Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 17
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Inzana, Thomas J. Meng, Xiang-Jin Opriessnig, Tanja and Ballweber, Lora 2016. Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology.

    Lee, Jung-Ah Lee, Nak-Hyung Lee, Joong-Bok Park, Seung-Yong Song, Chang-Seon Choi, In-Soo and Lee, Sang-Won 2016. Genetic diversity of the Korean field strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, Vol. 40, p. 288.

    Butler, J.E. 2015. Mucosal Immunology.

    Lazutka, Justas Spakova, Aliona Sereika, Vilimas Lelesius, Raimundas Sasnauskas, Kestutis and Petraityte-Burneikiene, Rasa 2015. Saliva as an alternative specimen for detection of Schmallenberg virus-specific antibodies in bovines. BMC Veterinary Research, Vol. 11, Issue. 1,

    Nieto-Pelegrín, E. Rivera-Arroyo, B. and Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J. M. 2015. First Detection of Antibodies Against African Swine Fever Virus in Faeces Samples. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, Vol. 62, Issue. 6, p. 594.

    Perez, Andres M. Davies, Peter R. Goodell, Christa K. Holtkamp, Derald J. Mondaca-Fernández, Enrique Poljak, Zvonimir Tousignant, Steven J. Valdes-Donoso, Pablo Zimmerman, Jeffrey J. and Morrison, Robert B. 2015. Lessons learned and knowledge gaps about the epidemiology and control of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in North America. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, Vol. 246, Issue. 12, p. 1304.

    Jones, T.H. and Muehlhauser, V. 2014. Effect of handling and storage conditions and stabilizing agent on the recovery of viral RNA from oral fluid of pigs. Journal of Virological Methods, Vol. 198, p. 26.

    Neto, João Carlos Gomes Strait, Erin L. Raymond, Matthew Ramirez, Alejandro and Minion, F. Chris 2014. Antibody responses of swine following infection with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, M. hyorhinis, M. hyosynoviae and M. flocculare. Veterinary Microbiology, Vol. 174, Issue. 1-2, p. 163.

    Panyasing, Y. Goodell, C. K. Wang, C. Kittawornrat, A. Prickett, J. R. Schwartz, K. J. Ballagi, A. Lizano, S. and Zimmerman, J. J. 2014. Detection of Influenza A Virus Nucleoprotein Antibodies in Oral Fluid Specimens From Pigs Infected Under Experimental Conditions Using a Blocking ELISA. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, Vol. 61, Issue. 2, p. 177.

    Corzo, Cesar A. Culhane, Marie Juleen, Kevin Stigger-Rosser, Evelyn Ducatez, Mariette F. Webby, Richard J. and Lowe, James F. 2013. Active Surveillance for Influenza A Virus among Swine, Midwestern United States, 2009–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, Vol. 19, Issue. 6, p. 954.

    Giménez-Lirola, Luis G. Xiao, Chao-Ting Zavala, Marissa Halbur, Patrick G. and Opriessnig, T. 2013. Improving ante mortem diagnosis of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection by use of oral fluids for bacterial, nucleic acid, and antibody detection. Journal of Microbiological Methods, Vol. 92, Issue. 2, p. 113.

    Goodell, Christa K. Prickett, John Kittawornrat, Apisit Zhou, Fanghong Rauh, Rolf Nelson, William O’Connell, Cate Burrell, Angela Wang, Chong Yoon, Kyoung-Jin and Zimmerman, Jeffrey J. 2013. Probability of detecting influenza A virus subtypes H1N1 and H3N2 in individual pig nasal swabs and pen-based oral fluid specimens over time. Veterinary Microbiology, Vol. 166, Issue. 3-4, p. 450.

    Kittawornrat, Apisit Engle, Mark Panyasing, Yaowalak Olsen, Chris Schwartz, Kent Rice, Anna Lizano, Sergio Wang, Chong and Zimmerman, Jeffrey 2013. Kinetics of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) humoral immune response in swine serum and oral fluids collected from individual boars. BMC Veterinary Research, Vol. 9, Issue. 1, p. 61.

    Mur, Lina Gallardo, Carmina Soler, Alejandro Zimmermman, Jeffrey Pelayo, Virginia Nieto, Raquel Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel and Arias, Marisa 2013. Potential use of oral fluid samples for serological diagnosis of African swine fever. Veterinary Microbiology, Vol. 165, Issue. 1-2, p. 135.

    Olsen, Chris Karriker, Locke Wang, Chong Binjawadagi, Basavaraj Renukaradhya, Gourapura Kittawornrat, Apisit Lizano, Sergio Coetzee, Johann Main, Rodger Meiszberg, Allison Panyasing, Yaowalak and Zimmerman, Jeffrey 2013. Effect of collection material and sample processing on pig oral fluid testing results. The Veterinary Journal, Vol. 198, Issue. 1, p. 158.

    Snijder, E. J. Kikkert, M. and Fang, Y. 2013. Arterivirus molecular biology and pathogenesis. Journal of General Virology, Vol. 94, Issue. Pt_10, p. 2141.

    Ramirez, Alejandro Wang, Chong Prickett, John R. Pogranichniy, Roman Yoon, Kyoung-Jin Main, Rodger Johnson, John K. Rademacher, Chris Hoogland, Marlin Hoffmann, Patrick Kurtz, Anne Kurtz, Ernest and Zimmerman, Jeffrey 2012. Efficient surveillance of pig populations using oral fluids. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Vol. 104, Issue. 3-4, p. 292.


The development of oral fluid-based diagnostics and applications in veterinary medicine

  • John R. Prickett (a1) and Jeffrey J. Zimmerman (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 05 March 2010

The purpose of this review was to discuss the history of the development and implementation of oral fluid diagnostics for infectious diseases of humans and domestic animals. The use of oral fluid for the assessment of health and diagnosis of disease in humans and animals has a surprisingly long history. As early as 1909, Pollaci and Ceraulo reported sensitive and specific agglutination of ‘Micrococcus melitensis’ (Brucella melitensis) by oral fluid from patients diagnosed with Malta Fever. A 1986 report of the detection of antibodies against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in oral fluid from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) marked the start of a remarkably rapid series of developments in oral fluid-based assays. Cumulatively, the literature strongly supports implementation of oral fluid-based diagnostics in veterinary diagnostic medicine. Pathogen-specific IgA, IgM and IgG antibodies have all been demonstrated in oral fluid collected from diverse domestic animal species in response to infection. A variety of infectious agents, both local and systemic, are shed in oral fluid, including some of the most economically significant pathogens of production animals (e.g. foot-and-mouth disease virus, classical swine fever virus and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus) Ultimately, point-of-care rapid assays (i.e. cow-side, sow-side or pen-side tests) and access to real-time infectious disease data will revolutionize our delivery of health management services.

Corresponding author
*Corresponding author. E-mail:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

LA Amado , LM Villar , VS de Paula , AJ de Almeida and AMC Gaspar (2006). Detection of hepatitis A, B, and C virus-specific antibodies using oral fluid for epidemiological studies. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 101: 149155.

SDK Baguley , PJ Horner , PAC Maple and L Stephenson (2005). An oral fluid test for syphilis. International Journal of STD and AIDS 16: 299301.

A Ben Salah , A Zaâtour , L Pomery , BJ Cohen , DW Brown and N Andrews (2003). Validation of a modified commercial assay for the detection of rubella-specific IgG in oral fluid for use in population studies. Journal of Virological Methods 114: 151158.

R Berger , E Ainbender , HL Hodes , HD Zepp and MM Hevizy (1967). Demonstration of IgA polioantibody in saliva, duodenal fluid and urine. Nature 214: 420422.

B Branson (2007). State of the art for diagnosis of HIV infection. Clinical Infectious Diseases 45 (suppl. 4): S221S225.

N Brill and H Björn (1959). Passage of tissue fluid into human gingival pockets. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica 17: 1121.

N Brill and BO Krasse (1958). The passage of tissue fluid into the clinically healthy gingival pocket. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica 16: 233245.

DWG Brown , ME Ramsay , AF Richards and E Miller (1994). Salivary diagnosis of measles: a study of notified cases in the United Kingdom, 1991–3. British Medical Journal 308: 10151017.

SO Cameron and WF Carman (2005). The use of Orasure® collection device for hepatitis virus testing in health care settings. Journal of Clinical Virology 34 (suppl. 1): S22S28.

S Challacombe , R Percival and P Marsh (1995). Age-related changes in Immunoglobulin isotypes in whole and parotid saliva and serum in healthy individuals. Oral Microbiology and Immunology 10: 202207.

S Challacombe , D Rahman and D O'Hagan (1997). Salivary, gut, vaginal and nasal antibody responses after oral immunization with biodegradable microparticles. Vaccine 15: 169175.

CK Chang , ME Cohen and DR Bienek (2009). Efficiency of oral fluid collection devices in extracting antibodies. Oral Microbiology and Immunology 24: 231235.

S Chiappin , G Antonelli , R Gatti and EF De Palo (2007). Saliva specimen: A new laboratory tool for diagnostic and basic investigation. Clinica Chimica Acta 383: 3040.

Y Chiba and T Nakao (1972). Mumps virus neutralizing antibody in saliva following natural infection. The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine 106: 7581.

R Coleman and M Appleman (1953). Antibodies of syphilis in saliva and serum. Journal of Dental Research 32: 294297.

S Collot , B Petit , D Bordessoule , S Alain , M Touati , F Denis and S Ranger-Rogez (2002). Real-time PCR for quantification of human herpesvirus 6 DNA from lymph nodes and saliva. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 40: 24452451.

J Crawford , M Taubman and D Smith (1975). Minor salivary glands as a major source of secretory immunoglobulin A in the human oral cavity. Science 190: 12061209.

R de Azevedo Neto , A Richards , D Nokes , A Silveira , B Cohen , S Passos , V de Souza , D Brown , C Pannuti and E Massad (1995). Salivary antibody detection in epidemiological surveys: a pilot study after a mass vaccination campaign against rubella in São Paulo, Brazil. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 89: 115118.

MV da Silva , E Dias Camargo , AJ Vaz and L Batista (1992). Immunodiagnosis of human leptospirosis using saliva. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 86: 560561.

R Dean , C Helps , TJ Gruffydd Jones and S Tasker (2008). Use of real-time PCR to detect Mycoplasma haemofelis and ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ in the saliva and salivary glands of haemoplasma-infected cats. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery 10: 413417.

E DeBuysscher and R Dubois (1978). Detection of IgA anti-Escherichia coli plasma cells in the intestine and salivary glands of pigs orally and locally infected with E. coli. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 107: 593600.

AJ Delima and TE Van Dyke (2003). Origin and function of the cellular components in gingival crevice fluid. Periodontology 2000 31: 5576.

A Duncan , R Maggi and E Breitschwerdt (2007). Bartonella DNA in dog saliva. Emerging Infectious Diseases 13: 19481950.

P Eblé , A Bouma , M de Bruin , F van Hemert-Kluitenberg , J Van Oirschot and A Dekker (2004). Vaccination of pigs two weeks before infection significantly reduces transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus. Vaccine 22: 13721378.

SA Ellison , PA Mashimo and ID Mandel (1960). Immunochemical studies of human saliva. Journal of Dental Research 39: 892898.

M Fekadu , J Shaddock and G Baer (1982). Excretion of rabies virus in the saliva of dogs. Journal of Infectious Diseases 145: 715719.

P Formenty , EM Leroy , A Epelboin , F Libama , M Lenzi , H Sudeck , P Yaba , Y Allarangar , P Boumandouki , VB Nkounkou , C Drosten , A Grolla , H Feldmann and C Roth (2006). Detection of Ebola virus in oral fluid specimens during outbreaks of Ebola virus hemorrhagic fever in the Republic of Congo. Clinical Infectious Diseases 42: 15211526.

R Frerichs , N Silarug , N Eskes , P Pagcharoenpol , A Rodklai , S Thangsupachai and C Wongba (1994). Saliva-based HIV-antibody testing in Thailand. AIDS 8: 885894.

Y Furuta , H Aizawa , F Ohtani , H Sawa and S Fukuda (2004). Varicella–Zoster virus DNA level and facial paralysis in Ramsay Hunt syndrome. Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology 113: 700705.

A German , E Hall and M Day (1998). Measurement of IgG, IgM and IgA concentrations in canine serum, saliva, tears and bile. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 64: 107121.

M Gomes-Keller , R Tandon , F Riondato , M Gönczi , M Meli , R Hofmann-Lehmann and H Lutz (2006a). Detection of feline leukemia virus RNA in saliva from naturally infected cats and correlation of PCR results with those of current diagnostic methods. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 44: 916922.

M Gomes-Keller , R Tandon , E Gönczi , M Meli , R Hofmann-Lehmann and H Lutz (2006b). Shedding of feline leukemia virus RNA in saliva is a consistent feature in viremic cats. Veterinary Microbiology 112: 1121.

EA Grönblad and O Mäkelä (1986). Salivary and serum antibodies in patients with Yersinia enterocolitica infection. Microbial Pathogenesis 1: 565571.

J Groopman , S Salahuddin , M Sarngadharan , P Markham , M Gonda , A Sliski and R Gallo (1984). HTLV-III in saliva of people with AIDS-related complex and healthy homosexual men at risk for AIDS. Science 226: 447449.

R Harley , T Gruffydd-Jones and M Day (1998). Determination of salivary and serum immunoglobulin concentrations in the cat. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 65: 99112.

HM Herath (2003). Early diagnosis of typhoid fever by the detection of salivary IgA. Journal of Clinical Pathology 56: 694698.

M Horner (1976). The passage of drugs into horse saliva and the suitability of saliva for pre-race testing. British Journal of Sports Medicine 10: 133140.

A Kinder , S Carter , J Allan , S Marshall-Clarke and P Craing (1992). Salivary and serum antibodies in experimental canine taeniasis. Veterinary Parasitology 41: 321327.

F Kraus and J Konno (1963). Antibodies in saliva. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 106: 311329.

DJ Litt , D Samuel , J Duncan , A Harnden , RC George and TG Harrison (2006). Detection of anti-pertussis toxin IgG in oral fluids for use in diagnosis and surveillance of Bordetella pertussis infection in children and young adults. Journal of Medical Microbiology 55: 12231228.

M Loftager , L Eriksen and R Nielsen (1993). Antibodies against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 in mucosal secretions and sera of infected pigs as demonstrated by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Research in Veterinary Science 54: 5762.

F Luzza , M Maletta , M Imeneo , P Doldo , R Marasco , L Biancone and F Pallone (1995). Salivary specific IgG is a sensitive indicator of the humoral immune response to Helicobacter pylori. FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology 10: 281283.

ID Mandel (1990). The diagnostic uses of saliva. Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine 19: 119125.

ID Mandel (1993). Salivary diagnosis: promises, promises. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 694: 110.

N Martin (1969). The immunoglobulins: a review. Journal of Clinical Pathology 22: 117131.

J Mestecky (1993). Saliva as a manifestation of the common mucosal immune system. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 694: 184194.

C Morgan and A Gellhorn (1947). Detection of drugs in horse saliva. Analytical Chemistry 19: 806808.

DM Moss , JM Montgomery , SV Newland , JW Priest and PJ Lammie (2004). Detection of cryptosporidium antibodies in sera and oral fluids using multiplex bead assay. The Journal of Parasitology 90: 397404.

M Navazesh (1993). Methods for collecting saliva. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 694: 7277.

D Nigatu , D Samuel , B Cohen , P Cumberland , E Lemma , D Brown and J Nokes (2008). Evaluation of a measles vaccine campaign in Ethiopia using oral-fluid antibody surveys. Vaccine 26: 47694774.

S Nightingale (1995). From the food and drug administration: oral fluid specimen test system for HIV-1 approved. Journal of the American Medical Association 273: 613.

S Oliveira , M Siqueira , D Brown , L Camacho , T Faillace and B Cohen (1998). Salivary diagnosis of measles for surveillance: a clinic-based study in Niterói, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 92: 636638.

S Parida , J Anderson , S Cox , P Barnett and D Paton (2006). Secretory IgA as an indicator of oro-pharyngeal foot-and-mouth disease virus replication and as a tool for post vaccination surveillance. Vaccine 24: 11071116.

R Petraityte , L Jin , R Hunjan , A Razanskiene , A Zvirbliene and K Sasnauskas (2007). Use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae-expressed recombinant nucleocapsid protein to detect Hantaan virus-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM in oral fluid. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology 14: 16031608.

RT Pinho , RC Pedrosa , P Costa-Martins and LR Castello-Branco (1999). Saliva ELISA: a method for the diagnosis of chronic Chagas disease in endemic areas. Acta Tropica 72: 3138.

SR Prasad , PN Yergolkar , BD Walhekar and CN Dandawate (1994). Virus specific IgM, IgG and IgA antibodies in serum and saliva of Japanese encephalitis patients. Indian Journal of Pediatrics 61: 109110.

J Prickett , R Simer , J Christopher-Hennings , K-J Yoon , RB Evans and J Zimmerman (2008a). Detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection in porcine oral fluid samples: a longitudinal study under experimental conditions. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 20: 156163.

DA Scott , WA Coulter and PJ Larney (1997). Oral shedding of herpes simplex virus type 1: a review. Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine 26: 441447.

D Smith , R Moxley , S Clowser , J Folmer , S Hinkley , G Erickson and T Klopfenstein (2005). Use of rope devices to describe and explain the feedlot ecology of Salmonella by time and place. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 2: 6169.

M South , M Cooper , F Wollheim , R Hong and R Good (1966). The IgA system. I. Studies of the transport and immunochemistry of IgA in the saliva. Journal of Experimental Medicine 123: 615627.

LA Tabak (2007). Point-of-care diagnostics enter the mouth. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1098: 714.

T Tomasi and S Zigelbaum (1963). The selective occurrence of gamma-1A globulins in certain body fluids. Journal of Clinical Investigation 42: 15521560.

WK Wang , SY Chen , IJ Liu , YC Chen , HL Chen , CF Yang , PJ Chen , SH Yeh , CL Kao , LM Huang , PR Hsueh , JT Wang , WH Sheng , CT Fang , CC Hung , SM Hsieh , CP Su , WC Chiang , JY Yang , JH Lin , SC Hsieh , HP Hu , YP Chiang , JT Wang , PC Yang and SC Chang (2004). Detection of SARS-associated coronavirus in throat wash and saliva in early diagnosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases 10: 12131219.

RL Ward , KA Pax , JR Sherwood , EC Young , GM Schiff and DI Bernstein (1992). Salivary antibody titers in adults challenged with a human rotavirus. Journal of Medical Virology 36: 222225.

M Wheatcroft (1957). A comparative study of human serum and salivary antibody titers in cases of Brucella melitensis infections. Journal of Dental Research 36: 112117.

B Willi , FS Boretti , C Baumgartner , S Tasker , B Wenger , V Cattori , ML Meli , CE Reusch , H Lutz and R Hofmann-Lehmann (2006). Prevalence, risk factor analysis, and follow-up of infections caused by three feline hemoplasma species in cats in Switzerland. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 44: 961969.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Animal Health Research Reviews
  • ISSN: 1466-2523
  • EISSN: 1475-2654
  • URL: /core/journals/animal-health-research-reviews
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *