Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Biology and epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii in man and animals

  • Dolores E. Hill (a1), Sreekumar Chirukandoth (a1) and J. P. Dubey (a1)
Abstract

Toxoplasma gondii is a coccidian parasite which utilizes felids as definitive hosts, and which has an unusually wide intermediate host range. The parasite was initially described by Nicolle and Manceaux in 1908 from the rodent, Ctenodactylus gundi. Infection with T. gondii is one of the most common parasitic infections of man and other warm-blooded animals. It has been found worldwide from Alaska to Australia. Nearly one-third of humanity has been exposed to this parasite; serologic surveys indicate that T. gondii infections are common in wild carnivores, including pigs, bears, felids, fox, raccoons, and skunks. Clinical and subclinical toxoplasmosis has been reported from wild cervids, ungulates, marsupials, monkeys, and marine mammals. Southern sea otter populations have been severely impacted by Toxoplasma infections.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Email: dhill@anri.barc.usda.gov
References
Hide All
Akuzawa, M, Mochizuki, M and Yasuda, N (1987). Hematological and parasitological study of the Iriomote cat (Prionaliurus iriomotensis). Canadian Journal of Zoology 65: 946949.
Altmann, D and Schüppel, KF (1988). Ein Beitrag zur Therapie und Pathologie der Toxoplasmose bei Bennettkanguruhs. Verhandlungsbericht des 30. In: Internationalen Symposiums uber die Erkrankungen der Zoo und Wildtiere, 11–15 Mai 1988, Sofia, Bulgaria, pp 407411.
Andersson, P, Garry-Andersson, AS (1963). Eläinten toksoplasmoosista suomessa. FinskVeterinartidskrift 69: 159166.
Antsaklis, A, Daskalakis, G, Papantoniou, N, Mentis, A and Michalas, S (2002). Prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis. Prenatal Diagnosis 22: 11071111.
Aramini, JJ, Stephen, C and Dubey, JP (1998). Toxoplasma gondii in Vancouver Island cougars (Felis concolor vancouverensis): serology and oocyst shedding. Journal of Parasitology 84: 438440.
Aramini, JJ, Stephen, C, Dubey, JP, Engelstoft, C, Schwantje, H and Ribble, CS (1999). Potential contamination of drinking water with Toxoplasma gondii oocysts. Epidemiology and Infection 122: 305315.
Arkush, KD, Miller, MA, Leutenegger, CM, Gardner, IA, Packham, AE, Heckeroth, AR, Tenter, AM, Barr, BC and Conrad, PA (2003). Molecular and bioassay-based detection of Toxoplasma gondii oocyst uptake by mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis). International Journal of Parasitology 33: 10871097.
Ashton, N (1979). Ocular toxoplasmosis in wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus). American Journal of Ophthalmology 88: 322332.
Aspinall, TV, Marlee, D, Hyde, JE and Sims, PF (2002). Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in commercial meat products as monitored by polymerase chain reaction–food for thought. International Journal for Parasitology 32: 11931199.
Attwood, HD and Woolley, PA (1970). Toxoplasmosis in dasyurid marsupials. Pathology 2: 7778.
Attwood, HD, Woolley, PA and Rickard, MD (1975). Toxoplasmosis in dasyurid marsupials. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 11: 543551.
Bahia-Oliveira, LMG, Wilken de Abreu, AM, Azevedo-Silva, J, Oréfice, F (2001). Toxoplasmosis in southeastern Brazil: an alarming situation of highly endemic acquired and congenital infection. International Journal for Parasitology 31: 133136.
Bell, A, Isaac-Renton, J, King, A, Martinez, L, Roscoe, D, Werker, D, Eng, S, Johnstone, T, Stanwick, R, Bowie, WR, Marion, S, Stephen, C, Burnett, A, Cadham, J, Jagdis, F, MacLeod, P, Barnard, K, Millar, J, Peck, S and Hull, J (1995). Outbreak of toxoplasmosis associated with municipal drinking water–British Columbia Canada Communicable Disease Report 21–18 161163.
Benenson, MW, Takafuji, ET, Lemon, SM, Greenup, RL and Sulzer, AJ (1982). Oocyst-transmitted toxoplasmosis associated with ingestion of contaminated water. New England Journal of Medicine 307: 666669.
Bigalke, RD, Tustin, RC, Du Pleissis, JL, Basson, PA and McCully, RM (1966). The isolation of Toxoplasma gondii from ferrets in South Africa. Journal of the South African Veterinary Medical Association 37: 243247.
Boorman, GA, Kollias, GV and Taylor, RF (1977). An outbreak of toxoplasmosis in wallaroos (Macropus robustus) in a California zoo. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 13: 6468.
Bourne, DC (1997). Disease and mortality in Bennett's wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus rufogriseus) at Whipsnade Wild Animal Park, with special reference to toxoplasmosos. PhD Thesis. London: University of London, 280 pp.
Bowie, WR, King, AS, Werker, DH, Isaac-Renton, JL, Bell, A, Eng, SB and Marion, SA (1997). Outbreak of toxoplasmosis associated with municipal drinking Water. Lancet 350: 173177.
Brillhart, DB, Fox, LB, Dubey, JP and Upton, SJ (1994). Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild mammals in Kansas. Journal of the Helminthological Society of Washington 61: 117121.
Briscoe, N, Humphreys, JG and Dubey, JP (1993). Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infections in Pennsylvania black bears, Ursus americanus. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 29: 599601.
Bulmer, WS (1971). Toxoplasmosis in captive Saiga antelope. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 7: 310316.
Burgisser, H (1960). Toxoplasmose chez le chevreuil. Pathologia et Microbiologia 23: 415417.
Burnett, AJ, Shortt, SG, Isaac-Renton, J, King, A, Werker, D and Bowie, WR (1998). Multiple cases of acquired toxoplasmosis retinitis presenting in an outbreak. Ophthalmology 105: 10321037.
Burridge, MJ, Bigler, WJ, Forrester, DJ and Hennemann, JM (1979). Serologic survey or Toxoplasma gondii in wild animals in Florida. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 175: 964967.
Canfield, PJ, Hartley, WJ and Dubey, JP (1990). Lesions of toxoplasmosis in Australian marsupials. Journal of Comparative Pathology 103: 159167.
Cannon, J (1974). Case report: toxoplasmosis in cheetahs. American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Annual Proceedings 225: 225227.
Chan, KF, Le Tran, H, Kanenaka, RY and Kathariou, S (2001). Survival of clinical and poultry-derived isolates of Campylobacter jejuni at a low temperature (4 degrees C). Applied Environmental Microbiology 67: 41864191.
Chirgwin, K, Hafner, R, Leport, C, Remington, J, Andersen, J, Bosler, EM, Roque, C, Rajicic, N, McAuliffe, V, Morlat, P, Jayaweera, DT, Vilde, JL and Luft, BJ (2002). Randomized phase II trial of atovaquone with pyrimethamine or sulfadiazine for treatment of toxoplasmic encephalitis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: ACTG 237/ANRS 039 study. Clinical Infectious Diseases 34: 12431250.
Choi, W-Y, Nam, HW, Kwak, NH, Huh, W, Kim, YR, Kang, MW, Cho, SY and Dubey, JP (1997). Foodborne outbreaks of human toxoplasmosis. Journal of Infectious Diseases 175: 12801282.
Chomel, BB, Zarnke, RL, Kasten, RW, Kass, PH and Mendes, E (1995). Serologic survey of Toxoplasma gondii in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) and black bears (Ursus americanus) from Alaska 1988 to 1991. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 31: 472479.
Christiansen, M and Siim, JC (1951). Toxoplasmosis in hares in Denmark. Serological identity of human and hare strains of Toxoplasma. Lancet 1: 12011203.
Clark, RK, Jessup, DA, Hird, DW, Ruppanner, R and Meyer, ME (1983). Serologic survey of California wild hogs for antibodies against selected zoonotic disease agents. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 183: 12481251.
Cole, RA, Lindsay, DS, Howe, DK, Roderick, CL, Dubey, JP, Thomas, NJ and Baeten, LA (2000). Biological and molecular characterizations of Toxoplasma gondii strains obtained from southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis). Journal of Parasitology 86: 526530.
Collins, GH (1981). Studies in Sarcocystis species VII Sarcocystis and Toxoplasma in red deer (Cervus elaphus). New Zealand Veterinary Journal 29: 126127.
Contini, C, Cultrera, R, Seraceni, S, Segala, D, Romani, R, Fainardi, E, Cinque, P, Lazzarin, A and Delia, S (2002). The role of stage specific oligonucleotide primers in providing effective laboratory support for the molecular diagnosis of reactivated Toxoplasma gondii encephalitis in patients with AIDS. Journal of Medical Microbiology 51: 879890.
Cook, AJC, Gilbert, RE, Buffolano, W, Zufferey, J, Petersen, E, Jenum, PA, Foulon, W, Semprini, AE and Dunn, DT (2000). Sources of Toxoplasma infection in pregnant women: European multicentre case control study. British Medical Journal 321: 142147.
Coutelen, F (1932). Existence d'une encephalite toxoplasmique spontanée chez les wombats. Un toxoplasme nouveau, Toxoplasma wenyoni n. sp. parasite de Phascolomys mitchelli (Australie). Comptes Rendes des Séances de la Societé de Biologie 110: 12451247.
Cox, JC, Edmonds, JW and Shepherd, RC (1981). Toxoplasmosis in the wild rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus in Victoria, Australia with suggested mechanisms for dissemination of oocysts. Journal of Hygiene, Cambridge 87: 331337.
Cruickshank, JJ, Haines, DM, Palmer, NC and Staubin, DJ (1990). Cysts of a Toxoplasma-like organisms in an Atlantic bottlenose dolphin. Canadian Veterinary Journal 31: 213215.
Cunningham, AA, Buxton, D and Thomson, KM (1992). An epidemic of toxoplasmosis in a captive colony of squirrel-monkeys (Saimiri sciureus). Journal of Comparative Pathology 107: 207219.
Desmonts, G and Couvreur, J (1974). Congenital toxoplasmosis. A prospective study of 378 pregnancies. New England Journal of Medicine 290: 11101116.
Diderrich, V, New, JC, Noblet, GP and Patton, S (1996). Serologic survey of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in free-ranging wild hogs (Sus scrofa) from the Great Smoky Mountains National Park and from sites in South Carolina Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 43 122S.
Dieters, RW and Nielsen, SW (1978). Toxoplasmosis, distemper, and herpesvirus infection in a skunk (Mephitis mephitis). Journal of Wildlife Diseases 14: 132136.
Dietz, HH, Henriksen, P, Lebech, M and Henriksen, SA (1993). Experimental infection with Toxoplasma gondii in farmed mink (Mustela vison S.). Veterinary Parasitology 47: 17.
Dietz, HH, Henriksen, P, Bille-Hansen, V and Henriksen, SA (1997). Toxoplasmosis in a colony of New World monkeys. Veterinary Parasitology 68: 299304.
Dobos-Kovács, M, Meszaros, J, Pellerdy, L and Balsai, A (1974a). Toxoplasmose bei Kanguruhs (Thylogale eugenii) verursacht durch Toxoplasma-Oozysten enthaltendes Futter. Parasitologia Hungarica 7: 8590.
Dobos-Kovács, M, Meszaros, J, Pellerdy, L and Balsai, A (1974b). Studies on the source of Toxoplasma infection in captive kangaroos. Acta Veterinaria Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 24: 293301.
Domingo, M, Visa, J, Pumarola, M, Marco, AJ, Ferrer, K, Rabanal, R and Kennedy, S (1992). Pathologic and immunocytochemical studies of morbillivirus infection in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba). Veterinary Pathology 29: 110.
Dubey, JP (1982). Isolation of encysted Toxoplasma gondii from muscles of mule deer in Montana Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 181 1535.
Dubey, JP (1983). Toxoplasma gondii infection in rodents and insectivores from Montana. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 19: 149150.
Dubey, JP (1985). Serologic prevalence of toxoplasmosis in cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, bison, and elk in Montana. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 186: 969970.
Dubey, JP (1986). A review of toxoplasmosis in pigs. Veterinary Parasitology 19: 181223.
Dubey, JP (1988). Refinement of pepsin digestion method for isolation of Toxoplasma gondii from infected tissues. Veterinary Parasitology 74: 7577.
Dubey, JP (1996). Infectivity and pathogenicity of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts for cats. Journal of Parasitology 82: 957961.
Dubey, JP (2001). Oocyst shedding by cats fed isolated bradyzoites and comparison of infectivity of bradyzoites of the VEG strain Toxoplasma gondii to cats and mice. Journal of Parasitology 87: 215219.
Dubey, JP (2002a). Tachyzoite-induced life cycle of Toxoplasma gondii in cats. Journal of Parasitology 88: 713717.
Dubey, JP (2002b). A review of toxoplasmosis in wild birds. Veterinary Parasitology 106: 121153.
Dubey, JP and Beattie, CP (1988). Toxoplasmosis of Animals and Man. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Dubey, JP and Frenkel, JK (1972). Cyst-induced toxoplasmosis in cats. Journal of Protozoology 19: 155177.
Dubey, JP and Frenkel, JK (1976). Feline toxoplasmosis from acutely infected mice and the development of Toxoplasma cysts. Journal of Protozoology 23: 537546.
Dubey, JP and Frenkel, JK (1998). Toxoplasmosis of rats: a review, with considerations of their value as an animal model and their possible role in epidemiology. Veterinary Parasitology 77: 132.
Dubey, JP and Lin, TL (1994). Acute toxoplasmosis in a gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus). Veterinary Parasitology 51: 321325.
Dubey, JP and Odening, K (2001). Parasitic Diseases of Wild Mammals. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press.
Dubey, JP and Thayer, DW (1994). Killing of different strains of Toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts by irradiatin under defined conditions. Journal of Parasitology 80: 764767.
Dubey, JP, Thorne, ET and Williams, ES (1982). Induced toxoplasmosis in pronghorns and mule deer. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 181: 12631267.
Dubey, JP, Quinn, WJ and Weinandy, D (1987). Fatal neonatal toxoplasmosis in a bobcat (Lynx rufus). Journal of Wildlife Diseases 23: 324327.
Dubey, JP, Gendron-Fitzpatrick, AP, Lenhard, AL and Bowman, D (1988a). Fatal toxoplasmosis and enteroepithelial stages of Toxoplasma gondii in a Pallas cat (Felis manul). Journal of Protozoology 35: 528530.
Dubey, JP, Ott-Joslin, J, Torgerson, RW, Topper, MJ and Sundberg, JP (1988b). Toxoplasmosis in black-faced kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus melanops). Veterinary Parasitology 30: 97105.
Dubey, JP, Hamir, AN and Rupprecht, CE (1990a). Acute disseminated toxoplasmosis in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Journal of Wildlife Diseases 26: 286290.
Dubey, JP, Kotula, AW, Sharar, AK, Andrews, CD and Lindsay, DS (1990b). Effect of high temperature on infectivity of Toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts in pork. Journal of Parasitology 76: 201204.
Dubey, JP, Hedstrom, D, Machado, CR and Osborn, KG (1991). Disseminated toxoplasmosis in a captive koala (Phascolarctos cinereus). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 22: 348350.
Dubey, JP, Brown, CA, Carpenter, JL and Moore, JJ (1992a). Fatal toxoplasmosis in domestic rabbits in the USA. Veterinary Parasitology 44: 305309.
Dubey, JP, Hamir, AN, Hanlon, CA and Rupprecht, CE (1992b). Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in raccoons. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 200: 534536.
Dubey, JP, Hamir, AN, Shen, SK, Thulliez, P and Rupprecht, CE (1993). Experimental Toxoplasma gondii infection in raccoons (Procyon lotor). Journal of Parasitology 79: 548552.
Dubey, JP, Briscoe, N, Gamble, R, Zarlenga, D, Humphreys, JG and Thulliez, P (1994). Characterization of Toxoplasma and Trichinella isolates from muscles of black bears in Pennsylvania. American Journal of Veterinary Research 55: 815819.
Dubey, JP, Humphreys, JG and Thulliez, P (1995a). Prevalence of viable Toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts and antibodies to T. gondii by various serologic tests in black bears (Ursus americanus) from Pennsylvania. Journal of Parasitology 81: 109112.
Dubey, JP, Thulliez, P and Powell, EC (1995b). Toxoplasma gondii in Iowa sows: comparison of antibody titers to isolation of T. gondii by bioassays in mice and cats. Journal of Parasitology 81: 4853.
Dubey, JP, Weigel, RM, Siegel, AM, Thulliez, P, Kitron, UD, Mitchell, MA, Mannelli, A, Mateus-Pinilla, NE, Shen, SK and Kwok, OC (1995c). Sources and reservoirs of Toxoplasma gondii infection on 47 swine farms in Illinois. Journal of Parasitology 81: 723729.
Dubey, JP, Rollor, EA, Smith, K, Kwok, OC and Thulliez, P (1997). Low seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in feral pigs from a remote island lacking cats. Journal of Parasitology 3: 839841.
Dubey, JP, Storandt, ST, Kwok, OC, Thulliez, P and Kazacos, KR (1999). Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in naturally exposed wild coyotes, red foxes, and gray foxes and serologic diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in red foxes fed T. gondii oocysts and tissue cysts. Journal of Parasitology 85: 240243.
Dubey, JP, Graham, DH, Blackston, CR, Lehmann, T, Gennari, SM, Ragozo, AM, Nishi, SM, Shen, SK, Kwok, OC, Hill, DE and Thulliez, P (2002a). Biological and genetic characterisation of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from chickens (Gallus domesticus) from Sao Paulo, Brazil: unexpected findings. International Journal for Parasitology 32: 99105.
Dubey, JP, Lewis, B, Beam, K and Abbitt, B (2002b). Transplacental toxoplasmosis in a reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) fetus. Veterinary Parasitology 110: 131135.
Dubey, JP, Gamble, HR, Hill, D, Sreekumar, C, Romand, S and Thuilliez, P (2002c). High prevalence of viable Toxoplasma gondii infection in market weight pigs from a farm in Massachusetts. Journal of Parasitology 88: 12341238.
Dubey, JP, Tocidlowski, ME, Abbitt, B and Llizo, SY (2002c). Acute visceral toxoplasmosis in captive dik-dik (Madoqua guentheri smithi). Journal of Parasitology 88: 638641.
Edelhofer, R, Prosl, H and Kutzer, E (1996). Zur Trichinellose und Toxoplasmose der Wildschweine in Ostosterreich. Wiener Tierarztliche Monatsschrift 83: 225229.
Entzeroth, R, Piekarski, G and Scholtyseck, E (1981). Fine structural study of a Toxoplasma strain from the roe deer. Zeitschrift fur Parasitenkunde 66: 109112.
Foulon, W, Naessens, A and Derde, MP (1994). Evaluation of the possibilities for preventing congenital toxoplasmosis. American Journal Perinatology 11: 5762.
Foulon, W, Naessens, A, Ho-Yen, D (2000). Prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis. Journal of Perinatal Medicine 28: 337345.
Frenkel, JK, Dubey, JP and Miller, NL (1970). Toxoplasma gondii in cats: fecal stages identified as coccidian oocysts. Science 167: 893896.
Gamble, HR, Brady, RC and Dubey, JP (1999). Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic pigs in the New England states. Veterinary Parasitology 82: 129136.
Garner, MM, Barr, BC, Packham, AE, Marsh, AE, Burek-Huntington, KA, Wilson, RK and Dubey, JP (1997). Fatal hepatic sarcocystosis in two polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Journal of Parasitology 83: 523526.
Glasner, PD, Silveira, C, Kruszon-Moran, D, Martins, MC, Burnier, M, Jr Silveira, S, Camargo, ME, Nussenblatt, RB, Kaslow, RA, Belfort, R Jr (1992). An unusually high prevalence of ocular toxoplasmosis in southern Brazil. American Journal of Ophthalmology 114: 136144.
Gorham, JR and Farrell, K (1955). Diseases and parasites of chinchillas. In: Proclamations of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 92nd Annual Meeting, 15–18 August, Minneapolis, MN, pp 228234.
Green, LE and Morgan, KL (1991). Toxoplasma abortion in a guinea pig. Veterinary Record 129: 266267.
Grünberg, W (1959). Toxoplasmos beim Bennett-Känguruh (Makropus bennetti Gould) und einem Klippschilefer (Hyrax syriacus Schreb). Wiener Tierärztliche Monatsschrift 46: 586593.
Guerina, NG, Hsu, HW, Meissner, HC, Maguire, JH, Lynfield, R, Stechenberg, B, Abroms, I, Pasternack, MS, Hoff, R and Eaton, RB (1994). Neonatal serologic screening and early treatment for congenital Toxoplasma gondii infection. The New England Regional Toxoplasma Working Group. New England Journal of Medicine 330: 18581863.
Gustafsson, K and Uggla, A (1994). Serologic survey for Toxoplasma gondii infection in the brown hare (Lepus europaeus P.) in Sweden. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 30: 201204.
Gustafsson, K, Uggla, A, Svensson, T and Sjoland, L (1988). Detection of Toxoplasma gondii in liver tissue sections from brown hares (Lepus europaeus P.) and mountain hares (Lepus timidus L.) using the peroxidase anti-peroxidase (PAP) technique as a complement to conventional histopathology. Journal of Veterinary Medicine B. 35: 402407.
Hamerton, AE (1932). Report on the deaths occuring in the Society's Gardens during the year 1931 Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 613638.
Hamerton, AE (1933). Report on the deaths occuring in the Society's Gardens during the year 1932. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 451482.
Hamerton, AE (1934). Toxoplasma wenyoni in the brain of a Mitchell's wombat (Phasocolom mitchell) Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine 28 2.
Harcourt, RA (1967). Toxoplasmosis in rabbits. Veterinary Record 81: 191192.
Hartley, WJ, Dubey, JP and Spielman, DS (1990). Fatal toxoplasmosis in Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus). Journal of Parasitology 76: 271272.
Helmboldt, CF and Jungherr, EL (1955). Distemper complex in wild carnivores simulating rabies. American Journal of Veterinary Research 16: 463469.
Henriksen, P, Dietz, HH, Uttenthal, A and Hansen, M (1994). Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Danish farmed mink (Mustela vison S.). Veterinary Parasitology 53: 15.
Hilgenfeld, M (1965). Toxoplasmose bei Zootieren. Zoologische Garten (Berlin) 30: 262270.
Hirato, K (1939). Notes on two cases of Toxoplasma observed among raccoon-dogs in the vicinity of Sapporo. Japanese Journal of Veterinary Science 1: 544552.
Holshuh, HJ, Sherrod, AE, Taylor, CR, Andrews, BF and Howard, EB (1985). Toxoplasmosis in a feral northern fur seal. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 187: 12291230.
Humphreys, JG, Stewart, RL and Dubey, JP (1995). Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in sera of hunter-killed white-tailed deer in Pennsylvania. American Journal of Veterinary Research 56: 172173.
Inskeep, W, Gardiner, CH, Harris, RK, Dubey, JP and Goldston, RT (1990). Toxoplasmosis in Atlantic bottle-nosed dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Journal of Wildlife Diseases 26: 377382.
Ippen, R, Jíra, J and Blazek, K (1981). Toxoplasmose als Todesursache bei Saiga-Antilopen (Saiga tatarica). Verhandlungsbericht des 23. In: Internationaler Symposiums uber die Erkrankungen der Zootiere, 24–28 Juni 1987, Halle, Germany, pp 185191.
Isaac-Renton, J, Bowie, WR, King, A, Irwin, GS, Ong, CS, Fung, CP, Shokeir, MO and Dubey, JP (1998). Detection of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in drinking water. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 64: 22782280.
Jacobs, L, Stanley, AM and Herman, CM (1962). Prevalence of Toxoplasma antibodies in rabbits, squirrels, and raccoons collected in and near the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center Journal of Parasitology 48 550.
Jakob-Hoff, RM and Dunsmore, JD (1983). Epidemiological aspects of toxoplasmosis in southern Western Australia. Australian Veterinary Journal 60: 217218.
Jardine, JE and Dubey, JP (2002). Congenital toxoplasmosis in an Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus). Journal of Parasitology 88: 197199.
Jauregui, LH, Higgins, JA, Zarlenga, DS, Dubey, JP and Lunney, JK (2001). Development of a real-time PCR assay for the detection of Toxoplasma gondii in pig and mouse tissues. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 39: 20652071.
Jensen, JM, Patton, S, Wright, BG and Loeffler, DG (1985). Toxoplasmosis in marsupials in a zoological collection. Journal of Zoo Animal Medicine 16: 129131.
Johnson, AM, Roberts, H and Munday, BL (1988). Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibody in wild macropods. Australian Veterinary Journal 65: 199201.
Johnson, AM, Roberts, H, Statham, P and Munday, BL (1989). Serodiagnosis of acute toxoplasmosis in macropods. Veterinary Parasitology 34: 2533.
Jordan, GW, Theis, J, Fuller, CM and Hoeprich, PD (1975). Bear meat trichinosis with a concomitant serologic response to Toxoplasma gondii. American Journal of Medical Sciences 269: 251257.
Joseph, P, Calderon, MM, Gilman, RH, Quispe, ML, Cok, J, Ticona, E, Chavez, V, Jimenez, JA, Chang, MC, Lopez, MJ and Evans, CA (2002). Optimization and evaluation of a PCR assay for detecting toxoplasmic encephalitis in patients with AIDS. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 40: 44994503.
Junge, RE, Fischer, JR and Dubey, JP (1992). Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis in a captive Cuvier's gazelle (Gazella cuvieri). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 23: 342345.
Keagy, HF (1949). Toxoplasma in the chinchilla. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 114 15.
Kiss, G and Graf, Z (1989). Perinitale toxoplasmose bei einum eisbären (Thalarctos maritimus). In: Internationalen Symposium über die Ekrankungen der Zoo- und Wildtiere, 24–28 Mai 1989, Dortmund, Germany, pp 433435.
Kiupel, H, Ritscher, D and Fricke, G (1987). Toxoplasmose bei jungen kodiakbaren (Ursus arctos middendorffi). Verhandlungsbericht des 29. In: Internationalen Symposium über die Ekrankungen der Zootiere, 20–24 Mai 1987, Cardiff, UK, pp 335340.
Kocan, AA, Barron, SJ, Fox, JC and Franzmann, AW (1986). Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in moose (Alces alces L.) from Alaska Journal of Wildlife Diseases 22 432.
Kotula, AW, Dubey, JP, Sharar, AK, Andrew, CD, Shen, SK and Lindsay, DS (1991). Effect of freezing on infectivity of Toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts in pork. Journal of Food Protection 54: 687690.
Kronberger, H and Schüppel, KF (1976). Verhandlungsbericht des XVIII. In: Internationalen Symposiums uber die Erkrankungen der Zootiere, 16–20 Juni 1976, Innsbruck, Austria, pp 2730.
Labelle, P, Dubey, JP, Mikaelian, I, Blanchette, N, Lafond, R, St-Onge, S and Martineau, D (2001). Seroprevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in lynx (Lynx canadensis) and bobcats (Lynx rufus) from Quebec, Canada. Journal of Parasitology 87: 11941196.
Lambourn, DM, Jeffries, SJ and Dubey, JP (2001). Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) in southern Puget Sound, Washington. Journal of Parasitology 87: 11961197.
Leland, MM, Hubbard, GB and Dubey, JP (1992). Clinical toxoplasmosis in domestic rabbits. Lab Animal Science 42: 318319.
Lenghaus, C, Obendorf, DL and Wright, FH (1990). Veterinary aspects of Perameles gunnii biology with special references to species conservation. In: Clark, TW and Seebeck, JH (eds) Management and Conservation of Small Populations. Chicago: Chicago Zoological Society, pp 89108.
Lewis, JS, Khoury, H, Storch, GA and DiPersio, J (2002). PCR for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Expert Reviews in Molecular Diagnostics 2: 616624.
Lindsay, DS, Blagburn, BL, Dubey, JP and Mason, WH (1991). Prevalence and isolation of Toxoplasma gondii from white-tailed deer in Alabama. The Journal of Parasitology 77: 6264.
Lindsay, DS, Kelly, EJ, McKown, RD, Stein, FJ, Plozer, J, Herman, J, Blagburn, BL and Dubey, JP (1996). Prevalence of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in coyotes (Canis latrans) and experimental infections of coyotes with Neospora caninum. The Journal of Parasitology 82: 657659.
Lindsay, DS, Thomas, NJ, Rosypal, AC and Dubey, JP (2001a). Dual Sarcocystis neurona and Toxoplasma gondii infection in a Northern sea otter from Washington state, USA. Veterinary Parasitology 97: 319327.
Lindsay, DS, Phelps, KK, Smith, SA, Flick, G, Sumner, SS and Dubey, JP (2001b). Removal of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts from sea water by eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 48 S197S198.
Lindsay, DS, Collins, MV, Mitchell, SM, Wetch, CN, Rosypal, AC, Flick, GJ, Zajac, AM, Lindquist, A and Dubey, JP (2004). Survival of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica). Journal of Parasitology 90 (5): 10541057.
Lopez, A, Dietz, VJ, Wilson, M, Navin, TR and Jones, JL (2000). Preventing congenital toxoplasmosis. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 49: 5975.
Luft, BJ and Remington, JS (1992). Toxoplasmic encephalitis in AIDS. Clinical Infectious Disease 15: 211222.
Lynch, MJ, Obendorf, DL, Statham, P and Reddacliff, GL (1993). An evaluation of a live Toxoplasma gondii vaccine in tammar wallabies (Macropus eugenii). Australian Veterinary Journal 70: 352353.
Mandelli, G, Cerioli, A, Hahn, EEA and Strozzi, F (1966). Osservazioni anatomo-istologiche e parassitologiche su di un episodio di toxoplasmosi nel canguro di Bennett (Macropis Bennetti Gould). Bollettino del Istituto Sieroterapico Milanese 45: 177192.
Marchiondo, AA, Duszynski, DW and Maupin, GO (1976). Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in wild and domestic animals of New Mexico, Arizona and Colorado. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 12: 226232.
Markham, FS (1937). Spontaneous Toxoplasma encephalitis in the guinea pig. American Journal of Hygiene 26: 193196.
Measures, LN, Dubey, JP, Labelle, P and Martineau, D (2004). Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Canadian pinnipeds. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 40: 294300.
Medway, W, Skand, DL and Sarver, CF (1989). Neurologic signs in American porcupines (Erethizon dorsatum) infected with Baylisascaris and Toxoplasma. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 20: 207211.
Migaki, G, Allen, JF and Casey, HW (1977). Toxoplasmosis in a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). American Journal of Veterinary Research 38: 135136.
Migaki, G, Sawa, TR and Dubey, JP (1990). Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis in a spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris). Veterinary Pathology 27: 463464.
Mikaelian, I, Boisclair, J, Dubey, JP, Kennedy, S and Martineau, D (2000). Toxoplasmosis in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from the St. Lawrence estuary: two case reports and a serological survey. Journal of Comparative Pathology 122: 7376.
Miller, MA, Ehlers, K, Dubey, JP van Steenbergh, K (1992). Outbreak of toxoplasmosis in wallabies on an exotic animal farm. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 4: 480483.
Miller, MA, Gardner, IA, Kreuder, C, Paradies, DM, Worcester, KR, Jessup, DA, Dodd, E, Harris, MD, Ames, JA, Packham, AE and Conrad, PA (2002). Coastal freshwater runoff is a risk factor for Toxoplasma gondii infection of southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis). International Journal for Parasitology 32: 9971006.
Miller, MA, Grigg, ME, Kreuder, C, James, ER, Melli, AC, Crosbie, PR, Jessup, DA, Boothroyd, JC, Brownstein, D and Conrad, PA (2004). An unusual genotype of Toxoplasma gondii is common in California sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) and is a cause of mortality. International Journal of Parasitology 34: 275284.
Mitchell, MA, Hungerford, LL, Nixon, CM, Esker, TL, Sullivan, JB, Koerkenmeier, JB and Dubey, JP (1999). Serologic survey for selected infectious disease agents in raccoons from Illinois. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 35: 347355.
Møller, T (1952). Toxoplasmosis Vulpis vulpis. Acta Pathologica Microbiologica Scandinavica 93 (suppl.), 308320.
Møller, T (1958). Toxoplasmosis cuniculi. Verificering af diagnosen, patologisk-anatomiske og serologiske undersogelser. Nordisk Veterinærmedicin 10: 156.
Møller, TNielsen, SW (1964). Toxoplasmosis in distemper-susceptible carnivora. Pathologia Veterinaria 1: 189203.
Momberg-Jørgensen, HC (1956). Toxoplasmose i forbindelse med hvalpesyge hos minken. Nordisk Veterinaermedicin 8: 239242.
Neto, EC, Anele, E, Rubim, R, Brites, A, Schulte, J, Becker, D and Tuuminen, T (2000). High prevalence of congenital toxoplasmosis in Brazil estimated in a 3-year prospective neonatal screening study. International Journal of Epidemiology 29: 941947.
Nobel, TA, Klopfer, U and Neuman, F (1969). Toxoplasmosis in wild animals in Israel. Journal of Comparative Pathology 79: 127129.
Nogami, S, Tabata, A, Moritomo, T and Hayashi, Y (1999). Prevalence of anti- Toxoplasma gondii antibody in wild boar, Sus scrofa riukiuanus, on Iriomote Island, Japan. Veterinary Research Communications 23: 211214.
Nutter, FB, Levine, JF, Stoskopf, MK, Gamble, HR and Dubey, JP (1998). Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spiralis in North Carolina black bears (Ursus americanus). Journal of Parasitology 84: 10481050.
Obendorf, DL and Munday, BL (1983). Toxoplasmosis in wild Tasmanian wallabies Australian Veterinary Journal 60 62.
Obendorf, DL and Munday, BL (1990). Toxoplasmosis in wild Eastern Barred Bandicoots, Perameles gunnii. In: Seebeck, JH, Brown, PR, Wallis, RL and Kemper, CM (eds) Bandicoots and Bilbies; Australian Mammal Society Symposium. Sydney, Australia: Surrey Beatty & Sons, pp 193197.
Obendorf, DL, Statham, P and Driessen, M (1996). Detection of agglutinating antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in sera from free-ranging eastern barred bandicoots (Perameles gunnii). Journal of Wildlife Diseases 32: 623626.
Ocholi, RA, Kalejaiye, JO and Okewole, PA (1989). Acute disseminated toxoplasmosis in two captive lions (Panthera leo) in Nigeria. Veterinary Record 124: 515516.
Oksanen, A, Gustafsson, K Lundén A Dubey, JP, Thulliez, P and Uggla, A (1996). Experimental Toxoplasma gondii infection leading to fatal enteritis in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). Journal of Parasitology 82: 843845.
Olubayo, RO and Karstad, LH (1981). Fatal toxoplasmosis in a tree hyrax (Dendrohyrax arboreus). Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa 29: 263264.
Patton, S, Johnson, SL, Loeffler, DG, Wright, BG and Jensen, JM (1986). Epizootic of toxoplasmosis in kangaroos, wallabies, and potaroos: possible transmission via domestic cats. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 189: 11661169.
Phillips, P (1986). Toxoplasmosis in yellow footed rock wallabies, Veterinary Pathology Report. Australian Registry Veterinary Pathology 11: 211216.
Pridham, TJ (1961). An outbreak of toxoplasmosis in ranch mink. Canadian Journal of Public Health 52: 389393.
Pridham, TJ and Belcher, J (1958). Toxoplasmosis in mink. Canadian Journal of Comparative Medicine 22: 99106.
Ratcliffe, HL and Worth, CB (1951). Toxoplasmosis of captive wild birds and mammals. American Journal of Pathology 27: 655667.
Reddacliff, GL, Hartley, WJ, Dubey, JP and Cooper, DW (1993a). Pathology of experimentally-induced, acute toxoplasmosis in macropods. Australian Veterinary Journal 70: 46.
Reddacliff, GL, Parker, SJ, Dubey, JP, Nicholls, PJ, Johnson, AM and Cooper, DW (1993b). An attempt to prevent acute toxoplasmosis in macropods by vaccination with Hammondia hammondi. Australian Veterinary Journal 70: 3335.
Remington, JS, McLeod, R, Thulliez, P and Desmonts, G (2001). Toxoplasmosis. In: Remington,, JS and Klein,, JO (eds) Infectious Disease of the Fetus and Newborn, 5th ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Co., pp 205346.
Renold, C, Sugar, A, Chave, JP, Perrin, L, Delavelle, J, Pizzolato, G, Burkhard, P, Gabriel, V and Hirschel, B (1992). Toxoplasma encephalitis in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Medicine 71: 224239.
Resendes, AR, Almeria, S, Dubey, JP, Obon, E, Juan-Salles, C, Degollada, E, Alegre, F, Cabezon, O, Pont, S and Domingo, M (2002). Disseminated toxoplasmosis in a Mediterranean pregnant Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) with transplacental fetal infection. Journal of Parasitology 88: 10291032.
Riemann, HP, Fowler, ME, Schulz, T, Lock, JA, Thilsted, J, Pulley, LT, Henrickson, RV, Henness, AM, Franti, CE and Behymer, DE (1974). Toxoplasmosis in Pallas cats. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 10: 471477.
Roberts, T and Frenkel, JK (1990). Estimating income losses and other preventable costs caused by congenital toxoplasmosis in people in the United States. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 196: 249256.
Roberts, T, Murrell, KD and Marks, S (1994). Economic losses caused by foodborne parasitic diseases. Parasitology Today 10: 419423.
Rodaniche de, E and de Pinzon, T (1949). Spontaneous toxoplasmosis in the guinea-pig in Panama. Journal of Parasitology 35: 152154.
Roghmann, MC, Faulkner, CT, Lefkowitz, A, Patton, S, Zimmerman, J, Morris, JG Jr (1999). Decreased seroprevalence for Toxoplasma gondii in Seventh Day Adventists in Maryland. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 60: 790792.
Roher, DP, Ryan, MJ, Nielsen, SW and Roscoe, DE (1981). Acute fatal toxoplasmosis in squirrels. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 179: 10991101.
Ross, RD, Stec, LA, Werner, JC, Blumenkranz, MS, Glazer, L and Williams, GA (2001). Presumed acquired ocular toxoplasmosis in deer hunters. Retina 21: 226229.
Sacks, JJ, Delgado, DG, Lobel, HO and Parker, RL (1983). Toxoplasmosis infection associated with eating undercooked venison. American Journal of Epidemiology 118: 832838.
Schmidt, V (1975). Todesursachen bei Kanguruhs. In: Verhanddie Erkrankungen der Zootiere, 4–8 Juni 1975, Tunis, Tunisia, pp 321325.
Schneider, HE, Berger, G, Dathe, F and Gensch, W (1976). Erkrankungen australischer Tiere im Zoologischen Garten Dresden. Verhandlungsbericht des XVIII. In: Internationalen Symposiums uber die Erkrankungen der Zootiere, 16–20 Juni 1976, Innsbruck, Austria, pp 512.
Schröder, HD and Ippen, R (1976). Beitrag zu den Erkrankungen der Kanguruhs. Erkrankungen der Zootiere. Verhandlungsbericht des XVIII. In: Internationalen Symposiums uber die Erkrankungen der Zootiere, 16–20 Juni 1976, Innsbruck, Austria, pp 2126.
Shimizu, K (1958). Studies on toxoplasmosis. I. An outbreak of toxoplasmosis among hares (Lepus timidus ainu) in Sapporo. Japanese Journal of Veterinary Research 6: 157166.
Siepierski, SJ, Tanner, CE and Embil, JA (1990). Prevalence of antibody to Toxoplasma gondii in the moose (Alces alces americana Clinton) of Nova Scotia, Canada. Journal of Parasitology 76: 136138.
Siim, JC, Biering-Sorensen, U Møller T (1963). Toxoplasmosis in domestic animals. Advances in Veterinary Science 8: 335429.
Skerratt, LF, Phelan, R, McFarlane, R and Speare, R (1997). Serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis in a common wombat. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 31: 1521.
Smith, DD and Frenkel, JK (1995). Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in wild mammals of Missouri and east central Kansas: biologic and ecologic considerations of transmission. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 31: 1521.
Smith, JL (1993). Documented outbreaks of toxoplasmosis: transmission of Toxoplasma gondii to humans. Journal of Food Protection 56: 630639.
Smith, KE, Fischer, JR and Dubey, JP (1995). Toxoplasmosis in a bobcat (Felis rufus). Journal of Wildlife Diseases 31: 555557.
Soave, OA and Lennette, EH (1959). Naturally acquired toxoplasmosis in the gray squirrel, Sciurus griseus, and its bearing on the laboratory diagnosis of rabies. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 53: 163166.
Sroka, J (2001). Seroepidemiology of toxoplasmosis in the Lublin region. Annals of Agricultural Environmental Medicine 8: 2531.
Starzyk, J, Pawlik, B and Pawlik, Z (1973). Studies on the frequency of occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii in fur-bearing animals. Acta Biologica Cracoviensia, Series Zoologia 16: 229233.
Stiglmair-Herb, MT (1987). Microparasitosis (toxoplasmosis) in moutain gazelles (Gazella g. curvieri). Berliner und Münchener Tierärztliche Wochenschrift 100: 273277.
Stover, J, Jacobson, ER, Lukas, J, Lappin, MR and Buergelt, CD (1990). Toxoplasma gondii in a collection of nondomestic ruminants. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 21: 295301.
Tenter, AM, Heckeroth, AR and Weiss, LM (2000). Toxoplasma gondii: from animals to humans. International Journal for Parasitology 30: 12171258.
Teutsch, SM, Juranek, DD, Sulzer, A, Dubey, JP and Sikes, RK (1979). Epidemic toxoplasmosis associated with infected cats. New England Journal of Medicine 300: 695699.
Thompson, SW and Reed, TH (1957). Toxoplasmosis in a swamp wallaby. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 131: 545549.
Thornton, RN (1990). Toxoplasmosis in ferrets New Zealand Veterinary Journal 38 123.
Thornton, RW and Cook, TG (1986). A congenital Toxoplasma -like disease in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo). New Zealand Veterinary Journal 34: 3133.
van Pelt, RW and Dietrich, RA (1972). Toxoplasmosis in thirteen-lined ground squirrels. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 161: 643647.
Van Rensburg, IB and Silkstone, MA (1984). Concomitant feline infectious peritonitis and toxoplasmosis in a cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus). Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 55: 205207.
Vanek, JA, Dubey, JP, Thulliez, P, Riggs, MR and Stromberg, BE (1996). Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in hunter-killed white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in four regions of Minnesota. Journal of Parasitology 82: 4144.
Walton, BC and Walls, KW (1964). Prevalence of toxoplasmosis in wild animals from Fort Stewart, Georgia, as indicated by serological tests and mouse inoculation. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 13: 530533.
Warnekulasuriya, MR, Johnson, JD and Holliman, RE (1998). Detection of Toxoplasma gondii in cured meats. International Journal of Food Microbiology 45: 211215.
Watson, WA and Beverley, JKA (1962). Toxoplasmosis in mink Veterinary Record 74 1027.
Weigel, RM, Dubey, JP, Siegel, AM, Hoefling, D, Reynolds, D, Herr, L, Kitron, UD, Shen, SK, Thulliez, P, Fayer, R and Todd, TS (1995). Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in swine in Illinois in 1992. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 206: 17471751.
Wilhelmsen, CL and Montali, RJ (1980). Toxoplasmosis in a parma wallaby Annual Proceedings of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians 141143.
Wyss, R, Sager, H, Muller, N, Inderbitzin, F, Konig, M, Audige, L and Gottstein, B (2000). The occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum as regards meat hygiene. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 142: 95108.
Zarnke, RL, Dubey, JP, Kwok, OCH and Ver Hoef, JM (1997). Serologic survey for Toxoplasma gondii in grizzly bears from Alaska. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 33: 267270.
Zeman, DH, Dubey, JP and Robison, D (1993). Fatal hepatic sarcocystosis in an American black bear. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 5: 480483.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Animal Health Research Reviews
  • ISSN: 1466-2523
  • EISSN: 1475-2654
  • URL: /core/journals/animal-health-research-reviews
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 274 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 2702 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 26th May 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.