Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Biology and epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii in man and animals

  • Dolores E. Hill (a1), Sreekumar Chirukandoth (a1) and J. P. Dubey (a1)
Abstract
Abstract

Toxoplasma gondii is a coccidian parasite which utilizes felids as definitive hosts, and which has an unusually wide intermediate host range. The parasite was initially described by Nicolle and Manceaux in 1908 from the rodent, Ctenodactylus gundi. Infection with T. gondii is one of the most common parasitic infections of man and other warm-blooded animals. It has been found worldwide from Alaska to Australia. Nearly one-third of humanity has been exposed to this parasite; serologic surveys indicate that T. gondii infections are common in wild carnivores, including pigs, bears, felids, fox, raccoons, and skunks. Clinical and subclinical toxoplasmosis has been reported from wild cervids, ungulates, marsupials, monkeys, and marine mammals. Southern sea otter populations have been severely impacted by Toxoplasma infections.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Email: dhill@anri.barc.usda.gov
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

M Akuzawa , M Mochizuki and N Yasuda (1987). Hematological and parasitological study of the Iriomote cat (Prionaliurus iriomotensis). Canadian Journal of Zoology 65: 946949.

A Antsaklis , G Daskalakis , N Papantoniou , A Mentis and S Michalas (2002). Prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis. Prenatal Diagnosis 22: 11071111.

JJ Aramini , C Stephen and JP Dubey (1998). Toxoplasma gondii in Vancouver Island cougars (Felis concolor vancouverensis): serology and oocyst shedding. Journal of Parasitology 84: 438440.

JJ Aramini , C Stephen , JP Dubey , C Engelstoft , H Schwantje and CS Ribble (1999). Potential contamination of drinking water with Toxoplasma gondii oocysts. Epidemiology and Infection 122: 305315.

KD Arkush , MA Miller , CM Leutenegger , IA Gardner , AE Packham , AR Heckeroth , AM Tenter , BC Barr and PA Conrad (2003). Molecular and bioassay-based detection of Toxoplasma gondii oocyst uptake by mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis). International Journal of Parasitology 33: 10871097.

N Ashton (1979). Ocular toxoplasmosis in wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus). American Journal of Ophthalmology 88: 322332.

TV Aspinall , D Marlee , JE Hyde and PF Sims (2002). Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in commercial meat products as monitored by polymerase chain reaction–food for thought. International Journal for Parasitology 32: 11931199.

HD Attwood and PA Woolley (1970). Toxoplasmosis in dasyurid marsupials. Pathology 2: 7778.

HD Attwood , PA Woolley and MD Rickard (1975). Toxoplasmosis in dasyurid marsupials. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 11: 543551.

MW Benenson , ET Takafuji , SM Lemon , RL Greenup and AJ Sulzer (1982). Oocyst-transmitted toxoplasmosis associated with ingestion of contaminated water. New England Journal of Medicine 307: 666669.

GA Boorman , GV Kollias and RF Taylor (1977). An outbreak of toxoplasmosis in wallaroos (Macropus robustus) in a California zoo. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 13: 6468.

WR Bowie , AS King , DH Werker , JL Isaac-Renton , A Bell , SB Eng and SA Marion (1997). Outbreak of toxoplasmosis associated with municipal drinking Water. Lancet 350: 173177.

N Briscoe , JG Humphreys and JP Dubey (1993). Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infections in Pennsylvania black bears, Ursus americanus. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 29: 599601.

WS Bulmer (1971). Toxoplasmosis in captive Saiga antelope. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 7: 310316.

AJ Burnett , SG Shortt , J Isaac-Renton , A King , D Werker and WR Bowie (1998). Multiple cases of acquired toxoplasmosis retinitis presenting in an outbreak. Ophthalmology 105: 10321037.

PJ Canfield , WJ Hartley and JP Dubey (1990). Lesions of toxoplasmosis in Australian marsupials. Journal of Comparative Pathology 103: 159167.

KF Chan , H Le Tran , RY Kanenaka and S Kathariou (2001). Survival of clinical and poultry-derived isolates of Campylobacter jejuni at a low temperature (4 degrees C). Applied Environmental Microbiology 67: 41864191.

K Chirgwin , R Hafner , C Leport , J Remington , J Andersen , EM Bosler , C Roque , N Rajicic , V McAuliffe , P Morlat , DT Jayaweera , JL Vilde and BJ Luft (2002). Randomized phase II trial of atovaquone with pyrimethamine or sulfadiazine for treatment of toxoplasmic encephalitis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: ACTG 237/ANRS 039 study. Clinical Infectious Diseases 34: 12431250.

W-Y Choi , HW Nam , NH Kwak , W Huh , YR Kim , MW Kang , SY Cho and JP Dubey (1997). Foodborne outbreaks of human toxoplasmosis. Journal of Infectious Diseases 175: 12801282.

BB Chomel , RL Zarnke , RW Kasten , PH Kass and E Mendes (1995). Serologic survey of Toxoplasma gondii in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) and black bears (Ursus americanus) from Alaska 1988 to 1991. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 31: 472479.

RA Cole , DS Lindsay , DK Howe , CL Roderick , JP Dubey , NJ Thomas and LA Baeten (2000). Biological and molecular characterizations of Toxoplasma gondii strains obtained from southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis). Journal of Parasitology 86: 526530.

GH Collins (1981). Studies in Sarcocystis species VII Sarcocystis and Toxoplasma in red deer (Cervus elaphus). New Zealand Veterinary Journal 29: 126127.

C Contini , R Cultrera , S Seraceni , D Segala , R Romani , E Fainardi , P Cinque , A Lazzarin and S Delia (2002). The role of stage specific oligonucleotide primers in providing effective laboratory support for the molecular diagnosis of reactivated Toxoplasma gondii encephalitis in patients with AIDS. Journal of Medical Microbiology 51: 879890.

AJC Cook , RE Gilbert , W Buffolano , J Zufferey , E Petersen , PA Jenum , W Foulon , AE Semprini and DT Dunn (2000). Sources of Toxoplasma infection in pregnant women: European multicentre case control study. British Medical Journal 321: 142147.

AA Cunningham , D Buxton and KM Thomson (1992). An epidemic of toxoplasmosis in a captive colony of squirrel-monkeys (Saimiri sciureus). Journal of Comparative Pathology 107: 207219.

G Desmonts and J Couvreur (1974). Congenital toxoplasmosis. A prospective study of 378 pregnancies. New England Journal of Medicine 290: 11101116.

V Diderrich , JC New , GP Noblet and S Patton (1996). Serologic survey of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in free-ranging wild hogs (Sus scrofa) from the Great Smoky Mountains National Park and from sites in South Carolina Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 43 122S.

RW Dieters and SW Nielsen (1978). Toxoplasmosis, distemper, and herpesvirus infection in a skunk (Mephitis mephitis). Journal of Wildlife Diseases 14: 132136.

HH Dietz , P Henriksen , M Lebech and SA Henriksen (1993). Experimental infection with Toxoplasma gondii in farmed mink (Mustela vison S.). Veterinary Parasitology 47: 17.

HH Dietz , P Henriksen , V Bille-Hansen and SA Henriksen (1997). Toxoplasmosis in a colony of New World monkeys. Veterinary Parasitology 68: 299304.

M Domingo , J Visa , M Pumarola , AJ Marco , K Ferrer , R Rabanal and S Kennedy (1992). Pathologic and immunocytochemical studies of morbillivirus infection in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba). Veterinary Pathology 29: 110.

JP Dubey (1983). Toxoplasma gondii infection in rodents and insectivores from Montana. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 19: 149150.

JP Dubey (1986). A review of toxoplasmosis in pigs. Veterinary Parasitology 19: 181223.

JP Dubey (1988). Refinement of pepsin digestion method for isolation of Toxoplasma gondii from infected tissues. Veterinary Parasitology 74: 7577.

JP Dubey (1996). Infectivity and pathogenicity of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts for cats. Journal of Parasitology 82: 957961.

JP Dubey (2001). Oocyst shedding by cats fed isolated bradyzoites and comparison of infectivity of bradyzoites of the VEG strain Toxoplasma gondii to cats and mice. Journal of Parasitology 87: 215219.

JP Dubey (2002a). Tachyzoite-induced life cycle of Toxoplasma gondii in cats. Journal of Parasitology 88: 713717.

JP Dubey (2002b). A review of toxoplasmosis in wild birds. Veterinary Parasitology 106: 121153.

JP Dubey and JK Frenkel (1972). Cyst-induced toxoplasmosis in cats. Journal of Protozoology 19: 155177.

JP Dubey and JK Frenkel (1976). Feline toxoplasmosis from acutely infected mice and the development of Toxoplasma cysts. Journal of Protozoology 23: 537546.

JP Dubey and JK Frenkel (1998). Toxoplasmosis of rats: a review, with considerations of their value as an animal model and their possible role in epidemiology. Veterinary Parasitology 77: 132.

JP Dubey and TL Lin (1994). Acute toxoplasmosis in a gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus). Veterinary Parasitology 51: 321325.

JP Dubey and K Odening (2001). Parasitic Diseases of Wild Mammals. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press.

JP Dubey and DW Thayer (1994). Killing of different strains of Toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts by irradiatin under defined conditions. Journal of Parasitology 80: 764767.

JP Dubey , WJ Quinn and D Weinandy (1987). Fatal neonatal toxoplasmosis in a bobcat (Lynx rufus). Journal of Wildlife Diseases 23: 324327.

JP Dubey , AP Gendron-Fitzpatrick , AL Lenhard and D Bowman (1988a). Fatal toxoplasmosis and enteroepithelial stages of Toxoplasma gondii in a Pallas cat (Felis manul). Journal of Protozoology 35: 528530.

JP Dubey , J Ott-Joslin , RW Torgerson , MJ Topper and JP Sundberg (1988b). Toxoplasmosis in black-faced kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus melanops). Veterinary Parasitology 30: 97105.

JP Dubey , AN Hamir and CE Rupprecht (1990a). Acute disseminated toxoplasmosis in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Journal of Wildlife Diseases 26: 286290.

JP Dubey , AW Kotula , AK Sharar , CD Andrews and DS Lindsay (1990b). Effect of high temperature on infectivity of Toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts in pork. Journal of Parasitology 76: 201204.

JP Dubey , CA Brown , JL Carpenter and JJ Moore (1992a). Fatal toxoplasmosis in domestic rabbits in the USA. Veterinary Parasitology 44: 305309.

JP Dubey , AN Hamir , SK Shen , P Thulliez and CE Rupprecht (1993). Experimental Toxoplasma gondii infection in raccoons (Procyon lotor). Journal of Parasitology 79: 548552.

JP Dubey , JG Humphreys and P Thulliez (1995a). Prevalence of viable Toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts and antibodies to T. gondii by various serologic tests in black bears (Ursus americanus) from Pennsylvania. Journal of Parasitology 81: 109112.

JP Dubey , P Thulliez and EC Powell (1995b). Toxoplasma gondii in Iowa sows: comparison of antibody titers to isolation of T. gondii by bioassays in mice and cats. Journal of Parasitology 81: 4853.

JP Dubey , RM Weigel , AM Siegel , P Thulliez , UD Kitron , MA Mitchell , A Mannelli , NE Mateus-Pinilla , SK Shen and OC Kwok (1995c). Sources and reservoirs of Toxoplasma gondii infection on 47 swine farms in Illinois. Journal of Parasitology 81: 723729.

JP Dubey , ST Storandt , OC Kwok , P Thulliez and KR Kazacos (1999). Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in naturally exposed wild coyotes, red foxes, and gray foxes and serologic diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in red foxes fed T. gondii oocysts and tissue cysts. Journal of Parasitology 85: 240243.

JP Dubey , DH Graham , CR Blackston , T Lehmann , SM Gennari , AM Ragozo , SM Nishi , SK Shen , OC Kwok , DE Hill and P Thulliez (2002a). Biological and genetic characterisation of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from chickens (Gallus domesticus) from Sao Paulo, Brazil: unexpected findings. International Journal for Parasitology 32: 99105.

JP Dubey , B Lewis , K Beam and B Abbitt (2002b). Transplacental toxoplasmosis in a reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) fetus. Veterinary Parasitology 110: 131135.

JP Dubey , HR Gamble , D Hill , C Sreekumar , S Romand and P Thuilliez (2002c). High prevalence of viable Toxoplasma gondii infection in market weight pigs from a farm in Massachusetts. Journal of Parasitology 88: 12341238.

JP Dubey , ME Tocidlowski , B Abbitt and SY Llizo (2002c). Acute visceral toxoplasmosis in captive dik-dik (Madoqua guentheri smithi). Journal of Parasitology 88: 638641.

R Entzeroth , G Piekarski and E Scholtyseck (1981). Fine structural study of a Toxoplasma strain from the roe deer. Zeitschrift fur Parasitenkunde 66: 109112.

W Foulon , A Naessens and MP Derde (1994). Evaluation of the possibilities for preventing congenital toxoplasmosis. American Journal Perinatology 11: 5762.

W Foulon , A Naessens , D Ho-Yen (2000). Prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis. Journal of Perinatal Medicine 28: 337345.

