Skip to main content
×
×
Home

A review of hemorrhagic septicemia in cattle and buffalo

  • S. B. Shivachandra (a1), K. N. Viswas (a2) and A. A. Kumar (a3)
Abstract

Hemorrhagic septicemia (HS), an acute, fatal and septicemic disease of cattle and buffaloes caused by Pasteurella multocida, is important in tropical regions of the world, especially in African and Asian countries. The prevalence of disease has been well documented with predominant isolation of P. multocida serotypes B:2 and E:2. Conventional methods of identification such as serotyping, biotyping, antibiogram determination and pathogenicity as well as molecular methods (P. multocida-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a serogroup B-specific PCR assay, multiplex capsular typing system and loop-mediated isothermal amplification techniques) and characterization (restriction endonuclease analysis, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, repetitive extragenic palidromic PCR and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR analysis) are applied in parallel for rapid epidemiological investigations of HS outbreaks. Although several vaccine formulations including alum precipitated, oil adjuvant and multiple emulsion vaccines are commercially available, the quest for suitable broadly protective HS vaccines with long-lasting immunity is on the upsurge. Concurrently, attempts are being made to unravel the mysteries of the pathogen and its virulence factors, pathogenesis and determinants of protective immunity as well as diversity among strains of P. multocida. This review highlights the advances in these various aspects of HS.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author. E-mail: sbshivachandra@gmail.com
References
Hide All
Adler, B, Bulach, D, Chung, J, Doughty, S, Hunt, M, Rajakumar, K, Serrano, M, Zanden, A, Zhang, Y and Ruffolo, C (1999). Candidate vaccine antigens and genes in Pasteurella multocida. Journal of Biotechnology 73: 8390.
Al-Hasani, K, Boyce, J, McCarl, VP, Bottomley, S, Wilkie, I and Adler, B (2007). Identification of novel immunogens in Pasteurella multocida. Microbial Cell Factories 6: 3.
Ataei, S, Burchmore, R, Christopher, HJ, Finucane, A, Parton, R and Coote, JG (2009). Identification of immunogenic proteins associated with protection against haemorrhagic septicaemia after vaccination of calves with a live-attenuated aroA derivative of Pasteurella multocida B:2. Research in Veterinary Science 87: 207210.
Atashpaz, S, Shayegh, J and Hejazi, MS (2009). Rapid virulence typing of Pasteurella multocida by multiplex PCR. Research in Veterinary Science 87: 355357.
Aucouturier, J, Dupuis, L and Ganne, V (2001). Adjuvants designed for veterinary and human vaccines. Vaccine 19: 26662672.
Bain, RVS (1954). Vaccination against haemorrhagic septicaemia of bovines. Nature 173: 584.
Bain, RVS (1956). Studies on haemorrhagic septicaemia of cattle VI. Experiments with oil adjuvant vaccine. British Veterinary Journal 112: 115119.
Baldrey, FSH (1907). Haemorrhagic septicaemia and its relation to preventive vaccination. Journal of Tropical Science 2: 287289.
Benkirane, A and De Alwis, MCL (2002). Haemorrhagic septicaemia, its significance, prevention and control in Asia. Veterinary Medicine Czechoslovakia 47: 234240.
Biswas, A, Shivachandra, SB, Saxena, MK, Kumar, AA, Singh, VP and Srivastava, SK (2004). Molecular variability among strains of Pasteurella multocida isolated from an outbreak of Haemorrhagic Septicaemia in India. Veterinary Research Communications 28: 287298.
Bosch, M, Garrido, ME, Perez de Rozas, AM, Badiola, I, Barbe, J and Llagostera, M (2004). Pasteurella multocida contains multiple immunogenic haemin- and haemoglobin-binding proteins. Veterinary Microbiology 99: 103112.
Boyce, JD and Adler, B (2000). The capsule is a virulence determinant in the pathogenesis of Pasteurella multocida M1404 (B:2). Infection and Immunity 68: 34633468.
Boyce, JD and Adler, B (2001). Acapsular Pasteurella multocida B:2 can stimulate protective immunity against pasteurellosis. Infection and Immunity 69: 19431946.
Boyce, JD, Chung, JY and Adler, B (2000). Pasteurella multocida capsule: composition, function and genetics. Journal of Biotechnology 83: 153160.
Brickell, SK, Thomas, LM, Long, KA, Panaccio, M and Widders, PK (1998). Development of a PCR test based on a gene region associated with the pathogenicity of Pasteurella multocida serotype B:2, the causal agent of haemorrhagic septicaemia in Asia. Veterinary Microbiology 59: 295307.
Capitini, CM, Herrero, IA, Patel, R, Ishitani, MB and Boyce, TG (2002). Wound infection with Neisseria weaveri and a novel subspecies of Pasteurella multocida in a child who sustained a tiger bite. Clinical Infectious Diseases 34: 7476.
Carter, GR (1955). Studies on Pasteurella multocida: a haemagglutination test for the identification of serological types. American Journal of Veterinary Research 16: 481484.
Carter, GR (1967). Pasteurellosis: Pasteurella multocida and Pasteurella hemolytica. Advances in Veterinary Science Comparative Medicine 11: 321.
Carter, GR and Chengappa, MM (1980). Hyaluronidase production by type B Pasteurella multocida from cases of hemorrhagic septicemia. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 11: 9496.
Carter, GR and Chengappa, MM (1981). Recommendation for a Standard System of Designating Serotype of Pasteurella multocida. American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Allen press, Lawrence, USA, pp. 3742.
Carter, GR and De Alwis, MCL (1989). Haemorrhagic septicaemia. In: Adlam, C and Rutter, JM (eds) Pasteurella and Pasteurellosis. London, UK: Academic Press, pp. 131160.
Chalsus-Dancla, E, Lesage-Descauses, MC, Leroy-Setrin, S, Martel, JL and Lafont, JP (1995). Tetracycline resistance determinants, Tet B and Tet M, detected in Pasteurella haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida from bovine herds. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 36: 815819.
Chandrasekharan, S and Yeap, PC (1982). Pasteurella multocida in pigs: the serotypes and assessment of their virulence in mice. British Veterinary Journal 134: 332336.
Chandrasekaran, S, Kennett, L, Yeap, PC, Muniandy, N, Rani, B and Mukkur, TK (1994a). Relationship between active protection in vaccinated buffaloes against haemorrhagic septicaemia and passive mouse protection test or serum antibody titres. Veterinary Microbiology 41: 303309.
Chandrasekaran, S, Kennett, L, Yeap, PC, Muniandy, N, Rani, B and Mukkur, TK (1994b). Characterization of immune response and duration of protection in buffaloes immunized with haemorrhagic septicaemia vaccines. Veterinary Microbiology 41: 213219.
Choi, C and Chae, C (2001). Enhanced detection of toxigenic Pasteurella multocida directly from nasal swabs using nested polymerase chain reaction. Veterinary Journal 162: 255258.
Choi-Kim, K, Maheswaran, SK, Felice, LJ and Molitor, TW (1991). Relationship between the iron regulated outer membrane proteins and the outer membrane proteins of in vivo grown Pasteurella multocida. Veterinary Microbiology 28: 7592.
Chorherr, S (1974). Heat inactivation of Pasteurella with retention of immunizing properties. Munchen, p. 70 (as cited by Verma and Jaiswal, 1998).
Christensen, H and Bisgaard, M (2010). Molecular classification and its impact on diagnostics and understanding the phylogeny and epidemiology of selected members of Pasteurellaceae of veterinary importance. Berlin Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 123: 2030.
Confer, AW (1993). Immunogens of Pasteurella. Veterinary Microbiology 37: 353368.
Dagleish, MP, Hodgson, JC, Ataei, S, Finucane, A, Finlayson, J, Sales, J, Parton, R and Coote, JG (2007). Safety and protective efficacy of intramuscular vaccination with a live aroA derivative of Pasteurella multocida B:2 against experimental hemorrhagic septicemia in calves. Infection and Immunity 75: 58375844.
Davies, RL (2004). Genetic diversity among Pasteurella multocida strains of avian, bovine, ovine and porcine origin from England and Wales by comparative sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. Microbiology 150: 41994210.
De Alwis, MC, Wijewardana, TG, Gomis, AI and Vipulasiri, AA (1990). Persistence of the carrier status in haemorrhagic septicaemia (Pasteurella multocida serotype 6:B infection) in buffaloes. Tropical Animal Health and Production 22: 185194.
De Alwis, MCL (1999). Haemorrhagic septicaemia. ACIAR Monograph No. 57. Canberra, Australia: Austrtalian Centre for International Agricultural Research.
Dey, S, Singh, VP, Kumar, AA, Sharma, B, Srivastava, SK and Singh, N (2007). Comparative sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene of Pasteurella multocida serogroup-B isolates from different animal species. Research in Veterinary Science 83: 14.
Dhanda, MR, Das, MD, Lal, JM and Seth, RN (1958). Immunological studies on Pasteurella septica I. Trials on adjuvant vaccine. Indian Journal of Veterinary Science 156: 273283.
Doughty, SW, Ruffalo, CG and Adler, B (2000). The type 4 fimbrial subunit gene of Pasteurella multocida. Veterinary Microbiology 72: 7990.
Dutta, J, Rathore, BS, Mullick, SG, Singh, R and Sharma, GC (1990). Epidemiological studies on occurrence of haemorrhagic septicaemia in India. Indian Veterinary Journal 67: 893899.
Dziva, F, Christensen, H, Olsen, JE and Mohan, K (2001). Random amplification of polymorphic DNA and phenotypic typing of Zimbabwean isolates of Pasteurella multocida. Veterinary Microbiology 82: 361372.
Dziva, F, Muhairwa, AP, Bisgaard, M and Christensen, H (2008). Diagnostic and typing options for investigating diseases associated with Pasteurella multocida. Veterinary Microbiology 128: 122.
Ekundayo, SO, Odugbo, MO, Olabode, AO and Okewole, PA (2008). Phenotypic variability among strains of P. multocida isolated from avian, bovine, caprine, leporine and ovine origin. African Journal of Biotechnology 7: 13471350.
Ewers, C, Lubke-Becker, A, Bethe, A, Kiebling, S, Filter, M and Wieler, LH (2006). Virulence genotype of Pasteurella multocida strains isolated from different hosts with various disease status. Veterinary Microbiology 114: 304317.
FAO, Rome (2005). Production Yearbook-2005. FAO, Statistics Division.
FAO, Rome-WHO-OIE (1994). Animal Health Yearbook 1994.
Fegan, N, Blackall, PJ and Pahoff, JL (1995). Phenotypic characterization of Pasteurella multocida isolates from Australian poultry. Veterinary Microbiology 47: 281286.
Fuller, TE, Kennedy, MJ and Lowery, DE (2000). Identification of Pasteurella multocida virulence genes in a septicemic mouse model using signature-tagged mutagenesis. Microbial Pathogenesis 29: 2538.
Gautam, R, Kumar, AA, Singh, VP, Singh, VP, Dutta, TK and Shivachandra, SB (2004). Specific identification of Pasteurella multocida serogroup-A isolates by PCR assay. Research in Veterinary Science 76: 179185.
Gunawardana, GA, Townsend, KM and Frost, AJ (2000). Molecular characterization of avian Pasteurella multocida isolates from Australia and Vietnam by REP-PCR and PFGE. Veterinary Microbiology 72: 97109.
Harmon, BG, Glisson, JR, Latimer, KS, Steffens, WL and Nunnally, JC (1991). Resistance of Pasteurella multocida A:3,4 to phagocytosis by turkey macrophages and heterophils. American Journal of Veterinary Research 52: 15071511.
Harper, M, Boyce, JD and Adler, B (2006). Pasteurella multocida pathogenesis: 125 years after Pasteur. FEMS Microbiology Letters 265: 110.
Hatfaludi, T, Al-Hasani, K, Boyce, JD and Adler, B (2010). Outer membrane proteins of Pasteurella multocida. Veterinary Microbiology 144: 117.
Heddleston, KL, Gallagher, JE and Rebers, PA (1972). Fowl cholera: gel diffusion precipitation test for serotyping Pasteurella multocida from avian species. Avian Diseases 16: 925936.
Hirsh, DC, Martin, LD and Rhodes, KR (1981). Conjugal transfer of R-plasmid in Pasteurella multocida. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 20: 415417.
Holt, JG, Krieg, NR, Sneath, PHA, Staley, JT and Williams, ST (1994). Bergey's manual of determinative bacteriology. 9th edn. p. 196. Published by Springer, New York, USA.
Horadagoda, NU, Hodgson, JC, Moon, GM, Wijewardana, TG and Eckersall, PD (2002). Development of a clinical syndrome resembling haemorrhagic septicaemia in the buffalo following intravenous inoculation of Pasteurella multocida serotype B:2 endotoxin and the role of tumour necrosis factor-alpha. Research in Veterinary Science 72: 194200.
Hu, SP, Felice, LJ, Sivanandan, V and Maheswaran, SK (1986). Siderophore production by Pasteurella multocida. Infection and Immunity 54: 804810.
Hunt, ML, Adler, B and Townsend, KM (2000). The molecular biology of Pasteurella multocida. Veterinary Microbiology 72: 325.
Iyer, SV, Gopalkrishnan, S and Ramani, K (1955). Studies on haemorrhagic septicaemia vaccines: the effects of adjuvants upon the immunizing value of formalin killed P. boviseptica organisms. Indian Veterinary Journal 31: 379382.
Iyer, SV and Rao, DVR (1959). Studies on Haemorrhagic septicaemia vaccines. Indian Veterinary Journal 36: 415426.
Jablonska, AK and Opacka, BB (2007). Analysis of Pasteurella multocida strains isolated from cattle with haemorrhagic septicaemia by the use of PFGE. Bulletin Veterinary Institute of Pulawy 51: 515517.
Johnson, RB, Dawkins, HJ and Spencer, TL (1991). Electrophoretic profiles of Pasteurella multocida isolates from animals with hemorrhagic septicemia. American Journal of Veterinary Research 52: 16441648.
Khera, SS (1979). The incidence and distribution of epizootic diseases in India: haemorrhagic septicaemia. Bulletin Office International des Epizooties 91: 331347.
Kucera, CJ, Wong, JCS and Eis, RL (1981). Development of chemically altered Pasteurella multocida vaccine strain. American Journal of Veterinary Research 42: 13891394.
Kudela, P, Koller, VJ and Lubitz, W (2010). Bacterial ghosts (BGs)-advanced antigen and drug delivery system. Vaccine 28: 57605767.
Kuhnert, P and Christensen, H (2008). Pasteurellaceae: Biology, Genomics and Molecular Aspects. Norfolk, UK: Caister Academic Press.
Kumar, AA, Shivachandra, SB, Biswas, A, Singh, VP, Singh, VP and Srivastava, SK (2004). Prevalent serotypes of Pasteurella multocida isolated from different animal and avian species in India. Veterinary Research Communications 28: 657667.
Kumar, P, Singh, VP, Agrawal, RK and Singh, S (2009). Identification of Pasteurella multocida isolates of ruminant origin using polymerase chain reaction and their antibiogram study. Tropical Animal Health Production 41: 573578.
Lee, CW, Wilkie, IW, Townsend, KM and Frost, AJ (2000). The demonstration of Pasteurella multocida in the alimentary tract of chickens after experimental infection. Veterinary Microbiology 72: 4755.
Lehmann, KB and Neumann, R (1899). Lehmann's Medizin. Handatlanten, X. Atlas mit Grundriss der Bakteriologie and Lehrbuch der Speziellen Bakteriologieschen Diagnostik. 3rd edn.Munich: JF. Lehmann.
Luo, Y, Zeng, Q, Glisson, JR, Jackwood, MW, Cheng, IH and Wang, C (1999). Sequence analysis of Pasteurella multocida major outer membrane protein (OmpH) and application of synthetic peptides in vaccination of chickens against homologous strain challenge. Vaccine 17: 821831.
Marchart, J, Dropmann, G, Lechleitner, S, Schlapp, T, Wanner, G, Szostak, MP and Lubitz, W (2003). Pasteurella multocida and Pasteurella haemolytica-ghosts: new vaccine candidates. Vaccine 21: 39883997.
Maslog, FS (1998). Immunity provided by haemorrhagic septicaemia-subunit vaccine in ruminants. Developmental Biology Standards 92: 301307.
May, BJ, Zhang, Q, Li, LL, Paustian, ML, Whittam, TS and Kapur, V (2001). Complete genomic sequence of Pasteurella multocida, Pm70. Proceedings of National Academy of Science USA 98: 34603465.
Mittal, KR, Jiaswal, TN and Gupta, BK (1979). Studies on haemorrhagic septicaemia and multiple emulsion vaccines. Indian Veterinary Journal 3: 449454.
Mullen, LM, Nair, SP, Ward, JM, Rycroft, AN, Williams, RJ, Robertson, G, Mordan, NJ and Henderson, B (2008). Novel adhesin from Pasteurella multocida that binds to the integrin-binding fibronectin FnIII9-10 repeats. Infection and Immunity 76: 10931104.
Myint, A and Carter, GR (1989). Prevention of haemorrhagic septicaemia in cattle and buffaloes with a live vaccine. Veterinary Record 124: 508509.
Myint, A, Jones, TO and Nyunt, HH (2005). Safety, efficacy and cross-protectivity of a live intranasal aerosol haemorrhagic septicaemia vaccine. Veterinary Record 156: 4145.
Nagy, LK and Pen, CW (1976). Protection of cattle against experimental haemorrhagic septcaemia by the capsular antigens of Pasteurella multocida type B and E. Research in Veterinary Science 20: 9096.
Namioka, S and Murata, M (1961). Serological studies on Pasteurella multocida: a simplified method of capsular typing of the organism. Cornell Veterinarian 51: 498507.
Nikhiporova, NM (1958). Pasteurellosis of domestic animals. Bulletin African Institute of Epizootiology 50: 176.
Notomi, T, Okayama, H, Masubuchi, H, Yonekawa, T, Watanabe, K, Amino, N and Hase, T (2000). Loop-mediated isothermal amplification of DNA. Nucleic Acids Research 28: e63.
OIE (2009). Haemorrhagic septicaemia, Chapter 2.4.12. Terrestrial Manual. pp. 739750. Office International Des Epizooties (OIE), Paris, France.
Osman, OA, Abdul, RS, Makeen, S, Dinvitiri, RA, Monaz, MA and Youswf, RR (1990). The simultaneous inoculation of cattle with rinderpest and haemorrhagic septicaemia vaccines. Australian Veterinary Medicine Journal 23: 5763.
Pasteur, L (1880). De l'attenuation du virus du cholera des poules. CR Academy of Science 91: 673680.
Pati, US, Srivastava, SK, Roy, SC and More, T (1996). Immunogenicity of outer membrane protein of Pasteurella multocida in buffalo calves. Veterinary Microbiology 52: 301311.
Paustian, ML, May, BJ and Kapur, V (2001). Pasteurella multocida gene expression in response to iron limitation. Infection and Immunity 69: 41094115.
Perry, BD, Randolph, TF, McDermott, JJ, Sones, KR and Thornton, PK (2002). Animal diseases and their impact on poor. In: Investing in Animal Health Research to Alleviate Poverty. Nairobi, Kenya: ILRI (International Livestock Research Institute, pp. 4959.
Prado, ME, Dabo, SM and Confer, AW (2005). Immunogenicity of iron-regulated outer membrane proteins of Pasteurella multocida A:3 in cattle: molecular characterization of the immunodominant heme acquisition system receptor (HasR) protein. Veterinary Microbiology 105: 269280.
Ramdani, and Adler, B (1991). Opsonic monoclonal antibodies against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antigens of Pasteurella multocida and the role of LPS in immunity. Veterinary Microbiology 26: 335347.
Ramdani, , Dawkins, HJ, Johnson, RB, Spencer, TL and Adler, B (1990). Pasteurella multocida infections in mice with reference to haemorrhagic septicaemia in cattle and buffalo. Immunology and Cell Biology 68: 5761.
Rau, G and Govil, JL (1950). An improved haemorrhagic septicaemia vaccine. Indian Veterinary Journal 27: 105.
Rimler, RB (1990). Comparisons of Pasteurella multocida lipopolysaccharides by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to determine relationship between group B and E hemorrhagic septicemia strains and serologically related group A strains. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 28: 654659.
Rimler, RB (2000). Restriction endonuclease analysis using HhaI and HpaII to discriminate among serogroup-B Pasteurella multocida associated with haemorrhagic septicaemia. Journal of Medical Microbiology 49: 8187.
Rimler, RB and Rhoades, KR (1994). Hyaluronidase and chondroitinase activity of Pasteurella multocida serotype B:2 involved in hemorrhagic septicaemia. Veterinary Record 134: 6768.
Ruffalo, GC, Tennet, JM, Michalski, WP and Adler, B (1997). Identification, purification and characterization of type-4 fimbriae of Pasteurella multocida. Infection and Immunity 65: 339343.
SanMillan, A, Escudero, JA, Gutierrez, B, Hidalgo, L, Garcia, N, Llagostera, M, Dominguez, L and Gonzalez-Zorn, B (2009). Multi-resistance in Pasteurella multocida is mediated by coexistence of small plasmids. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 53: 33993404.
Savelkoul, PH, Aarts, HJ, Haas, J, Dijkshoorn, L, Duim, B, Otsen, M, Rademaker, LW, Schouls, L and Lenstra, JA (1999). Amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis: the state of an art. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 37: 30833091.
Sawada, T, Rimler, RB and Rhoades, KR (1985). Hemorrhagic septicemia: naturally acquired antibodies against Pasteurella multocida types B and E in calves in the United States. American Journal of Veterinary Research 46: 12471250.
Saxena, MK, Kumar, AA, Chaudhuri, P, Shivachandra, SB, Singh, VP, Singh, VP and Sharma, B (2005). Ribotyping of Indian isolates of Pasteurella multocida based on 16S and 23S rRNA genes. Veterinary Research Communications 29: 527535.
Shah, NH, Jacobs, AA, Shah, NH and de Graaf, FK (2001). Safety and efficacy of an oil-adjuvant vaccine against haemorrhagic septicaemia in buffalo calves: cross-protection between the serotypes B:2,5 and E:2,5. Veterinary Record 149: 583587.
Shivachandra, SB, Kumar, AA, Gautam, R, Singh, VP, Chaudhuri, P and Srivastava, SK (2004a). PCR assay for rapid detection of Pasteurella multocida serogroup-A in morbid tissue materials from experimentally induced Fowl cholera in chicks. Veterinary Journal 168: 349352.
Shivachandra, SB, Kumar, AA, Biswas, A, Ramakrishnan, MA, Singh, VP and Srivastava, SK (2004b). Antibiotic sensitivity patterns among Indian strains of Avian Pasteurella multocida. Tropical Animal Health and Production 36: 743750.
Shivachandra, SB, Kumar, AA, Amaranath, J, Joseph, S, Srivastava, SK and Chaudhuri, P (2005). Cloning and characterization of tbpA gene encoding Transferrin binding protein (TbpA) from Pasteurella multocida B:2 (strain P52). Veterinary Research Communications 29: 537542.
Shivachandra, SB, Kumar, AA, Gautam, R, Singh, VP, Saxena, MK and Srivastava, SK (2006a). Identification of Avian strains of Pasteurella multocida in India by Conventional and PCR Assays. Veterinary Journal 172: 561564.
Shivachandra, SB, Kumar, AA, Gautam, R, Joseph, S, Saxena, MK, Chaudhuri, P and Srivastava, SK (2006b). Characterization of Avian strains of Pasteurella multocida by restriction endonuclease and amplified fragment length polymorphism. Research in Veterinary Science 81: 818.
Shivachandra, SB, Kumar, AA, Saxena, MK, Singh, VP and Srivastava, SK (2006c). Biochemical characterization of Avian strains of Pasteurella multocida in India. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 76: 429432.
Shivachandra, SB, Kumar, AA, Gautam, R, Joseph, S, Saxena, MK, Chaudhuri, P, Srivastava, SK and Singh, N (2006d). Detection of Pasteurella multocida in experimentally infected embryonated chicken eggs by PCR assay. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 44: 321324.
Shivachandra, SB, Kumar, AA and Chaudhuri, P (2007). Differentiation of Avian Pasteurella multocida strains by single primer PCR. Veterinary Research Communications 31: 941949.
Shivachandra, SB, Kumar, AA and Chaudhuri, P (2008). Molecular characterization of avian strains of Pasteurella multocida serogroup-A based on amplification of repetitive regions by PCR. Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 31: 4762.
Siju, J, Kumar, AA, Shivachandra, SB, Chaudhuri, P, Srivastava, SK and Singh, VP (2007). Cloning and characterization of Type 4 fimbrial gene (ptfA) of Pasteurella multocida Serogroup B:2 (Strain P52). Veterinary Research Communications 31: 397404.
Silver, RP, Leming, B, Garon, CF and Hgerpe, CH (1979). R-plasmids in Pasteurella multocida. Plasmid 2: 493497.
Spratt, BG (1999). Multilocus sequence typing: molecular typing of bacterial pathogens in an era of rapid DNA sequencing and the internet. Current Opinion in Microbiology 2: 312316.
Srivastava, NC, Harbola, PC and Khera, SS (1975). Preliminary observations on combined vaccination against haemorrhagic septicaemia and black quarter. Indian Veterinary Journal 53: 168172.
Srivastava, SK (1998). Immunogenicity of Pasteurella multocida grown in iron restricted medium. Journal of Applied Animal Research 136: 137144.
Steenbergen, SM, Lichtensteiger, CA, Caughlan, R, Garfinkle, J, Fuller, TE and Vimr, ER (2005). Sialic acid metabolism and systemic pasteurellosis. Infection and Immunity 73: 12841294.
Stone, AB (1975). R-factors plasmids conferring resistance of antibacterial agents. Science Progress 62: 89.
St Michael, F, Vinogradov, E, Li, J and Cox, AD (2005). Structural analysis of the lipopolysaccharide from Pasteurella multocida genome strain Pm70 and identification of the putative lipopolysaccharide glycosyltransferases. Glycobiology 15: 323333.
Subaaharan, S, Blackall, LL and Blackall, PJ (2010). Development of a multi-locus sequence typing scheme for avian isolates of Pasteurella multocida. Veterinary Microbiology 141: 354361.
Sun, D, Wang, J, Wu, R, Wang, C, He, X, Zheng, J and Yang, H (2010). Development of a novel LAMP diagnostic method for visible detection of swine Pasteurella multocida. Veterinary Research Communications 34: 649657.
Tomer, P, Chaturvedi, GC, Minakshi, , Malik, P and Monga, DP (2002). Comparative analysis of the outer membrane protein profiles of isolates of the Pasteurella multocida (B:2) associated with haemorrhagic septicaemia. Veterinary Research Communications 26: 513522.
Townsend, KM, Dawkins, HJS and Papadimitriou, JM (1997a). Analysis of haemorrhagic septicaemia causing isolates of Pasteurella multocida by ribotyping and field alternation gel electrophoresis (FAGE). Veterinary Microbiology 57: 383395.
Townsend, KM, Dawkins, HJS and Papadimitriou, JM (1997b). REP-PCR analysis of Pasteurella multocida isolates that cause haemorrhagic septicaemia. Research in Veterinary Science 63: 151155.
Townsend, KM, Frost, AJ, Lee, CW, Papadimitrious, JM and Dawkins, HJ (1998). Development of PCR assays for species and type specific identification of Pasteurella multocida isolates. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 36: 10961100.
Townsend, KM, Boyce, JD, Chung, JY, Frost, AJ and Adler, B (2001). Genetic organization of Pasteurella multocida cap loci and development of a multiplex capsular PCR typing system. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 39: 924929.
Veken, JW, Oudega, B, Luirink, J and de Graaf, FK (1994). Binding of bovine transferrin by Pasteurella multocida serotype B:2,5, a strain which causes haemorrhagic septicaemia in buffalo and cattle. FEMS Microbiology Letters 115: 253257.
Veken, JW, Shah, NH, Klaasen, P, Oudega, B and De Graaf, FK (1996). Binding of host iron-binding proteins and expression of iron-regulated membrane proteins by different serotypes of Pasteurella multocida causing haemorrhagic septicaemia. Microbial Pathogenesis 21: 5964.
Verma, R and Jaiswal, TN (1997). Protection, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in calves immunized with multiple emulsion haemorrhagic septicaemia vaccine. Vaccine 15: 12541260.
Verma, R and Jaiswal, TN (1998). Haemorrhagic septicaemia vaccines. Vaccines 16: 11841190.
Versalovic, J, Koeuth, T and Lupski, JR (1991). Distribution of repetitive DNA sequences in eubacteria and application of fingerprinting of bacterial genomes. Nucleic Acids Research 19: 68236831.
Vos, PR, Heger, M, Blecker, M, Reijans, T, Lee, VD, Hornes, A, Frigters, J, Peleman, PJ, Kulper, M and Zabeau, M (1995). AFLP: a new technique for DNA fingerprinting. Nucleic Acids Research 23: 44074414.
Wei, BD and Carter, GR (1978). Live streptomycin dependent Pasteurella multocida vaccine for the prevention of haemorrhagic septicaemia. American Journal of Veterinary Research 15: 15341537.
Wheeler, R (2009). Outer membrane proteomics of Pasteurella multocida isolates to identify putative host-specificity determinants. Bioscience Horizons 2: 112.
Wilson, MA, Rimler, RB and Hoffman, LJ (1992). Comparison of DNA fingerprints and somatic serotypes of serogroup B and E Pasteurella multocida isolates. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 30: 15181524.
Wu, JR, Shien, JH, Shieh, HK, Chen, CF and Chang, PC (2007). Protective immunity conferred by recombinant Pasteurella multocida lipoprotein E (PlpE). Vaccine 25: 41404148.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Animal Health Research Reviews
  • ISSN: 1466-2523
  • EISSN: 1475-2654
  • URL: /core/journals/animal-health-research-reviews
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 35
Total number of PDF views: 202 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 1987 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 18th August 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.