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Komorizono, Ryo Makino, Akiko Horie, Masayuki Honda, Tomoyuki and Tomonaga, Keizo 2016. Sequence determination of a new parrot bornavirus-5 strain in Japan: implications of clade-specific sequence diversity in the regions interacting with host factors. Microbiology and Immunology, Vol. 60, Issue. 6, p. 437.
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Delnatte, Pauline Mak, Matthew Ojkic, Davor Raghav, Raj DeLay, Josepha and Smith, Dale A. 2014. Detection of Avian bornavirus in multiple tissues of infected psittacine birds using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Vol. 26, Issue. 2, p. 266.
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Björnsdóttir, Sigríður Agustsdóttir, Elfa Blomström, Anne-Lie Öström, Inga-Lena Örde Berndtsson, Louise Treiberg Svansson, Vilhjálmur and Wensman, Jonas Johansson 2013. Serological markers of Bornavirus infection found in horses in Iceland. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, Vol. 55, Issue. 1, p. 77.
In 2008, avian bornaviruses (ABV) were identified as the cause of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD). PDD is a significant condition of captive parrots first identified in the late 1970s. ABV infection has subsequently been shown to be widespread in wild waterfowl across the United States and Canada where the virus infects 10–20% of some populations of ducks, geese and swans. In most cases birds appear to be healthy and unaffected by the presence of the virus; however, infection can also result in severe non-suppurative encephalitis and lesions similar to those seen in parrots with PDD. ABVs are genetically diverse with seven identified genotypes in parrots and one in canaries. A unique goose genotype (ABV-CG) predominates in waterfowl in Canada and the northern United States. ABV appears to be endemic in North American waterfowl, in comparison to what appears to be an emerging disease in parrots. It is not known whether ABV can spread between waterfowl and parrots. The discovery of ABV infection in North American waterfowl suggests that European waterfowl should be evaluated for the presence of ABV, and also as a possible reservoir species for Borna disease virus (BDV), a related neurotropic virus affecting horses and sheep in central Europe. Although investigations have suggested that BDV is likely derived from a wildlife reservoir, for which the shrew and water vole are currently prime candidates, we suggest that the existence of other mammalian and avian reservoirs should not be discounted.
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