar 1. In The Kowoj. Identity, Migration, and Geopolitics in Late Postclassic Petén, Guatemala, edited by Rice, Prudence M. and Rice, Don S., pp. 317326. University Press of Colorado, Boulder.
Stuart, David 2010 Notes on Accession Dates in the Inscriptions of Coba. Mesoweb. Electronic document, http://www.mesoweb.com/stuart/notes/Coba.pdf, accessed September 17, 2016.
Stuart, David, Canuto, Marcello A., Barrientos Q., Tomás, Ponce, Jocelyne, and Baron, Joanne 2015 Death of the Defeated: New Historical Data on Block 4 of La Corona's Hieroglyphic Stairway 2. Mesoweb, La Corona Notes 1(3). Electronic document, http://www.mesoweb.com/LaCorona/LaCoronaNotes03.pdf, accessed September 17, 2016.
Stuart, David, and Houston, Stephen 1994 Classic Maya Place Names. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington, DC.
Thompson, John Eric S. 1937 A New Method of Deciphering Yucatecan Dates with Special Reference to Chichen Itzá. Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication 483, Contribution 22. Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, D.C.
Thompson, John Eric S. 1970 Maya History and Religion. University of Oklahoma, Norman.
Tokovinine, Alexandre 2008 The Power of Place; Political Landscape and Identity in Classic Maya Inscriptions, Imagery, and Architecture. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Harvard University, Cambridge.
Tokovinine, Alexandre 2012 Fluted and Incised Bowl. In Ancient Maya Art at Dumbarton Oaks. Pre-Columbian Art at Dumbarton Oaks, Number 4, edited by Pillsbury, Joanne, Doutriaux, Miriam, Ishihara-Brito, Reiko, and Tokovinine, Alexandre, pp. 121129. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington, DC.
Tokovinine, Alexandre 2013 Place and Identity in Classic Maya Narratives. Studies in Pre-Columbian Art and Archaeology, No. 37. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington, DC.
Tokovinine, Alexandre 2014 Beans and Glyphs: A Possible IB Logogram in the Classic Maya Script. The PARI Journal 14:1016.
Tsukamoto, Kenichiro, and Esparza Olguín, Octavio Q. 2015 Ajpach’ Waal: The Hieroglyphic Staiwar of the Guzmán Group of El Palmar, Campeche Mexico. In Maya Archaeology 3, edited by Golden, Charles, Houston, Stephen, and Skidmore, Joel, pp. 3155. Precolumbian Mesoweb, San Francisco.
Velásquez García, Erik 2004 Los escalones jeroglíficos de Dzibanche. In Los Cautivos de Dzibanche, edited by Nalda, Enrique, pp. 79104. Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Mexico City.
Voss, Alexander W., and Eberl, Markus 1999 Ek’ Balam: A New Emblem Glyph from the Northeastern Yucatan. Mexicon 21:124130.
Werness-Rude, Maline Diane 2010 Chocholá Ceramics and the Polities of Northwestern Yucatan. Ph.D. dissertation, Faculty of the Graduate School, University of Texas, Austin.
Werness-Rude, Maline Diane 2017 Making it a Date: Positioning the Chocholá Style in Time and Space. In Recent Investigations in the Puuc Region of Yucatan, edited by Rubenstein, Meghan, pp. 127146. Archaeopress Pre-Columbian Archaeology 8. Archaeopress, Oxford.
Wichmann, Søren 2006 Mayan Historical Linguistics and Epigraphy: A New Synthesis. Annual Review of Anthropology 35:279294.
Zender, Marc 2004 A Study of Classic Maya Priesthood. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Archaeology, University of Calgary, Calgary.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Ancient Mesoamerica
  • ISSN: 0956-5361
  • EISSN: 1469-1787
  • URL: /core/journals/ancient-mesoamerica
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed