Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Genetic and cultural significance of indigenous pigs in Papua New Guinea and their phenotypic characteristics

  • W. Ayalew (a1), G. Danbaro (a2), M. Dom (a1), S. Amben (a3), F. Besari (a1), C. Moran (a4) and K. Nidup (a4) (a5)...

Summary

Pigs are the most important livestock species in Papua New Guinea (PNG) from economic as well as cultural perspectives. Most of the estimated population of 1.8 million pigs are maintained by smallholder farmers. The genetic attributes, differentiation and production capacities of indigenous pigs are largely unknown. But the rich socio-cultural diversity of rural communities living in geographically isolated pristine environments, with long and strong attachments with indigenous pigs implies that indigenous pigs may harbour unique genetic diversity. This study reports preliminary survey of indigenous pigs sampled from major pig farming areas of the country as part of a South Asia-wide regional indigenous pig genetic diversity study. It assesses farmers’ perceptions about the origin, population trend and utility value of indigenous pigs, as well as their trait preferences. Average herd sizes and external physical forms and appearances of pigs are described. About 19 percent of the sampled indigenous pigs were identified through pedigree checks to have an admixtured genotype with some distant indigenous or exotic parentage. The importance of indigenous pig genetic resources in PNG requires a policy and legislative framework to support sustainable utilization. As a first step in informing such development, a comprehensive molecular genetic study is required to elucidate the genetic attributes of this unique genetic resource.

En Papouasie-Nouvelle-Guinée, les porcs représentent l'espèce d'animaux d’élevage la plus importante tant du point de vue économique que culturel. La plupart de la population estimée de 1,8 million de porcs est élevée par des petits exploitants. Les caractères génétiques et les capacités de différenciation et de production des porcs indigènes sont largement inconnus. Mais la riche diversité socio-culturelle des communautés rurales qui vivent dans des environnements vierges isolés et ont des liens forts et de longue durée avec les porcs indigènes laisse supposer que ces derniers pourraient conserver une diversité génétique unique. Cette étude présente le rapport d'une enquête préliminaire sur les porcs indigènes des principales zones d’élevage du pays, dans le cadre d'une vaste étude régionale sur la diversité génétique des porcs, mise en place en Asie du Sud. Dans cette étude, on évalue les perceptions des agriculteurs sur l'origine, l’évolution de la population et la valeur d'utilité des porcs indigènes, ainsi que leurs préférences de caractères. On y décrit les tailles moyennes des troupeaux et les formes et aspects physiques extérieurs des porcs. Par le biais des contrôles généalogiques, on a déterminé qu'environ 19 pour cent des porcs indigènes pris en considération présentent un génotype provenant d'un mélange avec une ascendance lointaine indigène ou exotique. L'importance des ressources génétiques des porcs indigènes de la Papouasie-Nouvelle-Guinée demande un cadre politique et législatif soutenant leur utilization durable. La première étape pour accompagner ce développement consiste à entreprendre une étude génétique moléculaire détaillée pouvant préciser les caractères génétiques de cette ressources génétique unique.

El cerdo representa la especie de ganado más importante en Papúa Nueva Guinea (PNG) tanto desde un punto de vista económico como cultural. La mayor parte de la población estimada, de 1,8 millones de cerdos, es mantenida por granjeros minifundistas. Las características genéticas y las capacidades de diferenciación y producción de los cerdos indígenas se desconocen ampliamente. Pero la riqueza de la diversidad socio-cultural de las comunidades rurales que viven aisladas geográficamente en ambientes en perfecto estado, con antiguas y fuertes relaciones con cerdos indígenas, implica que los cerdos indígenas posean una diversidad genética única. Este trabajo está basado en el estudio preliminar de cerdos indígenas muestreados en las más importantes áreas de cría de cerdos del país, como parte de un estudio de la diversidad genética de una amplia región del sur de Asia. Se valora la percepción de los ganaderos acerca del origen, tendencia de la población, valor de utilidad de los cerdos indígenas, así como sus rasgos preferidos. Se describe el tamaño medio de las piaras, sus formas físicas externas y la apariencia de los cerdos. Alrededor del 19 percent de los cerdos indígenas muestreados fueron identificados por medio del pedigrí como poseedores de una mezcla genética con algún origen lejano indígena o exótico. La importancia de los recursos genéticos porcinos en PNG requiere de un marco de trabajo político y legislativo para apoyar su utilización sostenible. Como primer paso para informar de tal desarrollo, se ha requerido un exhaustivo estudio genético molecular para aclarar las características genéticas de este recurso genético único.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Correspondence to: K. Nidup, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, RCM Gunn Building B19, NWS 2006, Sydney, Australia. email: knidup@gmail.com

References

Hide All
Allen, M.S., Matisoo-Smith, E. & Horsburgh, A. 2001. Pacific ‘Babes: issues in the origins and dispersal of pacific pigs and the potential of mitochondrial DNA analysis. Int. J. Osteoarchaeol., 11: 413.
Dwyer, P.D. 2006. People, pigs and parasites in New Guinea: relational contexts and epidemiological possibilities. Parasitol. Int., 55: 167173.
FAO. 2010. Domestic Animal Diversity Information System (DAD-IS). Food and Agriculture Organization (available at www.fao.org/dad-is). Accessed on 14 September 2010.
FAOSTAT. 2010. FAO Statistics Division 2010 (available at http://faostat.fao.org/site/573/DesktopDefault.aspx?PageID=573#ancor). Accessed on 14 September 2010.
Hide, R. 2003. Pig Husbandry in New Guinea. A Literature Review and Bibliography. ACIAR Monograph No. 108, xvi + 291 p., Canberra, Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research.
Kambuou, R. 1996. The current status and prospects of plant genetic resources in Papua New Guinea. Harvest, 18(1–2): 2670.
Kirch, P.V. 1997. The Lapita peoples: ancestors of the oceanic world. Oxford, Blackwell.
Larson, G., Cucchi, T., Fujita, M., Matisoo-Smith, E., Robins, J., Anderson, A., Rolett, B., Spriggs, M., Dolman, G., Kim, T.H., Thuy, N.T., Randi, E., Doherty, M., Due, R.A., Bollt, R., Djubiantono, T., Griffin, B., Intoh, M., Keane, E., Kirch, P., Li, KT., Morwood, M., Pedrina, L.M., Piper, P.J., Rabett, R.J., Shooter, P., Van den Bergh, G., West, E., Wickler, S., Yuan, J., Cooper, A. & Dobney, K. 2007. Phylogeny and ancient DNA of Sus provides insights into neolithic expansion in Island Southeast Asia and Oceania. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104: 48344839.
Larson, G., Dobney, K., Albarella, U., Fang, M., Matisoo-Smith, E., Robins, J., Lowden, S., Finlayson, H., Brand, T., Willerslev, E., Rowley-Conwy, P., Andersson, L. & Cooper, A. 2005. Worldwide phylogeography of wild boar reveals multiple centers of pig domestication. Science, 307: 16181621.
Lemonnier, P. 2002. Pigs as ordinary wealth: technical logic, exchange and leadership in New Guinea. Technological choices: transformations in material cultures since the Neolithic. pp. 126–155, Cornwall (UK), TJ International Ltd.
Lum, J.K., Mcintryre, J.K., Greger, D.L., Huffman, K.W. & Vilar, M.G. 2006. Recent Southeast Asian domestication and Lapita dispersal of sacred male pseudohermaphroditic “tuskers” and hairless pigs of Vanuatu. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 103: 1719017195.
Malynicz, G.L. 1973a. The productivity of exotic and indigenous pigs under village conditions: Part 1. Papua New Guinea Agric. J., 24(1): 1619.
Malynicz, G.L. 1973b. The productivity of exotic and indigenous pigs under village conditions: Part 2. Papua New Guinea Agric. J., 24(1): 2022.
MoA&L (Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock of Papua New Guinea). 2004. Papua New Guinea Country Report to the State of the World's Animal genetic Resources. November 2004. MoA&L. Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. 54 p.
Moritz, C.C. 1994. Defining ‘evolutionarily significant units’ for conservation. Trends Ecol. Evol. 9: 373375.
NARI (National Agricultural Research Institute of Papua New Guinea). 2006a. NARI Strategic Programme Implementation Plan for the period 2006 to 2010: Programmes and projects. NARI Corporate Document No. 4, Volume 2, 97 pp.
NARI (National Agricultural Research Institute of Papua New Guinea). 2006b. Strategic Plan: 2006–2015, Towards Innovative Agricultural Development in Papua New Guinea. NARI Corporate Document No. 3. NARI, Lae, PNG. 47 pp.
Nidup, K., Ayalew, W., Danbaro, G., Gongora, J. & Moran, C. 2010. Genetic structure and diversity of indigenous pigs of Papua New Guinea. Annual Postgraduate Conference. P53, 1–2 November 2010. Camperdown Campus, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Australia.
Peter, C., Bruford, M., Perez, T., Dalamitra, S., Hewitt, G., Erhardt, G. & the ECONOGENE Consortium. 2007. Genetic diversity and subdivision of 57 European and Middle-Eastern sheep breeds. Anim. Genet., 38 (1): 3744.
Quartermain, A.R. 2002. Conservation of animal genetic resources in PNG. Lae Papua New Guinea., National Agricultural Research Institute. NARI Technical Bulletin, No. 4.
Reilly, B. 2008. Ethnic conflict in Papua New Guinea. Asia Pacific Viewpoint, 49(1): 1222.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Animal Genetic Resources/Resources génétiques animales/Recursos genéticos animales
  • ISSN: 2078-6336
  • EISSN: 2078-6344
  • URL: /core/journals/animal-genetic-resources-resources-genetiques-animales-recursos-geneticos-animales
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed