Achtman, M and Pluschke, G (1986). Clonal analysis of descent and virulence among selected Escherichia coli. Annual Review of Microbiology 40: 185–210.
Akira, S, Uematsu, S and Takeuchi, O (2006). Pathogen recognition and innate immunity. Cell 124: 783–801.
Amor, PA and Whitfield, C (1997). Molecular and functional analysis of genes required for expression of group IB K antigens in Escherichia coli: characterization of the his-region containing gene clusters for multiple cell-surface polysaccharides. Molecular Microbiology 26: 145–161.
Bastin, DA and Reeves, PR (1995). Sequence and analysis of the O antigen gene (rfb) cluster of Escherichia coli O111. Gene 164: 17–23.
Bastin, DA, Stevenson, G, Brown, AH and Reeves, PR (1993). Repeat unit polysaccharides of bacteria: a model for polymerization resembling that of ribosomes and fatty acid synthetase, with a novel mechanism for determining chain length. Molecular Microbiology 7: 725–734.
Batchelor, RA, Alifano, P, Biffali, E, Hull, SI and Hull, RA (1992). Nucleotide sequences of the genes regulating O-polysaccharide antigen chain length (rol) from Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium: protein homology and functional complementation. Journal of Bacteriology 174: 5228–5236.
Bengoechea, JA, Najdenski, H and Skurnik, M (2004). Lipopolysaccharide O antigen status of Yersinia enterocolitica O:8 is essential for virulence and absence of O antigen affects the expression of other Yersinia virulence factors. Molecular Microbiology 52: 451–469.
Beutin, L, Kong, Q, Feng, L, Wang, Q, Krause, G, Leomil, L, Jin, Q and Wang, L (2005a). Development of PCR assays targeting the genes involved in synthesis and assembly of the new Escherichia coli O 174 and O 177 O antigens. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 43: 5143–5149.
Beutin, L, Tao, J, Feng, L, Krause, G, Zimmermann, S, Gleier, K, Xia, Q and Wang, L (2005b). Sequence analysis of the Escherichia coli O15 antigen gene cluster and development of a PCR assay for rapid detection of intestinal and extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli O15 strains. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 43: 703–710.
Beutin, L, Wang, Q, Naumann, D, Han, W, Krause, G, Leomil, L, Wang, L and Feng, L (2007). Relationship between O-antigen subtypes, bacterial surface structures and O-antigen gene clusters in Escherichia coli O123 strains carrying genes for Shiga toxins and intimin. Journal of Medical Microbiology 56: 177–184.
Bos, MP, Robert, V and Tommassen, J (2007). Biogenesis of Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane. Annual Review of Microbiology 61: 191–214.
Bronner, D, Clarke, BR and Whitfield, C (1994). Identification of an ATP-binding cassette transport system required for translocation of lipopolysachharide O-antigen side-chains across the cytoplasmic membrane of Klebsiella pneumonia serotype O1. Molecular Microbiology 14: 505–519.
Bugarel, M, Beutin, L, Martin, A, Gill, A and Fach, P (2010). Micro-array for the identification of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) seropathotypes associated with hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome in humans. International Journal of Food Microbiology 142: 318–329.
Carvallo, F, DebRoy, C, Baeza, E, Hinckley, L and Gilbert, K (2010). Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli induced necrotizing pneumonia in a white tiger cub. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 22: 136–140.
Chafchaouni-Moussaoui, I, Novikov, A, Bhrada, F, Perry, MB, Filali-Maltouf, A and Caroff, M (2011). A new rapid and micro-scale hydrolysis, using triethylamine citrate, for lipopolysaccharide characterization by mass spectrometry. Rapid Communication in Mass Spectrometry 14: 2043–2048.
Cheng, J, Liu, B, Bastin, DA, Han, W, Wang, L and Feng, L (2007). Genetic characterization of the Escherichia coli O66 antigen and functional identification of its wzy gene. Journal of Microbiology 45: 69–74.
Cheng, J, Wang, Q, Wang, W, Wang, Y, Wang, L and Feng, L (2006). Characterization of E. coli O24 and O56 O antigen gene clusters reveals a complex evolutionary history of the O24 gene cluster. Current Microbiology 53: 470–476.
Coimbra, RS, Grimont, F, Lenormand, P, Burguiere, P, Beutin, L and Grimont, PAD (2000). Identification of Escherichia coli O-serogroups by restriction of the amplified O-antigen gene cluster (rfb-RFLP). Research Microbiology 151: 639–654.
Cunneen, MM and Reeves, PR (2007). The Yersinia kristensenii O11 O-antigen gene cluster was acquired by lateral gene transfer and incorporated at a novel chromosomal locus. Molecular Biology and Evolution 24: 1355–1365.
Daniels, C, Vindurampulle, C and Morona, R (1998). Overexpression and topology of Shigella flexneri O antigen polymerase (Rfc/Wzy). Molecular Microbiology 28: 1211–1222.
DebRoy, C, Fratamico, PM, Roberts, E, Davis, MA and Liu, Y (2005). Development of PCR assays targeting genes in O-antigen gene clusters for detection and identification of Escherichia coli O45 and O55 serogroups. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 71: 4919–4924.
DebRoy, C, Roberts, E, Davis, MA and Bumbaugh, AC (2010). Detection of non-serotypable Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains derived from pigs by multiplex PCR assay. Foodborne Pathogen and Disease 7: 1407–1414.
DebRoy, C, Roberts, E, Kundrat, J, Davis, MA, Briggs, CE and Fratamico, PM (2004). Detection of Escherichia coli serogroups O26 and O113 by PCR amplification of wzx and wzy genes. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 70: 1830–1832.
DebRoy, C, Roberts, E, Valadez, AM, Dudley, EG and Cutter, CN (2011). Detection of Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli O26, O45, O103, O111, O113, O121, O145, and O157 serogroups by multiplex PCR of the wzx gene of the O-antigen gene cluster. Foodborne Pathogen and Disease 8: 651–652.
D'Souza, JM, Samuel, GN and Reeves, PR (2005). Evolutionary origins and sequence of the Escherichia coli O4 O-antigen gene cluster. FEMS Microbiology Letters 244: 27–32.
D'Souza, JM, Wang, L and Reeves, PR (2002). Sequence of the Escherichia coli O26 O antigen gene cluster and identification of O26 specific genes. Gene 297: 123–127.
Duda, KA, Lindner, B, Brade, H, Leimbach, A, Brzuszkiewicz, E, Dobrindt, U and Holst, O (2011). The lipopolysaccharide of the mastitis isolate Escherichia coli strain 1303 comprises a novel O-antigen and the rare K-12 core type. Microbiology 157: 1750–1760.
Ewing, WH (1972). The genus Escherichia. In: Edwards, PR and Ewing, WH (eds) Identification of Enterobacteriaceae. Minneaopolis, MN: Burgess Publishing Co., pp. 67–107.
Ewing, WH, Tatum, HW, Davis, BR and Reavis, RW (1956). Studies on the Serology of the Escherichia coli Group. Atlanta, GA: Communicable Disease Center Publication, pp. 1–42.
Feng, L, Han, W, Wang, Q, Bastin, DA and Wang, L (2005a). Characterization of Escherichia coli O86 O-antigen gene cluster and identification of O86-specific genes. Veterinary Microbiology 106: 241–248.
Feng, L, Perepelov, AV, Zhao, G, Shevelev, SD, Wang, Q, Senchenkova, SN, Shashkov, AS, Geng, Y, Reeves, PR, Knirel, YA and Wang, L (2007). Structural and genetic evidence that the Escherichia coli O148 O antigen is the precursor of the Shigella dysenteriae type 1 O antigen and identification of a glucosyltransferase gene. Microbiology 153: 139–147.
Feng, L, Senchenkova, SN, Tao, J, Shashkov, AS, Liu, B, Shevelev, SD, Reeves, PR, Xu, J, Knirel, YA and Wang, L (2005b). Structural and genetic characterization of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O145 O antigen and development of an O145 serogroup-specific PCR assay. Journal of Bacteriology 187: 758–764.
Feng, L, Senchenkova, SN, Yang, J, Shashkov, AS, Tao, J, Guo, H, Cheng, J, Ren, Y, Knirel, YA, Reeves, PR and Wang, L (2004a). Synthesis of the heteropolysaccharide O antigen of Escherichia coli O52 requires an ABC transporter: structural and genetic evidence. Journal of Bacteriology 186: 4510–4519.
Feng, L, Wang, W, Tao, J, Guo, H, Krause, G, Beutin, L and Wang, L (2004b). Identification of Escherichia coli O114 O-antigen gene cluster and development of an O114 serogroup-specific PCR assay. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 42: 3799–3804.
Fratamico, PM, Bagi, LK, Cray, WC Jr., Narang, N, Yan, X, Medina, M and Liu, Y (2011). Detection by multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assays and isolation of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145 in ground beef. Foodborne Pathogen and Disease 8: 601–607.
Fratamico, PM, Briggs, CE, Needle, D, Chen, CY and DebRoy, C (2003). Sequence of the Escherichia coli O121 O-antigen gene cluster and detection of enterohemorrhagic E. coli O121 by PCR amplification of the wzx and wzy genes. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 41: 3379–3383.
Fratamico, PM, DebRoy, C and Liu, Y (2009a). The DNA sequence of the Escherichia coli O22 O antigen gene cluster and detection of pathogenic strains belonging to E. coli serogroups O22 and O91 by multiplex PCR assays targeting virulence genes and genes in the respective O-antigen gene clusters. Food Analytical Methods 2: 169–179.
Fratamico, PM, DebRoy, C, Miyamoto, T and Liu, Y (2009b). Detection of entero-hemorrhagic Escherichia coli O145 in food by PCR targeting genes in the E. coli O145 O antigen gene cluster and the Shiga toxins 1 and 2 genes. Foodborne Pathogen and Disease 6: 605–611.
Fratamico, PM, DebRoy, C, Strobaugh, TP Jr. and Chen, CY (2005). DNA sequence of the Escherichia coli O103 O antigen gene cluster and detection of enterohemorrhagic E. coli O103 by PCR amplification of the wzx and wzy genes. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 51: 515–522.
Fratamico, PM, Yan, X, Liu, Y, DebRoy, C, Byrne, B, Monaghan, A, Fanning, S and Bolton, D (2010). Escherichia coli serogroup O2 and O28ac O-antigen gene cluster sequences and detection of pathogenic E. coli O2 and O28ac by PCR. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 56: 308–316.
Galanos, C, Luderitz, O, Rietschel, ET, Westphal, O, Brade, H, Brade, L, Freudenberg, M, Schade, U, Imoto, M, Yoshimura, H, Kusumoto, S and Shiba, T (1985). Synthetic and natural Escherichia coli free lipid A express identical endotoxic activities. European Journal of Biochemistry 148: 1–5.
Golenbock, DT, Hampton, RY, Qureshi, N, Takayama, K and Raetz, CR (1991). Lipid A-like molecules that antagonize the effects of endotoxins on human nonocytes. Journal of Biological Chemistry 266: 19490–19498.
Goswami, P, Gyles, C, Friendship, R, Poppe, C, Vinogradov, E and Boerlin, P (2010). The Escherichia coli O149 rfb gene cluster and its use for the detection of porcine E. coli O149 by real-time PCR. Veterinary Microbiology 141: 120–126.
Grozdanov, L, Zahringer, U, Blum-Oehler, G, Brade, L, Henne, A, Knirel, YA, Schombel, U, Schulze, J, Sonnenborn, U, Gottschalk, G, Hacker, J, Rietschel, ET and Dobrindt, U (2002). A single nucleotide exchange in the wzy gene is responsible for the semirough O6 lipopolysaccharide phenotype and serum sensitivity of Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917. Journal of Bacteriology 184: 5912–5925.
Guo, H, Feng, L, Tao, J, Zhang, C and Wang, L (2004). Identification of Escherichia coli O172 O-antigen gene cluster and development of a serogroup-specific PCR assay. Journal of Applied Microbiology 97: 181–190.
Guo, H, Kong, Q, Cheng, J, Wang, L and Feng, L (2005). Characterization of the Escherichia coli O59 and O155 O-antigen gene clusters: the atypical wzx genes are evolutionary related. FEMS Microbiology Letters 248: 153–161.
Gyles, CL (2007). Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli: an overview. Journal of Animal Science 85: E45–E62.
Han, W, Liu, B, Cao, B, Beutin, L, Kruger, U, Liu, H, Li, Y, Liu, Y, Feng, L and Wang, L (2007). DNA microarray-based identification of serogroups and virulence gene patterns of Escherichia coli isolates associated with porcine postweaning diarrhea and edema disease. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 73: 4082–4088.
Handt, LK, Stoffregen, DA, Prescott, JS, Pouch, WJ, Ngai, DTW, Anderson, CA, Gatto, NT, DebRoy, C, Fairbrother, JM, Motzel, SL and Klein, HJ (2003). Clinical and microbiologic characterization of hemorrhagic pneumonia due to extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli in four young dogs. Comparative Medicine 53: 663–670.
Hobbs, M and Reeves, PR (1994). The JUMPstart sequence: a 39 bp element common to several polysaccharide gene clusters. Molecular Microbiology 12: 855–856.
Hu, B, Perepelov, AV, Liu, B, Shevelev, SD, Guo, D, Senchenkova, SN, Shashkov, AS, Feng, L, Knirel, YA and Wang, L (2010). Structural and genetic evidence for the close relationship between Escherichia coli O71 and Salmonella enterica O28 O-antigens. FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology 59: 161–169.
Kaper, JB and Nataro, JP (2004). Pathogenic Escherichia coli. Nature Review Microbiology 2: 123–140.
Karmali, MA, Mascarenhas, M, Shen, S, Ziebell, K, Johnson, S, Reid-Smith, R, Isaac-Renton, J, Clark, C, Rahn, K and Kaper, JB (2003). Association of genomic O island 122 of Escherichia coli EDL933 with verotoxin producing Escherichia coli seropathotypes that are linked to epidemic and/or serious disease. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 41: 4930–4940.
Kaufmann, F (1943). Ueber neue tthermolabile Körperantigen der Colibakterien. Acta Pathologica et Microbiologica Scandinavica 20: 21–44.
Kaufmann, F (1944). Zur Serologie der Coli-Gruppe. Acta Pathologica et Microbiologica Scandinavica 21: 20–45.
Kaufmann, F (1947). The serology of E. coli group. Journal of Immunology 57: 71–100.
Keenleyside, WJ and Whitfield, C (1996). A novel pathway for O polysaccharide biosynthesis in Salmonella enterica serovar Borreze. Journal of Biological Chemistry 271: 28581–28592.
Knipschildt, HE (1945). Undersøgelser over Coligruppens Serologie. København: Nyt Nordisk Forlag Arnold Busck, pp. 21–126.
Krishnan, C, Fitzgerald, VA, Dakin, SJ and Behme, RJ (1987). Laboratory investigation of outbreak of hemorrhagic colitis caused by Escherichia coli O157:H7. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 25: 1043–1047.
Kusecek, B, Wloch, H, Mercer, A, Vaisänen, V, Pluschke, G, Korhonen, T and Achtman, M (1984). Lipopolysaccharide, capsule, and fimbriae as virulence factors among O1, O7, O16, O18, or O75 and K1, K5, or K100 Escherichia coli. Infection and Immunity 43: 368–379.
Li, D, Liu, B, Chen, M, Guo, D, Guo, X, Liu, F, Feng, L and Wang, L (2010a). A multiplex PCR method to detect 14 Escherichia coli serogroups associated with urinary tract infections. Journal of Microbiological Methods 82: 71–77.
Li, X, Perepelov, AV, Wang, Q, Senchenkova, SN, Liu, B, Shevelev, SD, Guo, X, Shashkov, AS, Chen, W, Wang, L and Knirel, YA (2010b). Structural and genetic characterization of the O-antigen of Escherichia coli O161 containing a derivative of a higher acidic diamino sugar, legionaminic acid. Carbohydrate Research 345: 1581–1587.
Li, Y, Liu, D, Cao, B, Han, W, Liu, Y, Liu, F, Guo, X, Bastin, DA, Feng, L and Wang, L (2006). Development of a serotype-specific DNA microarray for identification of some Shigella and pathogenic Escherichia coli strains. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 44: 4376–83.
Linton, KJ and Higgins, CF (1998). The Escherichia coli ATP binding cassette (ABC) proteins. Molecular Microbiology 28: 5–13.
Liu, B, Knirel, YA, Feng, L, Perepelov, AV, Senchenkova, SN, Wang, Q, Reeves, PR and Wang, L (2008). Structure and genetics of Shigella O antigens. FEMS Microobiological Reviews 32: 627–653.
Liu, B, Wu, F, Li, D, Beutin, L, Chen, M, Cao, B and Wang, L (2010). Development of a serogroup-specific DNA microarray for identification of Escherichia coli strains associated with bovine septicemia and diarrhea. Veterinary Microbiology 142: 373–378.