JK Frenkel , JP Dubey and NL Miller (1970). Toxoplasma gondii in cats: fecal stages identified as coccidian oocysts. Science 167: 893896.

HR Gamble , RC Brady and JP Dubey (1999). Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic pigs in the New England states. Veterinary Parasitology 82: 129136.

MM Garner , BC Barr , AE Packham , AE Marsh , KA Burek-Huntington , RK Wilson and JP Dubey (1997). Fatal hepatic sarcocystosis in two polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Journal of Parasitology 83: 523526.

PD Glasner , C Silveira , D Kruszon-Moran , MC Martins , M Burnier , S Jr Silveira , ME Camargo , RB Nussenblatt , RA Kaslow , R Belfort Jr (1992). An unusually high prevalence of ocular toxoplasmosis in southern Brazil. American Journal of Ophthalmology 114: 136144.

LE Green and KL Morgan (1991). Toxoplasma abortion in a guinea pig. Veterinary Record 129: 266267.

NG Guerina , HW Hsu , HC Meissner , JH Maguire , R Lynfield , B Stechenberg , I Abroms , MS Pasternack , R Hoff and RB Eaton (1994). Neonatal serologic screening and early treatment for congenital Toxoplasma gondii infection. The New England Regional Toxoplasma Working Group. New England Journal of Medicine 330: 18581863.

K Gustafsson and A Uggla (1994). Serologic survey for Toxoplasma gondii infection in the brown hare (Lepus europaeus P.) in Sweden. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 30: 201204.

K Gustafsson , A Uggla , T Svensson and L Sjoland (1988). Detection of Toxoplasma gondii in liver tissue sections from brown hares (Lepus europaeus P.) and mountain hares (Lepus timidus L.) using the peroxidase anti-peroxidase (PAP) technique as a complement to conventional histopathology. Journal of Veterinary Medicine B. 35: 402407.

RA Harcourt (1967). Toxoplasmosis in rabbits. Veterinary Record 81: 191192.

WJ Hartley , JP Dubey and DS Spielman (1990). Fatal toxoplasmosis in Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus). Journal of Parasitology 76: 271272.

P Henriksen , HH Dietz , A Uttenthal and M Hansen (1994). Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Danish farmed mink (Mustela vison S.). Veterinary Parasitology 53: 15.

K Hirato (1939). Notes on two cases of Toxoplasma observed among raccoon-dogs in the vicinity of Sapporo. Japanese Journal of Veterinary Science 1: 544552.

W Inskeep , CH Gardiner , RK Harris , JP Dubey and RT Goldston (1990). Toxoplasmosis in Atlantic bottle-nosed dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Journal of Wildlife Diseases 26: 377382.

L Jacobs , AM Stanley and CM Herman (1962). Prevalence of Toxoplasma antibodies in rabbits, squirrels, and raccoons collected in and near the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center Journal of Parasitology 48 550.

RM Jakob-Hoff and JD Dunsmore (1983). Epidemiological aspects of toxoplasmosis in southern Western Australia. Australian Veterinary Journal 60: 217218.

JE Jardine and JP Dubey (2002). Congenital toxoplasmosis in an Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus). Journal of Parasitology 88: 197199.

LH Jauregui , JA Higgins , DS Zarlenga , JP Dubey and JK Lunney (2001). Development of a real-time PCR assay for the detection of Toxoplasma gondii in pig and mouse tissues. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 39: 20652071.

JM Jensen , S Patton , BG Wright and DG Loeffler (1985). Toxoplasmosis in marsupials in a zoological collection. Journal of Zoo Animal Medicine 16: 129131.

AM Johnson , H Roberts and BL Munday (1988). Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibody in wild macropods. Australian Veterinary Journal 65: 199201.

AM Johnson , H Roberts , P Statham and BL Munday (1989). Serodiagnosis of acute toxoplasmosis in macropods. Veterinary Parasitology 34: 2533.

GW Jordan , J Theis , CM Fuller and PD Hoeprich (1975). Bear meat trichinosis with a concomitant serologic response to Toxoplasma gondii. American Journal of Medical Sciences 269: 251257.

P Joseph , MM Calderon , RH Gilman , ML Quispe , J Cok , E Ticona , V Chavez , JA Jimenez , MC Chang , MJ Lopez and CA Evans (2002). Optimization and evaluation of a PCR assay for detecting toxoplasmic encephalitis in patients with AIDS. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 40: 44994503.

AA Kocan , SJ Barron , JC Fox and AW Franzmann (1986). Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in moose (Alces alces L.) from Alaska Journal of Wildlife Diseases 22 432.

P Labelle , JP Dubey , I Mikaelian , N Blanchette , R Lafond , S St-Onge and D Martineau (2001). Seroprevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in lynx (Lynx canadensis) and bobcats (Lynx rufus) from Quebec, Canada. Journal of Parasitology 87: 11941196.

DM Lambourn , SJ Jeffries and JP Dubey (2001). Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) in southern Puget Sound, Washington. Journal of Parasitology 87: 11961197.

DS Lindsay , BL Blagburn , JP Dubey and WH Mason (1991). Prevalence and isolation of Toxoplasma gondii from white-tailed deer in Alabama. The Journal of Parasitology 77: 6264.

DS Lindsay , EJ Kelly , RD McKown , FJ Stein , J Plozer , J Herman , BL Blagburn and JP Dubey (1996). Prevalence of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in coyotes (Canis latrans) and experimental infections of coyotes with Neospora caninum. The Journal of Parasitology 82: 657659.

DS Lindsay , NJ Thomas , AC Rosypal and JP Dubey (2001a). Dual Sarcocystis neurona and Toxoplasma gondii infection in a Northern sea otter from Washington state, USA. Veterinary Parasitology 97: 319327.

DS Lindsay , KK Phelps , SA Smith , G Flick , SS Sumner and JP Dubey (2001b). Removal of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts from sea water by eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 48 S197S198.

DS Lindsay , MV Collins , SM Mitchell , CN Wetch , AC Rosypal , GJ Flick , AM Zajac , A Lindquist and JP Dubey (2004). Survival of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica). Journal of Parasitology 90 (5): 10541057.

BJ Luft and JS Remington (1992). Toxoplasmic encephalitis in AIDS. Clinical Infectious Disease 15: 211222.

MJ Lynch , DL Obendorf , P Statham and GL Reddacliff (1993). An evaluation of a live Toxoplasma gondii vaccine in tammar wallabies (Macropus eugenii). Australian Veterinary Journal 70: 352353.

AA Marchiondo , DW Duszynski and GO Maupin (1976). Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in wild and domestic animals of New Mexico, Arizona and Colorado. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 12: 226232.

LN Measures , JP Dubey , P Labelle and D Martineau (2004). Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Canadian pinnipeds. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 40: 294300.

G Migaki , TR Sawa and JP Dubey (1990). Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis in a spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris). Veterinary Pathology 27: 463464.

I Mikaelian , J Boisclair , JP Dubey , S Kennedy and D Martineau (2000). Toxoplasmosis in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from the St. Lawrence estuary: two case reports and a serological survey. Journal of Comparative Pathology 122: 7376.

MA Miller , K Ehlers , JP Dubey van K Steenbergh (1992). Outbreak of toxoplasmosis in wallabies on an exotic animal farm. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 4: 480483.

MA Miller , IA Gardner , C Kreuder , DM Paradies , KR Worcester , DA Jessup , E Dodd , MD Harris , JA Ames , AE Packham and PA Conrad (2002). Coastal freshwater runoff is a risk factor for Toxoplasma gondii infection of southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis). International Journal for Parasitology 32: 9971006.

MA Miller , ME Grigg , C Kreuder , ER James , AC Melli , PR Crosbie , DA Jessup , JC Boothroyd , D Brownstein and PA Conrad (2004). An unusual genotype of Toxoplasma gondii is common in California sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) and is a cause of mortality. International Journal of Parasitology 34: 275284.

MA Mitchell , LL Hungerford , CM Nixon , TL Esker , JB Sullivan , JB Koerkenmeier and JP Dubey (1999). Serologic survey for selected infectious disease agents in raccoons from Illinois. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 35: 347355.

EC Neto , E Anele , R Rubim , A Brites , J Schulte , D Becker and T Tuuminen (2000). High prevalence of congenital toxoplasmosis in Brazil estimated in a 3-year prospective neonatal screening study. International Journal of Epidemiology 29: 941947.

TA Nobel , U Klopfer and F Neuman (1969). Toxoplasmosis in wild animals in Israel. Journal of Comparative Pathology 79: 127129.

S Nogami , A Tabata , T Moritomo and Y Hayashi (1999). Prevalence of anti- Toxoplasma gondii antibody in wild boar, Sus scrofa riukiuanus, on Iriomote Island, Japan. Veterinary Research Communications 23: 211214.

FB Nutter , JF Levine , MK Stoskopf , HR Gamble and JP Dubey (1998). Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spiralis in North Carolina black bears (Ursus americanus). Journal of Parasitology 84: 10481050.

DL Obendorf and BL Munday (1983). Toxoplasmosis in wild Tasmanian wallabies Australian Veterinary Journal 60 62.

DL Obendorf , P Statham and M Driessen (1996). Detection of agglutinating antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in sera from free-ranging eastern barred bandicoots (Perameles gunnii). Journal of Wildlife Diseases 32: 623626.

RA Ocholi , JO Kalejaiye and PA Okewole (1989). Acute disseminated toxoplasmosis in two captive lions (Panthera leo) in Nigeria. Veterinary Record 124: 515516.

A Oksanen , K Gustafsson Lundén A JP Dubey , P Thulliez and A Uggla (1996). Experimental Toxoplasma gondii infection leading to fatal enteritis in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). Journal of Parasitology 82: 843845.

GL Reddacliff , WJ Hartley , JP Dubey and DW Cooper (1993a). Pathology of experimentally-induced, acute toxoplasmosis in macropods. Australian Veterinary Journal 70: 46.

GL Reddacliff , SJ Parker , JP Dubey , PJ Nicholls , AM Johnson and DW Cooper (1993b). An attempt to prevent acute toxoplasmosis in macropods by vaccination with Hammondia hammondi. Australian Veterinary Journal 70: 3335.

C Renold , A Sugar , JP Chave , L Perrin , J Delavelle , G Pizzolato , P Burkhard , V Gabriel and B Hirschel (1992). Toxoplasma encephalitis in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Medicine 71: 224239.

AR Resendes , S Almeria , JP Dubey , E Obon , C Juan-Salles , E Degollada , F Alegre , O Cabezon , S Pont and M Domingo (2002). Disseminated toxoplasmosis in a Mediterranean pregnant Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) with transplacental fetal infection. Journal of Parasitology 88: 10291032.

HP Riemann , ME Fowler , T Schulz , JA Lock , J Thilsted , LT Pulley , RV Henrickson , AM Henness , CE Franti and DE Behymer (1974). Toxoplasmosis in Pallas cats. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 10: 471477.

T Roberts , KD Murrell and S Marks (1994). Economic losses caused by foodborne parasitic diseases. Parasitology Today 10: 419423.

E Rodaniche de and T de Pinzon (1949). Spontaneous toxoplasmosis in the guinea-pig in Panama. Journal of Parasitology 35: 152154.

RD Ross , LA Stec , JC Werner , MS Blumenkranz , L Glazer and GA Williams (2001). Presumed acquired ocular toxoplasmosis in deer hunters. Retina 21: 226229.

SJ Siepierski , CE Tanner and JA Embil (1990). Prevalence of antibody to Toxoplasma gondii in the moose (Alces alces americana Clinton) of Nova Scotia, Canada. Journal of Parasitology 76: 136138.

DD Smith and JK Frenkel (1995). Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in wild mammals of Missouri and east central Kansas: biologic and ecologic considerations of transmission. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 31: 1521.

KE Smith , JR Fischer and JP Dubey (1995). Toxoplasmosis in a bobcat (Felis rufus). Journal of Wildlife Diseases 31: 555557.

AM Tenter , AR Heckeroth and LM Weiss (2000). Toxoplasma gondii: from animals to humans. International Journal for Parasitology 30: 12171258.

SM Teutsch , DD Juranek , A Sulzer , JP Dubey and RK Sikes (1979). Epidemic toxoplasmosis associated with infected cats. New England Journal of Medicine 300: 695699.

RN Thornton (1990). Toxoplasmosis in ferrets New Zealand Veterinary Journal 38 123.

RW Thornton and TG Cook (1986). A congenital Toxoplasma -like disease in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo). New Zealand Veterinary Journal 34: 3133.

JA Vanek , JP Dubey , P Thulliez , MR Riggs and BE Stromberg (1996). Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in hunter-killed white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in four regions of Minnesota. Journal of Parasitology 82: 4144.

MR Warnekulasuriya , JD Johnson and RE Holliman (1998). Detection of Toxoplasma gondii in cured meats. International Journal of Food Microbiology 45: 211215.

RL Zarnke , JP Dubey , OCH Kwok and JM Ver Hoef (1997). Serologic survey for Toxoplasma gondii in grizzly bears from Alaska. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 33: 267270.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Animal Health Research Reviews
  • ISSN: 1466-2523
  • EISSN: 1475-2654
  • URL: /core/journals/animal-health-research-reviews
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords: