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The Maaseik embroideries

  • Mildred Budny (a1) and Dominic Tweddle (a2)

Among the relics in the treasury of the church of St Catherine at Maaseik in Limburg, Belgium, there are some luxurious embroideries which form part of the so-called casula (probably ‘chasuble’) of Sts Harlindis and Relindis (pls. I–VI). It was preserved throughout the Middle Ages at the abbey church of Aldeneik (which these sister-saints founded in the early eighth century) and was moved to nearby Maaseik in 1571. Although traditionally regarded as the handiwork of Harlindis and Relindis themselves, the embroideries cannot date from as early as their time, and they must have been made in Anglo-Saxon England. Indeed, they represent the earliest surviving examples of the highly prized English art of embroidery which became famous later in the Middle Ages as opus anglicanum.

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1 See esp. Calberg, Marguerite, ‘Tissus et broderies attribués aux Saintes Harlinde et Relinde’, Bullétin de la Société Royale d' Archéologie de Bruxelles (10 1951), pp. 126, esp. 11–26; Alain Dierkens, ‘L'Abbaye d'Aldeneik pendant le haut moyen âge’ (unpubl. Mémoire de licence en Histoire, Université Libre de Bruxelles, 1975) 1, 91–101; and ‘Evangéliaires et tissus de l'abbaye d'Aldeneik. Aspect historiographique’, Miscellanea Codicologica F. Masai Dicata, ed. Cockshaw, Pierre, Monique-Cécile Garand and Pierre Jodogne (Ghent, 1979), pp. 3140;Budny, Mildred and Tweddle, Dominic, ‘De vroeg-middeleeuwse stoffen te Maaseik’, transl. Heymans, Hubert, Het Oude Land von Loon 38 (1983), 231–71, esp. 238–57; and Budny, Mildred, The Anglo-Saxon Embroideries at Maaseik: their Historical and Art Historical Context (forthcoming among the fascicles published by the Koninklijke Academie voor Wetenschappen, Letteren en Schone Kunsten van België).

2 See esp. Christie, A. G. I., English Medieval Embroidery: a Brief Survey of English Embroidery Dating from the Beginning of the Tenth Century until the End of the Fourteenth, together with a Descriptive Catalogue of the Surviving Examples (Oxford, 1938), passim; and King, Donald, Opus Anglicanum: English Medieval Embroidery, Arts Council Exhibition Catalogue, Victoria and Albert Museum (London, 1963).

3 See above, n. 1.

4 B[ock], [F.], ‘Kunststickerei des siebenten Jahrhunderts’, Kölnische Blätter 268 (27 09 1867), 1. (Gabriel Silagi kindly provided M. Budny with a copy of this article.) See also, e.g., Helbig, Jules, Histoire de la peinture au Pays de Liège depuis l'introduction du christianisme jusqu'à la Révolution liègeoise et la réunion de la principauté de la France (Liège, 1893), p. 18, and L'Art mosan depuis l'introduction du christianisme jusqu' à la fin du XIIIe siècle (Brussels, 1906 and 1911) 1, 15.

5 Calberg, ‘Tissus’, p. 25. She stated that ‘manifestement, les broderies ne sont pas antérieures au second quart du IXe siècle, et peut-être serions-nous le plus près de la verité en les situant aux alentours de 850’. See also pp. 22–6, and Kendrick, T. D., Anglo-Saxon Art to A.D. 900 (London, 1938), esp. pp. 143–93. In an earlier article Calberg referred to the Maaseik embroideries only as ‘pré-romane’, without specifying the date or place of origin: ‘Documents textiles de l'antiquité tardive et du haut moyen âge conservés en Belgique’, Bullétin de la Société Royale d'Archéologie de Bruxelles (08 1948), p. 20.

6 With respect to the embroideries themselves, see, e.g., Wilson, David M., ‘Craft and Industry’, The Archaeology of Anglo-Saxon England, ed. Wilson, David M. (London, 1976), p. 273;Budny, M. and Graham-Campbell, J., ‘An Eighth-Century Bronze Ornament from Canterbury and Related Works’, AC 97 (1981), 725, esp. 13–15 and 21; Tweddle, Dominic, ‘Anglo-Saxon Sculpture in South-East England before c. 950’, Studies in Medieval Sculpture, ed. Thompson, F. H., Soc. of Antiquaries Occasional Paper n.s. 3 (London, 1983), 22;Wilson, David M., Anglo-Saxon Art (London, 1984), p. 108 and pls. 107–9 (in colour); Budny, , Embroideries; and below, pp. 7884.

7 On the types of embroidery see, e.g., Schuette, Marie and Müller-Christensen, Sophie, The Art of Embroidery, transl. King, Donald (London, 1964), p. vii; the Maaseik embroideries are nos. 9 and 10 (pp. 25–6).

8 The study has benefited greatly from the kind assistance of Sir David Wilson, Leslie Webster, James Graham-Campbell, Raymond Page, Peter Lasko, George Taylor, Harry Appleyard, Andrew Oddy, Michael Cowell, Justine Bayley, David Ganz, Stuart Airlie, Simon Keynes, Donald Bullough, Julian Brown, Yehuda Safran, Wendy Stein, Linda Brownrigg, Philip Lewis, John-Peter Wild, Penelope Walton, Hero Granger-Taylor, Margaret McCord, Donald King, Daniël Dejonghe, René Derolez, Hubert Heymans and Alain Dierkens. Helen Humphreys prepared the drawings. We took the photographs. Deacon Olaerts, Pastor Overbeek and the Kerkfabrik of the St-Catharinakerk at Maaseik kindly permitted us to undertake the study and offered us every facility in order to expedite it.

9 See esp. Budny and Tweddle, ‘Stoffen’, pp. 238–57; and Budny, Embroideries.

10 On the early medieval objects in the treasury, see Hendrickx, M. and Sangers, W., De kerkschat van de Sint-Catharinakerk te Maaseik. Beschrijvende inventaris, reeks Limburgs Kunstpatrimonium 1 (Limburg, 1963), 25–9, 44–5 and pls. 25 and 33–4, repr. as Sangers, W. and Hendrickx, M., ‘De reliekenschat uit Aldeneik en Maaseik’, Aldeneik: Architectuur en Historie, ed. Daniëls, G. and Sangers, W. (Limburg, 1975), pp. 63–5, 77 and 90–1;Budny, Mildred and Tweddle, Dominic, ‘De vroeg-middeleeuwse relicten van de heiligen Harlindis en Relindis in de kerkschatten van de St.-Catharinakerk te Maaseik’, transl. Boonen, Martin, De Maaseikenaar, 14.1 (1983), 2131; and Budny, Embroideries, passim. On the early gospel-book (usually taken to be the fragments of two gospel-books of somewhat different dates), see Alexander, J. J. G., Insular Manuscripts, 6th to the 9th Century, A Survey of Manuscripts Illuminated in the British Isles 1 (London, 1978), 50–1 (nos. 22–3) and pls. 87–107; Nancy Netzer and Julian Brown kindly discussed their studies of the manuscript with M. Budny. On the wedge-shaped reliquary, see esp. d'Altena, J. Borchgrave, ‘Un Reliquaire carolingien à Maaseik’, Namurcum 5 (1928), 45–7, and Werdendes Abendland an Rhein und Ruhr, ed. Elbern, V. H., Exhibition Catalogue, Villa Hügel, 4th ed. (Essen, 1956), no. 281a. On the textiles, see Calberg, ‘Tissus’, pp. 1–26; Budny and Tweddle, ‘Stoffen’, pp. 231–57, and ‘The Early Medieval Textiles at Maaseik’ (forthcoming).

11 De Sanctis Virginibus Herlindis sive Harlinde et Reinula seu Renilde Abbatissis Masaci in Belgio, ed. Henschenius, G., Acta Sanctorum, Mar., ed. Bollandus, J., Henschenius, G. and Papebrochius, D. iii (Antwerp, 1668), 3rd ed. (Paris, 1865), 368–92, at 383–8, repr. Acta Sanctorum Ordinis Sancti Benedicti in Saeculorum Classes Distributa, ed. D'Achery, L. and Mabillon, J. iii. i (Paris, 1672), 654–62. Here we cite passages in the Vita by the pages and section numbers in the third edition of Henschenius's text. On the date and authorship of the Vita, see esp. Dierkens, ‘L'Abbaye d'Aldeneik’ 1, 19–25, and ‘Les Origines de l'abbaye d'Aldeneik (Première moitié du VIIIe siècle)’, Le Moyen Âge 3–4 (1979), 390–2, and Werner, Mattias, Der lütticher Raum in frühkarolingischer Zeit. Untersuchungen zur Geschichte einer karolingischen Stammlandschaft, Veröffentlichungen des Max-Planck-Instituts für Geschichte 62 (Göttingen, 1980), 176–9.

12 See below, p. 91.

13 ‘The holy virgins [or the virgin saints] wove this casula, and St Theodard, bishop, consecrated it.’

14 ‘The holy virgins, the abbesses Harlindis and Relindis, wove this casula, St Theodard, bishop of Liège, consecrated it, and St Willibrord, bishop of Utrecht, and St Boniface, bishop of Mainz, celebrated divine service in (or with) it.’

15 See Dierkens, ‘L'Abbaye d'Aldeneik’ 1, 97, and 11, 85, n. 540.

16 Historie van het leven der heyliger marchden Harlindis en Relindis, uut de legende int cortste end ghtrouvvelijkste overgestelt (Liège, 1596), 19r. An anonymous abbreviated Latin version of the Vita, made in the fourteenth or fifteenth century, may have mentioned the relics too, but the folio which should have contained that account is missing from the surviving fifteenth-century manuscript: see Dierkens, ‘Evangéliaires’, p. 33.

17 ‘Item one chasuble magnificently ornamented with pearls, with this inscription: “The casula which the holy virgins, abbesses Harlindis and Relindis, wove …”’: Schoolmeesters, E., ‘Les Origines de la ville de Maeseyck’, Analectes pour servir à l'histoire ecclésiastique de la Belgique 22 (Louvain, 1890), 383. The slight difference at the beginning in wording between the surviving inscription and the citation of the inscription in the inventory may indicate that the inventory reproduces an earlier inscription which the surviving inscription replaced at the time of the inventory.

18 Gielen, J., Promenade à l'église romane d's Alden-Eyck-les-Maeseyck (Limbourg belge), 2nd ed. (Liège, 1871), p. 25.

19 See, e.g., Braun, Josef, Die liturgische Gewandung im Occident und Orient. Nach Ursprung und Entwicklung, Verwendung and Symbolik (Freiburg im Breisgau, 1907), pp. 149247; and Müller, T., Steingräber, E. and Müller-Christensen, S., Sakrale Gewänder des Mittelalters, Exhibition Catalogue, Bayerisches Nationalmuseum (Munich, 1955),passim. On a bell-shaped casula reworked into a baroque version, see Flury-Lemberg, Mechtild, ‘Das “Ulrichsgewand” aus dem Kloster St Urban’, Documenta Textilia. Festschrift für Sigrid Müller-Christensen, ed. Flury-Lemberg, Mechtild and Stolleis, Karen (Munich, 1981), pp. 163–76.

20 On these and the other textiles now in the casula, see, further, Calberg, ‘Tissus’, pp. 11–19; Budny and Tweddle, ‘Stoffen’, pp. 238–57, and ‘Textiles’.

21 See, e.g., Crowfoot, Grace M., ‘The Tablet-Woven Braids’, The Relics of Saint Cuthbert: Studies by Various Authors, ed. Battiscombe, C. F. (Oxford, 1956), pp. 433–52, and Crowfoot, Elizabeth and Chadwick Hawkes, Sonia, ‘Early Anglo-Saxon Gold Braids’, MA 11 (1967), 4286.

22 See esp. Budny, Embroideries.

23 The system of labelling adopted here to refer concisely to the different parts of the arcades employs roman numerals to distinguish between the two strips and arabic numerals to indicate the individual spandrels, arches, piers or arched fields, starting with the first spandrel, arch, pier or arched field at the left in the arcade as viewed upright.

24 Roman numerals are used to distinguish between the two strips, arabic numerals to distinguish between the five roundels in each horizontal row, and capital letters to distinguish between the two rows. According to this system, the upper left-hand roundel on strip I is roundel I. ia and the lower right-hand roundel on strip II is roundel II. ia.

25 Previously the monograms have been taken to represent M and A (Calberg, ‘Tissus’, p. 12; Hendrickx, and Sangers, , Kerkschat, p. 27; and Dierkens, ‘L'Abbaye d'Aldeneik’ 1, 98), but the range of forms employed in display lettering in Anglo-Saxon and Hiberno-Saxon manuscripts of the period demands a wider choice. See Budny, Embroideries.

26 See Budny and Tweddle, ‘Stoffen’, pp. 244, 250–1 and 265.

27 See also Wilson, , Anglo-Saxon Art, pl. 108.

28 On these types of stitches, see, e.g., Christie, , Embroidery, pp. 25–6 and figs. 53–4.

29 On surface-couching, see esp. ibid., pp. 25 and 49 and figs. 48 and 71a.

30 See above, p. 69.

31 It fails to mention the inscriptions on the casula, whereas it does list the inscriptions on the velamina: Schoolmeesters, ‘Origines’, p. 383.

32 See below, p. 91 and n. 82.

33 On this style, see Wilson, David M., Anglo-Saxon Ornamental Metalmork 700–1100 in the British Museum, Catalogue of Antiquities of the Later Anglo-Saxon Period 1 (London, 1964), esp. 23–35.

34 See, e.g., Budny and Graham-Campbell, ‘Ornament’, pp. 10–25.

35 Rome, Vatican City, Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana, Vat. Barberini Lat. 570, passim; and Cambridge, University Library, Ll. 1. 10, 2v: Alexander, , Insular Manuscripts, nos. 36 and 66 and pls. 169–72, 175, 178 and 312. On the Brunswick casket, see Beckwith, John, Ivory Carvings in Early Medieval England (London, 1972), no. 2 and pl. 13.

36 London, British Library, Cotton Vespasian A. i, 30v, and Alexander, Insular Manuscripts, no. 29 and pl. 146.

37 Stockholm, Kungliga Biblioteket, A. 135, and Alexander, Insular Manuscripts, no. 30 and pls. 147, 152, 154–5 and 159.

38 Leningrad, Saltykov Shchedrin State Public Library, Cod. Lat. F. v. 1. 8, and Alexander, Insular Manuscripts, no. 39.

39 Dublin, Trinity College A.1.6, and Alexander, Insular Manuscripts, no. 52, e.g. pls. 232, 240–7, 249, 252 and 256.

40 London, British Library, Royal 1 E. vi, and Alexander, Insular Manuscripts, no. 32 and pls. 161–2.

41 Bruce-Mitford, Rupert, ‘Late Saxon Disc-Brooches’, Aspects of Anglo-Saxon Archaeology: Sutton Hoo and Other Discoveries (London, 1974), pp. 302–45, esp. pls. 99, 101 and 106b, and Wilson, Metalwork, nos. 1, 2 and 153.

42 See Campbell, James, John, Eric and Wormald, Patrick, The Anglo-Saxons, ed. Campbell, James (Oxford, 1982), pls. 97, 122 and 124.

43 See Henry, Françoise, The Book of Kells: Reproductions from the Manuscript in Trinity College Dublin (London, 1974), pls. 11, 23, 27, 29, 51, 61 and 95.

44 Radford, C. R., ‘Two Scottish Shrines – Jedburgh and St Andrews, AntJ 112 (1955), 4360, and Cramp, R. J. and Lang, J. T., A Century of Anglo-Saxon Sculpture (Newcastle upon Tyne, 1977). no. 3.

45 Alexander, Insular Manuscripts, frontispiece, and Kendrick, Anglo-Saxon Art, pl. LXXXV.

46 See, e.g., Collingwood, W. G., Northumbrian Crosses of the Pre-Norman Age (London, 1927), passim, and Alexander, Insular Manuscripts, passim among the plates.

47 The Anglo-Saxons, ed. Campbell, pl. 103.

48 Kendrick, Anglo-Saxon Art, pl. LXXXVII.2 and 3.

49 Alexander, Insular Manuscripts, no. 32 and pl. 164 (6r), and Wheeler, Hazel, ‘Aspects of Mercian Art: the Book of Cerne’, Mercian Studies, ed. Dornier, Ann (Leicester, 1977), fig. 68 (5v).

50 Alexander, Insular Manuscripts, pl. 173.

51 The Anglo-Saxons, ed. Campbell, frontispiece.

52 See Alexander, Insular Manuscripts, pls. 146, 154 and 312–15.

53 Wilson, Metalwork, nos. 41 and 66 and pls. XXIII and XIX, and Hinton, David A., A Catalogue of the Anglo-Saxon Ornamental Metalwork, 700–1100, in the Department of Antiquities, Ashmolean Museum (Oxford, 1974), no. 36 and pl. XIX.

54 Vienna, Nationalbibliothek, Cod. 1224, 166r; London, British Library, Cotton Tiberius C. ii, 60v; and Alexander, Insular Manuscripts, nos. 33 and 37 and pls. 134 and 187.

55 Beckwith, Carvings, pls. 10 and 13.

56 Alexander, Insular Manuscripts, pl. 165.

57 Cambridge, Corpus Christi College 144, and Lowe, E. A., Codices Latini Antiquiores: a Palaeographical Guide to Latin Manuscripts Prior to the Ninth Century, II: Great Britain and Ireland, 2nd ed. (Oxford, 1973), no. 122.

58 See esp. Calberg, ‘Tissus’, pp. 22–6; Budny and Graham-Campbell, ‘Ornament’, 10–25; and Budny, Embroideries, passim.

59 See Meaney, Audrey L., Anglo-Saxon Amulets and Curing Stones, BAR Brit. ser. 96 (1981), 184 and 186–7. Elizabeth Crowfoot and David Brown kindly discussed the Kempston embroidery fragment with M. Budny.

60 See esp. Vierck, H. E. F., ‘La “Chemise de Sainte-Bathilde” à Chelles et l'influence byzantine sur l'art de cour mérovingien au VIIe siècle’, Centenaire de l'Abbé Cochet, 1975: Actes du Colloque International d'Archéologie, ed. Chirol, N. de E. (Rouen, 1978), pp. 521–64.

61 See Wilson, ‘Craft and Industry’, p. 273.

62 See Plenderleith, Elizabeth, Hohler, Christopher and Freyhan, R., ‘The Stole and Maniples’, Relics of Saint Cuthbert, ed. Battiscombe, pp. 375452 and pls. XXIX–XXX, XXXI.3 and XXXII–XXXIV.

63 See Battiscombe, C. F., ‘Historical Introduction’, Relics of Saint Cuthbert, ed. Battiscombe, p. 31.

64 See d'Arzago, Albergo de Capitani, ‘Antichi Tessuti della Basilica Ambrosiana’, Biblioteca de ‘l'Arte’ n.s. 1 (Milan, 1941), 3941 (no. S.6), fig. 2 and pls. XVII.41 and XXI.67 (in colour), dating the fragment to the eleventh century and leaving unspecified the place of origin, and Crowfoot, G. M., ‘Notes on a Fragment of Embroidery from the Basilica Ambrosiana in Milan’, Relics of Saint Cuthbert, ed. Battiscombe, , pp. 392–4.

65 Hinton, , Catalogue, pp. 17 (no. 1) and pl. 11c, field 12. Hinton, p. 4, describes the creature as an ‘animal’.

66 Henry, The Book of Kells, pl. 29 (in colour).

67 Muthesius, Anna and Walton, Penelope, ‘A Silk Reliquary Pouch from Coppergate’, Interim [Bull. of the York Archaeol. Trust] 6.2 (1979), 56. See the fuller account in The Archaeology of York 17, ed. P. V. Addyman (forthcoming).

68 Muthesius and Walton, ‘Pouch’, p. 6.

69 See, e.g., The Bayeux Tapestry: a Comprehensive Survey, ed. SirStenton, Frank, 2nd ed. (London, 1965); Brooks, N. P. and Walker, H. E., ‘The Authority and Interpretation of the Bayeux Tapestry’, Proc. of the Battle Conference on Anglo-Norman Studies, I: 1978, ed. Brown, R. Allen (Ipswich, 1979), pp. 134 and 191–9; and Parisse, Michel, La Tapisserie de Bayeux (Paris, 1982). The best full reproduction in colour is still Setton, Kenneth M., ‘900 Years Ago: the Norman Conquest’, National Geographic 130.2 (1966), 206–51.

70 On the probable origin of the embroidery, see esp. Brooks and Walker, ‘Authority’, passim.

71 Southwell, Herbert B., A Descriptive Account of Some Fragments of Medieval Embroidery found in Worcester Cathedral (n.p., 1914), pp. 18 and pls. II–VII, and Christie, , Embroidery, pp. 52–4 (nos. 4–8) and pls. IV–VII.

72 See, e.g., Gem, R. D. H., ‘Bishop Wulfstan II and the Romanesque Cathedral Church of Worcester’, Medieval Art and Architecture at Worcester Cathedral, Brit. Archaeol. Assoc. Conference Trans. 1 (1975) (London, 1978), 1537.

73 See Christie, , Embroidery, pp. 1 and 31–2;Lehmann-Brockhaus, Otto,Lateinische Schriftquellen zur Kunst in England, Wales und Schottland vom Jahre 901 bis zum Jahre 1307, Veröffentlichungen des Zentralinstituts für Kunstgeschichte in München 1 (Munich, 19551960), passim; Dodwell, Anglo-Saxon Art, esp. ch. 5; and Budny, Embroideries.

74 Dodwell, , Anglo-Saxon Art, pp. 70 and 267, n. 197.

75 See Lapidge, Michael, ‘Some Remnants of Bede's Liber Epigrammatum’, EHR 93 (1978), 798820, esp. 812.

76 On the ambivalent meaning in such cases of verbs such as facere (‘to make’), see, e.g., Dodwell, , Anglo-Saxon Art, pp. 4850.

77 ‘Anglicae nationis feminae multum acu et auri tcxtura … valent.’ See Dodwell, , Anglo-Saxon Art, pp. 45 and 256, n. 8.

78 See, e.g., ibid., pp. 45 and 256, n. 9.

79 Ibid. pp. 53, 55 and 260, n. 74.

80 As recorded in the Liber Eliensis, ed. Blake, E. O., Camden Soc. 3rd ser. 92 (1962), 136 (ii, 63). The ‘curtain’ or ‘hanging’ is described only as being ‘woven and embroidered (or illustrated) with the deeds of her husband’ (‘cortinam gestis viri sui intextam atque depictam’), which may mean that, although it was woven and had images (thus perhaps qualifying as a ‘tapestry’, if the images were woven into the cloth), it was not embroidered: cf. Dodwell, , Anglo-Saxon Art, pp. 134–6 and 225–6, referring to it as ‘tapestry’ and ‘embroidery’ by turns.

81 Liber Eliensis, ed. Blake, p. 24 (i, 9); and Dodwell, , Anglo-Saxon Art, pp. 49 and 258, n. 41.

82 ‘Simili etiam in modo universi operis arte, quod manibus foeminarum diversis modis ac varia compositione fieri solet, honestissime fuerant instructae, videlicet nenendo et texendo, creando ac suando, in auro quoque ac margaritis in serico componendis, miris in modis extiterant perfectae opifices’ (Vita, p. 384, § 5). Valencina is named in § 4. On the probable identity of the place, see Dierkens, ‘Origines’, pp. 401–4.

83 ‘Quaedam palliola, quae propriis manibus contexuerant, et quae multis modis variisque compositionibus diversae artis innumerabilibus ornamentis, Deum Sanctosque decentibus, ex auro et margaritis ornata, composuerant Sanctae, illo in loco post se relinquerent’ (Vita, p. 386, § 6).

84 See esp. Budny, Embroideries.

85 Vita, pp. 386–7, §§ 10 and 13.

86 See esp. Werner, , Lütticher Raum, pp. 179–81.

87 See, e.g., The Anglo-Saxon Missionaries in Germany: being the Lives of SS. Willibrord, Boniface, Sturm, Leoba, and Lebuin, together with a Selection from the Correspondence of St Boniface, transl. and ed. Talbot, C. H. (London, 1954), p. 13.

88 See the Vita, p. 384, § 5–7, on the saints' father and the foundation of the convent upon one of his lands. The charter is Gysseling, M. and Koch, A. C. F., Diplomata Belgica ante annum millesimum centesimum scripta, Bouwstoffen en studiën voor de geschiedenis en de lexikografie van het Nederlands 1 (Brussels, 1950) 1, 305 (no. 173). On the possible identity of the one Adalhard with the other, see, e.g., Dierkens, ‘Origines’, pp. 394–5, and Werner, , Lütticher Raum, pp. 275, n. 3, and 183–4.

89 See Die Briefe des heiligen Bonifatius, ed. Michael Tangl, Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Epist. select. 1: S. Bonifatiiet Lulli Epistolae (Berlin, 1916), e.g. nos. 15, 27, 72, 76 and 105; transl., e.g., Emerton, E., The Letters of Saint Boniface, The Records of Civilization: Sources and Studies (New York, 1940), as nos. 7, 19, 56, 60 and 85. See also Epistolae Karolini Aevi, ed. Ernst Dummler, MGH, Epist. 4: Karolini Aevi 11 (Berlin, 1895), nos. 8 and 100; transl. Allott, Steven, Alcuin of York, c. A.D. 732 to 804 – his Life and Letters (York, 1974), nos. 9 and 40.

90 On Alcuin's life and career, see esp. ‘Introduction’, Alcuin: ‘The Bishops, Kings and Saints of York’, ed. Godman, Peter (Oxford, 1982), pp. xxxv–ix, and Donald A. Bullough, ‘Albuinus deliciosis regis: Alcuin and the Shaping of the Carolingian Court’ (forthcoming in the Festschrift for J. Fleckenstein).

91 See Fleckenstein, J., ‘Karl der Grosse und sein Hof’, Karl der Grosse. Lebenswerk und Nachleben, ed. Braunfels, Wolfgang, 1:Persönlichkeit und Nachleben, ed. Beumann, Helmut (Düsseldorf, 1965), 240–50; on Herstal, see p. 229, n. 31.

92 Ibid. pp. 239 and 227.

93 See Werner, K. F., ‘Die Nachkommen Karls des Grossen bis zum Jahr 1000 (1.–8. Generation)’, Karl der Grosse, ed. Braunfels, , iv:Das Nachleben, ed. Wolfgang Braunfels and Percy Ernst Schramm, pp. 411 and 454–5.

94 See esp. von Padberg, Lutz, Heilige und Familie. Studien zur Bedeutung familiengebundener Aspekte in den Viten des Verwandten- und Schülerkreises um Willibrord, Bonifatius und Luidger, Inaugural-Dissertation … der Westfälischen Wilhelms-Universität zu Münster (Münster, 1981),passim.

95 ‘Honorabilis tibi est amicitia illius et utilis’ (Epist., ed. Dümmler, p. 149 (no. 102)). Allott, , Alcuin, p. 55, rendered pallium as ‘a dress’.

96 Asser, Vita Alfredi, ch. 8: Asser's Life of King Alfred, ed. Stevenson, William Henry (Oxford, 1904), pp. 1314, and Keynes, Simon and Lapidge, Michael, Alfred the Great: Asser's ‘Life of King Alfred’ and other Contemporary Sources (Harmondsworth, 1983), p. 72; see also p. 236, nn. 31–2.

97 See, e.g., Geijer, Agnes, A History of Textile Art: a Selective Account (London, 1979), pp. 134 and 282, n. 15 and pl. 20.

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