Liu, Y, DebRoy, C and Fratamico, PM (2007). Sequencing and analysis of the Escherichia coli serogroup O117, O126, and O146 O-antigen gene clusters and development of PCR assays targeting serogroup O117-, O126-, and O146-specific DNA sequences. Molecular and Cellular Probes 21: 295–302.
Liu, Y and Fratamico, P (2006). Escherichia coli O antigen typing using DNA microarrays. Molecular and Cellular Probes 20: 239–244.
Liu, Y, Fratamico, PM, DebRoy, C, Bumbaugh, AC and Allen, JW (2008). DNA sequencing and identification of serogroup-specific genes in the Escherichia coli O118 O antigen gene cluster and demonstration of antigenic diversity but only minor variation in DNA sequence of the O antigen clusters of E. coli O118 and O151. Foodborne Pathogen and Disease 5: 449–457.
MacLean, LL, Liu, Y, Vinogradov, E and Perry, MB (2010). The structural characterization of the O-polysaccharide antigen of the lipopolysaccharide of Escherichia coli serotype O118 and its relation to the O-antigens of Escherichia coli O151 and Salmonella enterica O47. Carbohydrate Research 345: 2664–2669.
MacLean, LL, Webb, AC and Perry, MB (2006). Structural elucidation of the O-antigenic polysaccharide from enterohemorrhagic (EHEC) Escherichia coli O48:H21. Carbohydrate Research 341: 2543–2549.
Marolda, CL and Valvano, MA (1993). Identification, expression, and DNA sequence of the GDP-mannose biosynthesis genes encoded by the O7 rfb gene cluster of strain VW187 (Escherichia coli O7:K1). Journal of Bacteriology 175: 148–158.
McGrath, BC and Osborn, MJ (1991). Localization of the terminal steps of O antigen synthesis in Salmonella Typhimurium. Journal of Bacteriology 173: 649–654.
Mulford, CA and Osborn, MJ (1983). An intermediate step in translocation of lipopolysaccharide to outer membrane of Salmonella Typhimurium. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 80: 1159–1163.
Neill, MA, Tarr, PI, Clausen, CR, Christie, DL and Hickman, RO (1987). Escherichia coli O157:H7 as the predominant pathogen associated with the hemolytic uremic syndrome: a prospective study in the Pacific Northwest. Pediatrics 80: 37–40.
Ørskov, F and Ørskov, I (1984). Serotyping of Escherichia coli. Methods in Microbiology 14: 43–112.
Ørskov, I, Ørskov, F, Evans, DJ, Sack, RB, Sack, DA and Wadstrom, T (1976). Special Escherichia coli serotypes among enterotoxigenic strains from diarrhea in adults and children. Medical Microbiology and Immunology 162: 73–80.
Ørskov, I, Ørskov, F, Jann, B and Jann, K (1977). Serology, Chemistry and genetics of O and K antigens of Escherichia coli. Bacteriological Review 41: 667–710.
Ørskov, I, Ørskov, F and Rowe, B (1984). Six new E. coli O groups: O165, O166, O167, O168, O169 and O170. Acta Pathologica, Microbialogica et Immunologica Scandinavica Section B 92: 189–193.
Ørskov, I, Wachsmuth, IK, Taylor, DN, Echeverria, P, Rowe, B, Sakazaki, R et al. (1991). Two new Escherichia coli O groups: O172 from “Shiga-like” toxin II-producing strains (EHEC) and O173 from enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC). Acta Pathologica, Microbialogica et Immunologica Scandinavica 99: 30–32.
Paton, AW and Paton, JC (1999). Molecular characterization of the locus encoding biosynthesis of the lipopolysaccharide O antigen of Escherichia coli serotype O113. Infection and Immunity 67: 5930–5937.
Perelle, S, Dilasser, F, Grout, J and Fach, P (2002). Identification of the O-antigen biosynthesis genes of Escherichia coli O91 and development of a O91 PCR serotyping test. Journal of Applied Microbiology 93: 758–764.
Perelle, S, Dilasser, F, Grout, J and Fach, P (2004). Detection by 5′-nuclease PCR of Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli O26, O55, O91, O103, O111, O113, O145, and O157:H7. Molecular and Cellular Probes 18: 185–192.
Perepelov, AV, Li, D, Liu, B, Senchenkova, SN, Guo, D, Shashkov, AS, Feng, L, Knirel, YA and Wang, L (2011a). Structural and genetic characterization of the closely related O-antigens of Escherichia coli O85 and Salmonella enterica O17. Innate Immunity 17: 164–173.
Perepelov, AV, Li, D, Liu, B, Senchenkova, SN, Guo, D, Shevelev, SD, Shashkov, AS, Guo, X, Feng, L, Knirel, YA and Wang, L (2009). Structural and genetic characterization of Escherichia coli O99 antigen. FEMS Immunology and Medicinal Microbiology 57: 80–87.
Perepelov, AV, Ni, Z, Wang, Q, Shevelev, SD, Senchenkova, SN, Shahskov, AS, Wang, L and Knirel, YA (2011b). Structure and gene cluster of the O-antigen of Escherichia coli O109; chemical and genetic evidences of the presence of L-RhaN3N derivatives in the O-antigens of E. coli O109 and O119. FEMS Immunology and Medicinal Microbiology 61: 47–53.
Plainvert, C, Bidet, P, Peigne, C, Barbe, V, Médigue, C, Denamur, E, Bingen, E and Bonacorsi, S (2007). A new O-antigen gene cluster has a key role in the virulence of the Escherichia coli meningitis clone O45:K1:H7. Journal of Bacteriology 189: 8528–8536.
Pluschke, G, Mayden, J, Achtman, M and Levine, RP (1983). Role of the capsule and the O-antigen in resistance of O18:K1 Escherichia coli to complement-mediated killing. Journal of Bacteriology 42: 907–913.
Poltorak, A, He, X, Smirnova, I, Liu, MY, Van Huffel, C and Du, X (1998). Defective LPS signaling in C#H/HeJ and C57BL/10ScCr mice. Mutations in TLR4 gene. Science 282: 2085–2088.
Raetz, CRH, Reynolds, CM, Trent, MS and Bishop, RE (2007). Lipid A modification systems in Gram-negative bacteria. Annual Review of Biochemistry 76: 295–329.
Raetz, CRH and Whitfield, C (2002). Lipopolysaccharide endotoxins. Annual Review of Biochemistry 71: 635–700.
Reeves, PR (1994). Biosynthesis and assembly of lipopolysaccharide. New Comprehensive Biochemistry 27: 281–317.
Reeves, PR, Hobbs, M, Valvano, MA, Skurnik, M, Whitfield, C, Coplin, D, Kido, N, Klena, J, Maskell, D, Raetz, CRH and Rick, PD (1996). Bacterial polysaccharide synthesis and gene nomenclature. Trends in Microbiology 4: 495–503.
Reeves, PR and Wang, L (2002). Genomic organization of LPS-specific loci. Current Topics in Microbiological Immunology 264: 109–135.
Remis, RS, MacDonald, KL, Riley, LW, Puhr, ND, Wells, JG, Davis, BR, Blake, PA and Cohen, ML (1984). Sporadic cases of hemorrhagic colitis associated with Escherichia coli O157:H7. Annals of Internal Medicine 101: 624–626.
Ren, Y, Liu, B, Cheng, J, Liu, F, Feng, L and Wang, L (2008). Characterization of Escherichia coli O3 and O21 O antigen gene clusters and development of serogroup-specific PCR assays. Journal of Microbiological Methods 75: 329–334.
Riley, LW, Remis, RS, Helgerson, SD, McGee, HB, Wells, JG, Davis, BR, Hebert, RJ, Olcott, ES, Johnson, LM, Hargrett, NT, Blake, PA and Cohen, ML (1983). Hemorrhagic colitis associated with a rare Escherichia coli serotype. New England Journal of Medicine 308: 681–685.
Rump, LV, Beutin, L, Fischer, M and Feng, PC (2010b). Characterization of a gne::IS629 O rough:H7 Escherichia coli strain from a hemorrhagic colitis patient. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 76: 5290–5291.
Rump, LV, Feng, PC, Fischer, M and Monday, SR (2010a). Genetic analysis for the lack of expression of the O157 antigen in an O Rough:H7 Escherichia coli strain. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 76: 945–957.
Samuel, G and Reeves, PR (2003). Biosynthesis of O antigens: genes and pathways involved in nucleotide sugar precursor synthesis and O-antigen assembly. Carbohydrate Research 338: 2503–2519.
Scheutz, F, Cheasty, T, Woodward, D and Smith, HR (2004). Designation of O174 and O175 to temporary O groups OX3 and OX7, and six new E. coli O groups that include verotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC): O176, O177, O178, O179, O180 and O181. Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica 112: 569–584.
Shao, J, Li, M, Jia, Q, Lu, Y and Wang, PG (2003). Sequence of Escherichia coli O128 antigen biosynthesis cluster and functional identification of an alpha-1,2-fucosyltransferase. FEBS Letters 553: 99–103.
Shepherd, JG, Wang, L and Reeves, PR (2000). Comparison of O-antigen gene clusters of Escherichia coli (Shigella) sonnei and Plesiomonas shigelloides O17: sonnei gained its current plasmid-borne O-antigen genes from P. shigelloides in a recent event. Infection and Immunity 68: 6056–6061.
Sura, R, Van Kruiningen, HJ, DebRoy, C, Hinckley, LS, Greenberg, KJ, Gordon, Z and French, RA (2007). Extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) induced acute necrotizing pneumonia in cats. Zoonoses Public Health 54: 307–313.
Tarr, PI, Schoening, LM, Yea, YL, Ward, TR, Jelacic, S and Whittam, TS (2000). Acquisition of the rfb-gnd cluster in evolution of Escherichia coli O55 and O157. Journal of Bacteriology 182: 6183–6191.
Vigil, PD, Alteri, CJ and Mobley, HL (2011). Identification of in vivo induced antigens including a RTX family exoprotein required for uropathogenic Escherichia coli virulence. Infection and Immunity 79: 2335–2344.
Wang, L, Briggs, CE, Rothemund, D, Fratamico, P, Luchansky, JB and Reeves, PR (2001). Sequence of the E. coli O104 antigen gene cluster and identification of O104 specific genes. Gene 270: 231–236.
Wang, L, Curd, H, Qu, W and Reeves, PR (1998). Sequencing of Escherichia coli O111 O-antigen gene cluster and identification of O111-specific genes. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 36: 3182–3187.
Wang, L, Huskic, S, Cisterne, A, Rothemund, D and Reeves, PR (2002). The O-antigen gene cluster of Escherichia coli O55:H7 and identification of a new UDP-GlcNAc C4 epimerase gene. Journal of Bacteriology 184: 2620–2625.
Wang, L, Liu, B, Kong, Q, Steinruck, H, Krause, G, Beutin, L and Feng, L (2005). Molecular markers for detection of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains belonging to serogroups O138 and O139. Veterinary Microbiology 111: 181–190.
Wang, L and Reeves, PR (1998). Organization of Escherichia coli O157 O antigen gene cluster and identification of its specific genes. Infection and Immunity 66: 3545–3551.
Wang, L, Rothemund, D, Curd, H and Reeves, PR (2003). Species-wide variation in the Escherichia coli flagellin (H-antigen) gene. Journal of Bacteriology 185: 2936–2943.
Wang, L, Wang, Q and Reeves, PR (2010). The variations of O antigens in gram negative bacteria. Subcellular Biochemistry 53: 123–152.
Wang, Q, Perepelov, AV, Feng, L, Knirel, YA, Li, Y and Wang, L (2009). Genetic and structural analyses of Escherichia coli O107 and O117 O-antigens. FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology 55: 47–54.
Wang, Q, Ruan, X, Wei, D, Hu, Z, Wu, L, Yu, T, Feng, L and Wang, L (2010a). Development of a serogroup-specific multiplex PCR assay to detect a set of Escherichia coli serogroups based on the identification of their O-antigen gene clusters. Molecular and Cellular Probes 24: 286–290.
Wang, Q, Wang, S, Beutin, L, Cao, B, Feng, L and Wang, L (2010b). Development of a DNA microarray for detection and serotyping of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 48: 2066–2074.
Wang, W, Perepelov, AV, Feng, L, Shevelev, SD, Wang, Q, Senchenkova, SN, Han, W, Li, Y, Shashkov, AS, Knirel, YA, Reeves, PR and Wang, L (2007). A group of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica O antigens sharing a common backbone structure. Microbiology 153: 2159–2167.
Wang, X and Quinn, PJ (2010). Lipopolysaccharide: Biosynthetic pathway and structure modification. Progress in Lipid Research 49: 97–107.
West, NP, Sansonetti, P, Mounier, J, Exley, RM, Parsot, C, Guadagnini, S, Pre´vost, M, Prochnicka-Chalufour, A, Delepierre, M, Tanguy, M and Tang, CM (2005). Optimization of virulence functions through glucosylation of Shigella LPS. Science 307: 1313–1317.