Al-Qumber M and Tagg JR (2006). Commensal bacilli inhibitory to mastitis pathogens isolated from the udder microbiota of healthy cows. Journal of Applied Microbiology 101: 1152–1160.
Alexander TJL, Thornton K, Boon G, Lysons RJ and Gush AF (1980). Medicated early weaning to obtain pigs free from pathogens endemic to the herd of origin. Veterinary Record 106: 114–119.
Anderson RC, Stanker LH, Young CR, Buckley SA, Genovese KJ, Harvey RB, Deloach JR, Keith NK and Nisbet DJ (1999). Effect of competitive exclusion treatment on colonization of early-weaned pigs by Salmonella serovar cholerasuis. Journal of Swine Health and Production 7: 155–160.
Barnes EM, Impey CS and Stevens BJH (1979). Factors affecting the incidence and anti-Salmonella activity of the anerobic cecal flora of the chick. Journal of Hygiene 82: 263–283.
Barroga AJ, Salas RCD, Martin EA, Besa WG and Santos CADC (2007). Efficacy of probiotics, enzymes and dried porcine solubles in swine. Philippine Agricultural Scientist 90: 71–74.
Bertschinger HU (1999). Postweaning Escherichia coli diarrhea and edema disease. In: Straw BE, D'Allaire S, Mengeling WL and Taylor DJ (eds) Diseases of Swine, 8th edn. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press, pp. 441–454.
Bhandari SK, Xu B, Nyachoti CM, Giesting DW and Krause DO (2008). Evaluation of alternatives to antibiotics using an Escherichia coli K88+ model of piglet diarrhea: effects on gut microbial ecology. Journal of Animal Science 86: 836–847.
Bielke LR, Elwood AL, Donoghue DJ, Donoghue AM, Newberry LA, Neighbor NK and Hargis BM (2003). Approach for selection of individual enteric bacteria for competitive exclusion in turkey poults. Poultry Science 82: 1378–1382.
Bomba A, Nemcova R, Gancarcikova S, Herich R and Kastel R (1999). Potentiation of the effectiveness of Lactobacillus casei in the prevention of E. coli induced diarrhea in conventional and gnotobiotic pigs. In: Paul PS and Francis DH (eds) Mechanisms in the Pathogenesis of Enteric Diseases 2. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, pp. 185–190.
Bomba A, Nemcová R, Mudronová D and Guba P (2002). The possibilities of potentiating the efficacy of probiotics. Trends in Food Science Technology 13: 121–126.
Branner GR and Roth-Maier DA (2006). Influence of pre-, pro-, and synbiotics on the intestinal availability of different B-vitamins. Archives of Animal Nutrition 60: 191–204.
Brashears MM, Galyean ML, Loneragan GH, Mann JE and Killinger-Mann K (2003a). Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and performance by beef feedlot cattle given Lactobacillus direct-fed microbials. Journal of Food Protection 66: 748–754.
Brashears MM, Jaroni D and Trimbl J (2003b). Isolation, selection, and characterization of lactic acid bacteria for a competitive exclusion product to reduce shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in cattle. Journal of Food Protection 66: 355–363.
Collado MC, Grzeskowiak C and Salminen S (2007). Probiotic strains and their combination inhibit in vitro adhesion of pathogens to pig intestinal mucosa. Current Microbiology 55: 260–265.
Collins DM and Gibson GR (1999). Probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics: approaches for modulating the microbial ecology of the gut. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 69: 1052S–1057S.
Cox NA, Bailey JS, Mauldin JM and Blankenship LC (1990). Research note: Presence and impact of Salmonella contamination in commercial broiler hatcheries. Poultry Science 69: 1606–1608.
Crittenden RG (1999). Prebiotics. In: Tannock GW (ed.) Probiotics: A Critical Review. Wymondham, UK: Horizon Scientific Press, pp. 141–156.
Dawson KA, Newman KE and Boling JA (1990). Effects of microbial supplements containing yeast and lactobacilli on roughage-fed ruminal microbial activities. Journal of Animal Science 68: 3392–3398.
DiBaise JK, Zhang H, Crowell MD, Krajmalnik-Brown R, Decker GA and Rittmann BE (2008). Gut microbiota and its possible relationship with obesity. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 83: 460–469.
Drasar BS and Barrow PA (1985). Intestinal microbiology. In: Drasar BS and Barrow PA (eds). Washington, DC: ASM Press, pp. 19–40.
Duncker SC, Lorentz A, Schroeder B, Breves G and Bischoff SC (2006). Effect of orally administered probiotic E. coli strain Nissle 1917 on intestinal mucosal immune cells of healthy young pigs. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 111: 239–250.
Fedorka-Cray PJ and Harris DL (1995). Elimination of Salmonella Species in Swine by Isolated Weaning – The First Critical Control Point. Kansas City, MO: Food Safety Consortium, pp. 146–149.
Fedorka-Cray PJ, Harris DL and Whipp SC (1997). Using isolated weaning to rear Salmonella free pigs. Veterinary Medicine 44: 376–382.
Fedorka-Cray PJ, Bailey JS, Stern NJ, Cox NA, Ladely SR and Musgrove M (1999). Mucosal competitive exclusion to reduce Salmonella in swine. Journal of Food Protection 62: 1376–1380.
Finegold SM (2008). Therapy and epidemiology of autism-clostridial spores as key elements. Medical Hypotheses 70: 508–511.
Fuller R (1989). Probiotics in man and animals. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 66: 365–378.
Genovese KJ, Anderson RC, Harvey RB, Callaway TR, Poole TL, Edrington TS, Fedorka-Cray PJ and Nisbet DJ (2003). Competitive exclusion of Salmonella from the gut of neonatal and weaned pigs. Journal of Food Protection 66: 1353–1359.
Gomes AMP and Malcata FX (1999). Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus acidophilus: biological, biochemical, technological and therapeutical properties relevant for use as probiotics. Trends in Food Science Technology 10: 139–157.
Gomez-Alarcon RA, Huber JT, Higginbotham GE, Wiersma F, Ammon D and Taylor B (1991). Influence of feeding Aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract on the milk yields, eating patterns, and body temperatures of lactating cows. Journal of Dairy Science 72: 1733–1740.
Harvey RB, Ebert RC, Schmitt CS, Andrews K, Genovese KJ, Anderson RC, Scott HM, Callaway TR and Nisbet DJ (2003). Use of a porcine-derived, defined culture of commensal bacteria as an alternative to antibiotics used to control E. coli disease in weaned pigs. 9th International Symposium on Digestive Physiology in Pigs, Banff, AB, Canada, pp. 72–74.
Harvey RB, Anderson RC, Genovese KJ, Calloway TR and Nisbet DJ (2005). Use of competitive exclusion to control enterotoxigenic strains of Escherichia coli in weaned pigs. Journal of Animal Science 83 (E. suppl.): E44–E47.
Hollowell CA and Wolin MJ (1965). Basis for the exclusion of Escherichia coli from the rumen ecosystem. Applied Microbiology 13: 918–924.
Houdijk JGM, Bosch MW, Verstegen MWA and Berenpas HJ (1998). Effects of dietary oligosaccharides on the growth and faecal characteristics of young growing pigs. Animal Feed Science and Technology 71: 35–48.
Hungate RE (1966). The Rumen and its Microbes. New York: Academic Press, pp. 61–69.
Jack RW, Tagg JR and Ray B (1995). Bacteriocins of gram-positive bacteria. Microbiological Reviews 59: 171–200.
Jayne-Williams DJ and Fuller R (1971). The influence of the intestinal microflora on nutrition. In: Bell DJ and Freeman BM (eds) Physiology and Biochemistry of the Domestic Food. London, UK: Academic Press, pp. 74–92.
Keen J and Elder R (2000). Commercial probiotics are not effective for short-term control of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 infection in beef cattle. 4th International Symposium and Workshop on Shiga Toxin (Verocytotoxin)-producing Escherichia coli Infections, Kyoto, Japan, 92 (Abstr.).
Koenen ME, Kramer J, Van Der Hulst R, Heres L, Jeurissen SHM and Boersma WJA (2004). Immunomodulation by probiotic lactobacilli in layer- and meat-type chickens. British Poultry Science 45: 355–366.
Kontula P (1999). In vitro and in vivo characterization of potential prebiotic lactic acid bacteria and prebiotic carbohydrates. Finnish Journal of Dairy Science 54: 1–2.
Kyriakis SC, Tsiloyiannis VK, Vlemmas J, Sarris K, Tsinas AC, Alexopoulos C and Jansegers L (2001). The effect of probiotic LSP 122 on the control of post-weaning diarrhea syndrome of piglets. Research in Veterinary Science 67: 223–238.
Leenen CHM and Dieleman LA (2007). Inulin and oligofructose in chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Journal of Nutrition 137: 2572S–2575S.
Lehloenya KV, Stein DR, Allen DT, Selk GE, Jones DA, Aleman MM, Rehberger TG, Mertz KJ and Spicer LJ (2008). Effects of feeding yeast and propionibacteria to dairy cows on milk yield and components, and reproduction. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 92: 190–202.
LeJeune JT, Kauffman MD, Amstutz MD and Ward LA (2006). Limited effects of a commercial direct-fed microbial on weaning pig performance and gastrointestinal microbiology. Journal of Swine Health and Production 14: 247–252.
Lema M, Williams L and Rao DR (2001). Reduction of fecal shedding of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in lambs by feeding microbial feed supplement. Small Ruminant Research 39: 31–39.
Ley RE, Turnbaugh PJ, Klein S and Gordon JI (2006). Microbial ecology: human gut microbes associated with obesity. Nature 444: 1022–1023.
Lloyd AB, Cumming RB and Kent RD (1974). Competitive exclusion as exemplified by Salmonella typhimurium. Australasian Poultry Science Convention, World Poultry Science Association, Australia Branch, p. 155.
Lu J, Idris U, Hofacre C, Maurer JJ, Lee MD and Harmon B (2003). Diversity and succession of the intestinal bacterial community of the maturing broiler chicken. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 69: 6816–6824.
Meyer D (2008). Prebiotic dietary fibres and the immune system. Agro-Food Industry Hi-Tech 19: 12–15.
Midilli M, Alp M, Kocabagli N, Muglali OH, Turan N, Yilmaz H and Cakir S (2008). Effects of dietary probiotic and prebiotic supplementation on growth performance and serum IgG concentration of broilers. South African Journal of Animal Science 38: 21–27.
Mosenthin R and Bauer E (2000). The potential use of prebiotics in pig nutrition. Asian-Australian Journal of Animal Science 13: 315–325.
Moxley RA, Smith D, Klopfenstein TJ, Erickson G, Folmer J, Macken C, Hinkley S, Potter A and Finlay B (2003). Vaccination and feeding a competitive exclusion product as intervention strategies to reduce the prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in feedlot cattle. Proceedings 5th International Symposium on Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Infections, Edinburgh, UK, 23 (Abstr.).
Nava GM, Bielke LR, Callaway TR and Castaneda MP (2005). Probiotic alternatives to reduce gastrointestinal infections: the poultry experience. Animal Health Research Reviews 6: 105–118.
Nemcova R, Bomba A, Gancarcikova S, Reiffova K, Guba P, Koscova J, Jonecova Z, Scirankova L and Bugarsky A (2007). Effects of the administration of lactobacilli, maltodextrins and fructooligosaccharides upon the adhesion of E. coli O8:K88 to the intestinal mucosa and organic acid levels in the gut contents of piglets. Veterinary Research Communication 31: 791–800.
Nisbet DJ, Corrier DE and DeLoach JR (1993a). Effect of mixed cecal microflora maintained in continuous culture and of dietary lactose on Salmonella typhimurium colonization in broiler chicks. Avian Diseases 37: 528–535.
Nisbet DJ, Corrier DE, Scanlan CM, Hollister AG, Beier RC and DeLoach JR (1993b). Effect of a defined continuous-flow derived bacterial culture and dietary lactose on Salmonella typhimurium colonization in broiler chickens. Avian Diseases 37: 1017–1025.
Nisbet DJ, Corrier DE, Ricke S, Hume ME, Byrd JA and DeLoach JR (1996). Maintenance of the biological efficacy in chicks of a cecal competitive-exclusion culture against Salmonella by continuous-flow fermentation. Journal of Food Protection 59: 1279–1283.
Nurmi E and Rantala M (1973). New aspects of Salmonella infection in broiler production. Nature 24: 210–211.
Nurmi E, Nuotio L and Schncitz C (1992). The competitive exclusion concept: development and future. International Journal of Food Microbiology 15: 237–240.
Ohya T, Marubashi T and Ito H (2000). Significance of fecal volatile fatty acids in shedding of Escherichia coli O157 from calves: experimental infection and preliminary use of a probiotic product. The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 62: 1151–1155.
Otero MC, Morelli L and Nader-Macias ME (2006). Probiotic properties of vaginal lactic acid bacteria to prevent metritis in cattle. Letters in Applied Microbiology 43: 91–97.
Prohaszka L and Baron F (1983). Antibacterial effect of volatile fatty acids on Enterobacteriae in the large intestine. Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 30: 9–16.
Ransom JR, Belk KE, Sofos JN, Scanga JA, Rossman ML, Smith GC and Tatum JD (2003). Investigation of On-farm Management Practices as Pre-harvest Beef Microbiological Interventions. Centennial, CO: National Cattlemen's Beef Association Research Fact Sheet.
Respondek F, Goachet AG and Julliand V (2008). Effects of dietary short-chain fructooligosaccharides on the intestinal microflora of horses subjected to a sudden change in diet. Journal of Animal Science 86: 316–323.
Schierack P, Wieler LH, Taras D, Herwig V, Tachu B, Hlinak A, Schmidt MFG and Scharek L (2007). Bacillus cereus var. toyoi enhanced systemic immune response in piglets. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 118: 1–11.
Schrezenmeir J and de Vrese M (2001). Probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics-approaching a definition. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 73 (Suppl.): 354s–361s.
Schroeder B, Duncker S, Barth S, Bauerfeind R, Gruber AD, Deppenmeier S and Breves G (2006). Preventive effects of the probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 on acute secretory diarrhea in a pig model of intestinal infection. Digestive Diseases and Sciences 51: 724–731.
Seifert S and Watz B (2007). Inulin and oligofructose: review of experimental data on immune modulation. Journal of Nutrition 137: 2563S–2567S.
Shoaf K, Mulvey GL, Armstrong GD and Hutkins RW (2006). Prebiotic galactooligosaccharides reduce adherence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli to tissue culture cells. Infection and Immunity 74: 6920–6928.
Songer JG, Jones R, Anderson MA, Barbara AJ, Post KW and Trinh HT (2007). Prevention of porcine Clostridium difficile-associated disease by competitive exclusion with nontoxigenic organisms. Veterinary Microbiology 124: 358–361.
Stahl CH, Callaway TR, Lincoln LM, Lonergan SM and Genovese KJ (2004). Inhibitory activities of colicins against Escherichia coli strains responsible for postweaning diarrhea and edema disease in swine. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 48: 3119–3121.
Stavric S (1992). Defined cultures and prospects. International Journal of Food Microbiology 55: 245–263.
Stavric S and D'Aoust J-Y (1993). Undefined and defined bacterial preparations for competitive exclusion of Salmonella in poultry. Journal of Food Protection 56: 173–180.
Stavric S and Kornegay ET (1995). Microbial probiotics for pigs and poultry. In: Wallace RJ and Chesson A (eds) Biotechnology in Animal Feeds and Animal Feeding. New York: VCH, pp. 205–230.
Steer T, Carpenter H, Tuohy K and Gibson GR (2000). Perspectives on the role of the human gut microbiota and its modulation by pro and prebiotics. Nutrition Research Reviews 13: 229–254.
Stephens TP, Loneragan GH, Karunasena E and Brashears MM (2007). Reduction of Escherichia coli O157 and Salmonella in feces and on hides of feedlot cattle using various doses of a direct-fed microbial. Journal of Food Protection 70: 2386–2391.
Tabe ES, Oloya J, Doetkott DK, Bauer ML, Gibbs PS and Khaitsa ML (2008). Comparative effect of direct-fed microbials on fecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in naturally infected feedlot cattle. Journal of Food Protection 71: 539–544.
Takahashi S, Egawa Y, Simojo N, Tsukahara T and Ushida K (2007). Oral administration of Lactobacillus plantarum strain Lq80 to weaning piglets stimulates the growth of indigenous lactobacilli to modify the lactobacillal population. Journal of General and Applied Microbiology 53: 325–332.
Tkalcic S, Zhao T, Harmon BG, Doyle MP, Brown CA and Zhao P (2003). Fecal shedding of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in weaned calves following treatment with probiotic Escherichia coli. Journal of Food Protection 66: 1184–1189.
Torres-Rodriguez A, Higgins SE, Vicente JLS, Wolfenden AD, Gaona-Ramirez G, Barton JT, Tellez G, Donoghue AM and Hargis BM (2007). Effect of lactose as a prebiotic on turkey body weight under commercial conditions. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 16: 635–641.
Underdahl R, Torres-Medina A and Doster AR (1982). Effect of Streptococcus faecium C-68 in control of Escherichia coli induced diarrhea in gnotobiotic pigs. American Journal of Veterinary Research 43: 2227–2232.
Ushe TC and Nagy B (1985). Inhibition of small intestinal colonization of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli by Streptococcus faecium M74 in pigs. Zentralblatt fur Bakteriologie und Hygiene. I. Abteilung Originale B. 181: 374–382.
Vahjen W, Taras D and Simon O (2007). Effect of the probiotic Enterococcus faecium NCIMB10415 on cell numbers of total Enterococcus spp., E. faecium and E. faecalis in the intestine of piglets. Current Issues in Intestinal Microbiology 8: 1–8.
Walsh MC, Gardiner GE, Hart OM, Lawlor PG, Daly M, Lynch B, Richert BT, Radcliffe S, Giblin L, Hill C, Fitzgerald GF, Stanton C and Ross P (2008). Predominance of a bacteriocin-producing Lactobacillus salivarius component of a five-strain probiotic in the porcine ileum and effects on host immune phenotype. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 64: 317–327.
Weinack OM, Snoeyenbos GH, Smyser CF and Soerjadi AS (1982). Reciprocal competitive exclusion of Salmonella and Escherichia coli by native intestinal microflora of the chicken and turkey. Avian Diseases 26: 585–595.
Wiemann M (2003). How do probiotic feed additives work? International Poultry Production 11: 7–9.
Willard MD, Simpson RB, Cohen ND and Clancy JS (2000). Effects of dietary fructooligosaccharide on selected bacterial populations in feces of dogs. American Journal of Veterinary Research 61: 820–825.
Winkler J, Butler R and Symonds E (2007). Fructo-oligosaccharide reduces inflammation in a dextran sodium sulphate mouse model of colitis. Digestive Diseases Sciences 52: 52–58.
Wolin MJ (1969). Volatile fatty acids and the inhibition of Escherichia coli growth by rumen fluid. Applied Microbiology 17: 83–87.
Younts-Dahl SM, Galyean ML, Loneragan GH, Elam NA and Brashears MM (2004). Dietary supplementation with lactobacillus- and propionibacterium-based direct-fed microbials and prevalence of Escherichia coli O157 in beef feedlot cattle and on hides at harvest. Journal of Food Protection 67: 889–893.
Zeyner A and Boldt E (2006). Effects of a probiotic Enterococcus faecium strain supplemented from birth to weaning on diarrhoea patterns and performance of piglets. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 90: 25–31.
Zhang W, Azevedo MSP, Gonzalez AM, Saif LJ, Van Nguyen T, Wen K, Yousef AE and Yuan L (2008). Influence of probiotic lactobacilli colonization on neonatal B cell responses in a gnotobiotic pig model of human rotavirus infection and disease. Veterinary Immunology Immunopathology 122: 175–181.
Zhao T, Doyle MP, Harmon BG, Brown CA, Mueller POE and Parks AH (1998). Reduction of carriage of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in cattle by inoculation with probiotic bacteria. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 36: 641–647.
Zhao T, Tkalcic S, Doyle MP, Harmon BG, Brown CA and Zhao P (2003). Pathogenicity of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in neonatal calves and evaluation of fecal shedding by treatment with probiotic Escherichia coli. Journal of Food Protection 66: 924–930.