Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 11
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Guo, Hong-yan Ma, Yong-gang Gai, Yuan-ming Liang, Zhi-bin Ma, Jing Su, Yang Zhang, Qi-cheng Chen, Qi-min and Tan, Juan 2013. Bovine HEXIM1 inhibits bovine immunodeficiency virus replication through regulating BTat-mediated transactivation. Veterinary Research, Vol. 44, Issue. 1, p. 21.


    Goh, Gerard K.-M. Xue, Bin Dunker, A. Keith and Uversky, Vladimir N. 2011. Flexible Viruses.


    Tajbakhsh, Elahe Borujeni, Gholamreza Nikbakht and Momtaz, Hassan 2011. Molecular evidence for bovine immunodeficiency virus infection in Iranian sheep and cattle population. Comparative Clinical Pathology, Vol. 20, Issue. 6, p. 635.


    Su, Yang Qiao, Wentao Guo, Tingting Tan, Juan Li, Zhe Chen, Yan Li, Xin Li, Yue Zhou, Jun and Chen, Qimin 2010. Microtubule-dependent retrograde transport of bovine immunodeficiency virus. Cellular Microbiology, Vol. 12, Issue. 8, p. 1098.


    Yao, Xue Su, Yang Liu, Chang Tan, Juan Liu, Li Geng, Yun-Qi and Qiao, Wen-Tao 2010. Establishment of an indicator cell line for monitoring bovine immunodeficiency virus infection and inhibitor susceptibility. Journal of Virological Methods, Vol. 163, Issue. 1, p. 25.


    Yao, Xue Guo, Hong-yan Liu, Chang Xu, Xuan Du, Jian-sen Liang, Hao-yue Geng, Yun-qi and Qiao, Wen-tao 2010. A quantitative assay for measuring of bovine immunodeficiency virus using a luciferase-based indicator cell line. Virologica Sinica, Vol. 25, Issue. 2, p. 137.


    Cojocariu, M. St-Louis, M.-C. and Archambault, D. 2009. Bovine immunodeficiency virus: identification of a long terminal repeat sequence with enhanced promoter activity. Archives of Virology, Vol. 154, Issue. 7, p. 1163.


    Liu, C. Chang, R. Yao, X. Qiao, W. T. and Geng, Y. Q. 2009. ISG15 expression in response to double-stranded RNA or LPS in cultured Fetal Bovine Lung (FBL) cells. Veterinary Research Communications, Vol. 33, Issue. 7, p. 723.


    Deng, Gang Su, Yang Mu, Junjie Sha, Rina Geng, Yunqi Qiao, Wentao and Chen, Qimin 2008. Molecular basis of the internalization of bovine immunodeficiency virus Tat protein. Virus Genes, Vol. 36, Issue. 1, p. 85.


    Yamamoto, J.K. 2008. Encyclopedia of Virology.


    Xuan, Chenghao Qiao, Wentao Li, Jian Peng, Guoyuan Liu, Min Chen, Qimin Zhou, Jun and Geng, Yunqi 2007. BTat, a trans-acting regulatory protein, contributes to bovine immunodeficiency virus-induced apoptosis. Cellular Microbiology, p. 070723152042001.


    ×

The molecular biology of bovine immunodeficiency virus: a comparison with other lentiviruses

  • Marie-Claude St-Louis (a1), Mihaela Cojocariu (a1) and Denis Archambault (a1)
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/AHR200496
  • Published online: 01 February 2007
Abstract
Abstract

Bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) was first isolated in 1969 from a cow, R-29, with a wasting syndrome. The virus isolated induced the formation of syncytia in cell cultures and was structurally similar to maedi-visna virus. Twenty years later, it was demonstrated that the bovine R-29 isolate was indeed a lentivirus with striking similarity to the human immunodeficiency virus. Like other lentiviruses, BIV has a complex genomic structure characterized by the presence of several regulatory/accessory genes that encode proteins, some of which are involved in the regulation of virus gene expression. This manuscript aims to review biological and, more particularly, molecular aspects of BIV, with emphasis on regulatory/accessory viral genes/proteins, in comparison with those of other lentiviruses.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*University of Québec at Montréal, Department of Biological Sciences, P.O. Box 8888, Succursale Centre-Ville, Montréal, Québec, CanadaH3C 3P8 E-mail: archambault.denis@uqam.ca
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

Y Abed and D Archambault (2000). A viral transmembrane recombinant protein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of bovine immunodeficiency virus infection. Journal of Virological Methods 85: 109116.

ML Abelson and RV Schoborg (2003). Characterization of the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) rev N-terminal elements required for efficient interaction with the RRE. Virus Research 92: 2335.

G Agnarsdóttir , H Thorsteinsdottir , T Oskarsson , S Matthiasdottir , B St Haflidadottir , OS Andresson and V Andresdottir (2000). The long terminal repeat is a determinant of cell tropism of maedi-visna virus. Journal of General Virology 81: 19011905.

TR Albrecht , LH Lund and MA Garcia-Blanco (2000). Canine cyclin T1 rescues equine infectious anemia virus tat trans-activation in human cells. Virology 268: 711.

G Alkhatib , C Combadiere , CC Broder , Y Feng , PE Kennedy , PM Murphy and EA Berger (1996). CC CKR5: MIP1-α, MIP1-β receptor as a fusion cofactor for macrophage-tropic HIV-1. Science 272: 19551958.

B Atkinson , ZQ Liu and C Wood (1992). Use of bacterial trpE fusion vectors to express and characterize the bovine immunodeficiency-like virus core protein. Journal of Virological Methods 36: 3549.

M Barboric , R Taube , N Nekrep , K Fujinaga and BM Peterlin (2000). Binding of Tat to TAR and recruitment of positive transcription elongation factor b occur independently in bovine immunodeficiency virus. Jounal of Virology 74: 60396044.

T Baron , F Malland , B Polack , D Bandemps and P Belli (1995). The bovine immunodeficiency-like virus (BIV) is transcriptionally active in experimentally infected calves. Archives of Virology 140: 14611467.

F Barre-Sinoussi , JC Chermann , F Rey , MT Nugeyre , S Chamarand , J Gruest , C Dauguet , C Axler-Blin , F Vezinand-Brun , C Rouzioux , W Rozenbaum and L Montagnier (1983). Isolation of a T-lymphotropic retrovirus from a patient at risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Science 220: 868871.

M Belshan , P Baccam , JL Oaks , BA Sponseller , SC Murphy , J Cornette and S Carpenter (2001). Genetic and biological variation in equine infectious anemia virus Rev correlates with variable stages of clinical disease in an experimentally infected pony. Virology 279: 185200.

PD Bieniasz , TA Grdina , HP Bogerd and BR Cullen (1998). Recruitment of a protein complex containing Tat and cyclin T1 to TAR governs the species specificity of HIV-1 Tat. EMBO Journal 17: 70567065.

HP Bogerd , HL Wiegand , PD Bieniasz and BR Cullen (2000). Functional differences between human and bovine immunodeficiency virus Tat transcription factors. Journal of Virology 74: 46664671.

AM Bouillant , GM Ruckerbauer and KH Nielsen (1989). Replication of the bovine immunodeficiency-like virus in diploid and aneuploid cells: permanent, latent and virus-productive infections in vitro. Research in Virology 140: 511529.

MJ Braun , S Lahn , AL Boyd , TA Kost , K Nagashima and MA Gonda (1988). Molecular cloning of biologically active proviruses of bovine immunodeficiency-like virus. Virology 167: 515523.

PC Brice , AC Kelley and PJ Butler (1999). Sensitive in vitro analysis of HIV-1 Rev multimerization. Nucleic Acids Research 27: 20802085.

EJ Burkala , TM Ellis , V Voigt and GE Wilcox (1999). Serological evidence of an Australian bovine lentivirus. Veterinary Microbiology 68: 171177.

DS Burke (1997). Recombination in HIV: an important viral evolutionary strategy. Emerging Infectious Diseases 3: 253259.

CC Carpenter , MA Fischl , SM Hammer , MS Hirsch , DM Jacobsen , DA Katzenstein , JS Montaner , DD Richman , MS Saag , RT Schooley , MA Thompson , S Vella , PG Yeni and PA Volberding (1997). Antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection in 1997. Updated recommendations of the International AIDS Society-USA panel. Journal of the American Medical Association 277: 19621969.

S Carpenter , EM Vaughn , J Yang , P Baccamp , JA Roth and Y Wannemulher (2000). Antigenic and genetic stability of bovine immunodeficiency virus during long-term persistence in cattle experimentally infected with BIV (R29) isolate. Journal of General Virology 81: 14631472.

S Cavirani , G Donofrio , D Chiocco , E Foni , P Martelli , G Allegri , CS Cabassi , B De Iaco and CF Flammini (1998). Seroprevalence to bovine immunodeficiency virus and lack of association with leukocyte counts in Italian dairy cattle. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 37: 147157.

BJ Chadwick , RJ Coelen , GE Wilcox , LM Sammels and G Kertayadnya (1995). Nucleotide sequence analysis of Jembrana disease virus: a bovine lentivirus associated with an acute disease syndrome. Journal of General Virology 76: 16371650.

U Chatterji , A de Parseval and JH Elder (2002). Feline immunodeficiency virus OrfA is distinct from other lentivirus transactivators. Journal of Virology 76: 96249634.

L Chen and AD Frankel (1994). An RNA-binding peptide from bovine immunodeficiency virus Tat protein recognizes an unusual RNA structure. Biochemistry 33: 27082715.

L Chen and AD Frankel (1995). A peptide interaction in the major groove of RNA resembles protein interactions in the minor groove of DNA. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 92: 50775081.

D Chen , Y Fong and Q Zhou (1999a). Specific interaction of Tat with the human but not rodent P-TEFb complex mediates the species-specific Tat activation of HIV-1 transcription. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of United States of America 96: 27282733.

SM Cheng , M Blume , SG Lee , PP Hung , VM Hirsch and PR Johnson (1990). Coexpression of biologically active simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Rev and Env in an SV40 system: the SIV rev gene regulates env expression. Virology 177: 816819.

KO Cho , S Meas , NY Park , YH Kim , YK Lim , D Endoh , SI Lee , K Ohashi , C Sugimoto and M Onuma (1999). Seroprevalence of bovine immunodeficiency virus in dairy and beef cattle herds in Korea. Journal of Veterinary Medical Sciences 61: 549551.

GL Cockerell , WA Jensen , J Rovnak , WH Ennis and MA Gonda (1992). Seroprevalence of bovine immunodeficiency-like virus and bovine leukemia virus in a dairy cattle herd. Veterinary Microbiology 31: 109116.

KS Cook , GJ Fisk , J Hauber , N Usman , TJ Daly and JR Rusche (1991). Characterization of HIV-1 REV protein: binding stoichiometry and minimal RNA substrate. Nucleic Acids Research 19: 15771583.

CR Cooper , LA Hanson , WJ Diehl , GT Pharr and KS Coats (1999). Natural selection of the Pol gene of bovine immunodeficiency virus. Virology 255: 294301.

TP Cujec , H Cho , E Maldonado , J Meyer , D Reinberg and BM Peterlin (1997a). The human immunodeficiency virus transactivator Tat interacts with the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme. Molecular and Cellular Biology 17: 18171823.

TP Cujec , H Okamoto , K Fujinaga , J Meyer , H Chamberlin , DO Morgan and BM Peterlin (1997b). The HIV transactivator TAT binds to the CDK-activating kinase and activates the phosphorylation of the carboxy-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II. Genes and Development 11: 26452657.

BR Cullen (1998). Retroviruses as model systems for the study of nuclear RNA export pathways. Virology 249: 203210.

C Das , SP Edgcomb , R Peteranderl , L Chen and AD Frankel (2004). Evidence for conformational flexibility in the Tat-TAR recognition motif of cyclin T1. Virology 318: 306317.

D Derse and SH Newbold (1993). Mutagenesis of EIAV TAT reveals structural features essential for transcriptional activation and TAR element recognition. Virology 194: 530536.

A Efthymiadis , LJ Briggs and DA Jans (1998). The HIV-1 Tat nuclear localization sequence confers novel nuclear import properties. Journal of Biological Chemistry 273: 16231628.

M Emerman and MH Malim (1998). HIV-1 regulatory/accessory genes: keys to unraveling viral and host cell biology. Science 280: 18801884.

BK Felber , M Hadzopoulou-Cladaras , C Cladaras , T Copeland and GN Pavlakis (1989). Rev protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 affects the stability and transport of the viral mRNA. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 86: 14951499.

S Feng and EC Holland (1988). HIV-1 tat trans-activation requires the loop sequence within tar. Nature 334: 165168.

AG Fisher , B Ensoli , L Ivanoff , M Chamberlain , S Petteway , L Ratner , RC Gallo and F Wong-Staal (1987). The sor gene of HIV-1 is required for efficient virus transmission in vitro. Science 237: 888893.

SE Fong , LA Pallansch , JA Mikovits , CS Lackman-Smith , FW Ruscetti and MA Gonda (1995). Cis-acting regulatory elements in the bovine immunodeficiency virus long terminal repeat. Virology 209: 604614.

SE Fong , JD Greenwood , JC Williamson , D Derse , LA Pallansch , T Copeland , L Rasmussen , A Mentzer , K Nagashima , G Tobin and MA Gonda (1997). Bovine immunodeficiency virus tat gene: cloning of two distinct cDNAs and identification, characterization, and immunolocalization of the tat gene products. Virology 233: 339357.

CC Fritz and MR Green (1996). HIV Rev uses a conserved cellular protein export pathway for the nucleocytoplasmic transport of viral RNAs. Current Biology 6: 848854.

ME Garber , P Wei , VN KewalRamani , TP Mayall , CH Herrmann , AP Rice , DR Littman and KA Jones (1998). The interaction between HIV-1 Tat and human cyclin T1 requires zinc and a critical cysteine residue that is not conserved in the murine CycT1 protein. Genes and Development 12: 35123527.

ME Garber , TP Mayall , EM Suess , J Meisenhelder , NE Thompson and KA Jones (2000). CDK9 autophosphorylation regulates high-affinity binding of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 tat-P-TEFb complex to TAR RNA. Molecular and Cellular Biology 20: 69586969.

JV Garcia and AD Miller (1991). Serine phosphorylation-independent downregulation of cell-surface CD4 by nef. Nature 350: 508511.

LF Garcia-Martinez , G Mavankal , JM Neveu , WS Lane , D Ivanov and RB Gaynor (1997). Purification of a Tat-associated kinase reveals a TFIIH complex that modulates HIV-1 transcription. EMBO Jounal 16: 28362850.

KJ Garvey , MS Oberste , JE Elser , MJ Braun and MA Gonda (1990). Nucleotide sequence and genome organization of biologically active proviruses of the bovine immunodeficiency-like virus. Virology 175: 391409.

SL Gdovin and JE Clements (1992). Molecular mechanisms of visna virus Tat: identification of the targets for transcriptional activation and evidence for a post-transcriptional effect. Virology 188: 438450.

MC Gemeniano , ET Sawai , CM Leutenegger and EE Sparger (2003). Feline immunodeficiency virus ORF-Ais required for virus particle formation and virus infectivity. Journal of Virology 77: 88198830.

Y Geng , F Kashanchi and C Wood (1992). Activation of bovine immunodeficiency-like virus expression by bovine herpesvirus type 1. Virology 187: 832836.

MA Gonda , MJ Braun , SG Carter , TA Kost , JW Bess , LO Arthur and MJ Van Der Maaten (1987). Characterization and molecular cloning of a bovine lentivirus related to the human immunodeficiency virus. Nature 330: 388391.

CM Gradil , RE Watson , RW Renshaw , RO Gilbert and EJ Dubovi (1999). Detection of bovine immunodeficiency virus DNA in the blood and semen of experimentally infected bulls. Veterinary Microbiology 70: 2131.

NL Greenbaum (1996). How Tat targets TAR: structure of the BIV peptide-RNA complex. Structure 4: 59.

B Guy , MP Kieny , Y Riviere , C Le Peuch , K Dott , M Girard , L Montagnier and JP Lecocq (1987). HIV F/3' orf encodes a phosphorylated GTP-binding protein resembling an oncogene product. Nature 330: 266269.

BR Henderson and P Percipalle (1997). Interactions between HIV Rev and nuclear import and export factors: the Rev nuclear localisation signal mediates specific binding to human importin-beta. Journal of Molecular Biology 274: 693707.

K Hiebenthal-Millow , TC Greenough , DB Bretttler , M Schindler , S Wildum , JL Sullivan and F Kirchhoff (2003). Alterations in HIV-1 LTR promoter activity during AIDS progression. Virology 317: 109118.

N Hirai , H Kabeya , K Ohashi , C Sugimoto and M Onuma (1996b) Detection of antibodies against bovine immunodeficiency-like virus in daily cattle in Hokkaido. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 58: 455457.

DW Hoffman and SW White (1995). NMR analysis of the trans-activation response (TAR) RNA element of equine infectious anemia virus. Nucleic Acids Research 23: 40584065.

TJ Hope (1999). The ins and outs of HIV Rev. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 365: 186191.

Y Hsiou , J Ding , K Das , AD Clark Jr, PL Boyer , P Lewi , PA Janssen , JP Kleim , M Rosner , Sh Hughes and E Arnold (2001). The Lys103Asn mutation of HIV-1 RT: a novel mechanism of drug resistance. Journal of Molecular Biology 309: 437445.

J Hua , JJ Caffrey and BR Cullen (1996). Functional consequences of natural sequence variation in the activation domain of HIV-1 Rev. Virology 222: 423429.

JA Ippolito and TA Steitz (2000). The structure of the HIV-1 RRE high affinity rev binding site at 1.6 A resolution. Journal of Molecular Biology 295: 711717.

JA Isaacson , JA Roth , C Wood and S Carpenter (1995). Loss of Gag-specific antibody reactivity in cattle experimentally infected with bovine immunodeficiency-like virus. Viral Immunology 8: 2736.

MK Jackson , DP Knowles , TA Stem , WG Harwood , MM Robinson and WP Cheevers (1991). Genetic structure of the pol-env region of the caprine arthritis-encephalitis lentivirus genome. Virology 180: 389394.

RM Jacobs , HE Smith , CA Whestone , DL Suarez and B Jefferson and VF Valli (1994). Haematological and lymphocyte subset analyses in sheep inoculated with bovine immunodeficiency-like virus. Veterinary Research Communications 18: 471482.

KT Jeang , H Xiao and EA Rich (1999). Multifaceted activities of the HIV-1 transactivator of transcription, Tat. Journal of Biological Chemistry 274: 88378840.

KS Jeong , YS Nam and S Venkatesan (2000). Deletions near the N-terminus of HIV-1 Rev reduce RNA binding affinity and dominantly interfere with Rev function irrespective of the RNA target. Archives of Virology 145: 24432467.

H Kalinski , P Mashiah , D Rotem , Y Orzech , L Sherman , T Miki , A Yaniv , A Gazit and SR Tronick (1994). Characterization of cDNAs species encoding the Tat protein of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus. Virology 204: 828834.

Z Kalvatchev , R Walder , M Barrios and D Garzaro (1995). Acquired immune dysfunction in rabbits experimentally infected with an infectious molecular clone of the bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV127). Viral Immunology 8: 5964.

Z Kalvatchev , R Walder , F Perez , D Garzaro and M Barrios (1998). Infection of rabbits with R29 strain of bovine immunodeficiency virus: virulence, immunosuppression, and progressive mesenteric lymphadenopathy. Viral Immunology 11: 5966.

Z Kalvatchev , R Walder , D Garzaro and M Barrios (2000). Detection of genetic diversity among bovine immunodeficiency virus population by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis. Viral Immunology 13: 373381.

NC Kan , G Franchini , F Wong-Staal , GC DuBois , WG Robey , JA Lautenberger and TS Papas (1986). Identification of HTLV-III/LAV sor gene product and detection of antibodies in human sera. Science 231: 15531555.

S Kao , H Akari , MA Khan , M Dettenhofer , XF Yu and K Strebel (2003). Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vif is efficiently packaged into virions during productive but not chronic infection. Journal of Virology 77: 11311140.

J Karn (1999). Tackling Tat. Journal of Molecular Biology 293: 235254.

F Kashanchi , ZQ Liu , B Atkinson and C Wood (1991). Comparative evaluation of bovine immunodeficiency-like virus infection by reverse transcriptase and polymerase chain reaction. Journal of Virological Methods 31: 197209.

Y Kawaguchi , K Maeda , MR Pecoraro , Y Inoshima , HK Jang , M Kohmoto , K Iwatsuki , Y Ikeda , M Shimojima and Y Tohya (1995). The feline herpesvirus type 1 ICP4 down-regulates feline immunodeficiency virus long terminal repeat (LTR)-directed gene expression via the C/EBP site in the LTR. Jounal of Veterinary Medical Science 57: 11291131.

S Kempster , ME Collins and J Brownlie (2002). Tat protein expression in MDBK cells does not confer susceptibility to bovine immunodeficiency virus. Archives of Virology 147: 643649.

FC Krebs , D Mehrens , S Pomeroy , MM Goodenow and B Wigdahl (1998). Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 long terminal repeat quasispecies differ in basal transcription and nuclear factor recruitment in human glial cells and lymphocytes. Journal of Biomedical Science 5: 3144.

HB Kristbjornsdottir , V Andresdottir , V Svansson , S Torsteinsdottir and S Matthiasdottir , OS Andresson (2004). The vif gene of maedi-visna virus is essential for infectivity in vivo and in vitro. Virology 318: 350359.

YT Kwak , D Ivanov , J Guo , E Nee and RB Gaynor (1999). Role of the human and murine cyclin T proteins in regulating HIV-1 tat-activation. Journal of Molecular Biology 288: 5769.

TH Lee , JE Coligan , JS Allan , MF McLane , JE Groopman and M Essex (1986). A new HTLV-III/LAV protein encoded by a gene found in cytopathic retroviruses. Science 231: 15461549.

DC Love , TD Sweitzer and JA Hanover (1998). Reconstitution of HIV-1 rev nuclear export: independent requirements for nuclear import and export. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 95: 1060810613.

B Lustig , I Bahar and RL Jernigan (1998). RNA bulge entropies in the unbound state correlate with peptide binding strengths for HIV-1 and BIV TAR RNA because of improved conformational access. Nucleic Acids Research 26: 52125217.

LM Mansky (1998). Retrovirus mutation rates and their role in genetic variation. Journal of General Virology 79: 13371345.

SJ Martin , TP O'Neill , JA Bilello and JL Eiseman (1991). Lymphocyte transformation abnormalities in bovine immunodeficiency-like virus infected calves. Immunology Letters 27: 8184.

S Meas , H Kabeya , S Yoshihara , K Ohashi , S Matsuki , Y Mikami , C Sugimoto and M Onuma (1998). Seroprevalence and field isolation of bovine immunodeficiency virus. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 60: 11951202.

S Meas , K Ohashi , S Tum , M Chhin , K Te , K Miura , C Sugimoto and M Onuma (2000a). Seroprevalence of bovine immunodeficiency virus and bovine leukemia virus in draught animals in Cambodia. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 62: 779781.

S Meas , J Sando , C Sugimoto , M Bakhsh , M Riaz , T Sato , K Naeem , K Ohashi and M Onuma (2000b). Infection of bovine immunodeficiency virus and bovine leukemia virus in water buffalo and cattle populations in Pakistan. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 62: 329339.

S Meas , K Ohashi , C Sugimoto and M Onuma (2001). Phylogenetic relationships of bovine immunodeficiency virus in cattle and buffaloes based on surface envelope gene sequences. Archives of Virology 146: 10371045.

S Meas , T Usui , K Ohashi , C Sugimoto and M Onuma (2002). Vertical transmission of bovine leukemia virus and bovine immunodeficiency virus in dairy cattle herds. Veterinary Microbiology 84: 275282.

I Mikaelian , M Krieg , MJ Gait and J Karn (1996). Interactions of INS (CRS) elements and the splicing machinery regulate the production of Rev-responsive mRNAs. Journal of Molecular Biology 257: 246264.

RP Molina , M Matukonis , B Paszkiet , J Zhang , M Kaleko and T Luo (2002). Mapping of the bovine immunodeficiency virus packaging signal and RRE and incorporation into a minimal gene transfer vector. Virology 304: 1023.

CA Moody , GT Pharr , J Murphey , MB Hughlett , CC Weaver , PD Nelson and KS Coats (2002). Confirmation of vertical transmission of bovine immunodeficiency virus in naturally infected dairy cattle using the polymerase chain reaction. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 14: 113119.

D Moras and A Poterszman (1996). Getting into the major groove. Protein-RNA interactions. Current Biology 6: 530532.

R Munro , R Lysons , C Venables , M Horigan , M Jeffrey and M Dawson (1998). Lymphadenopathy and non-suppurative meningo-encephalitis in calves experimentally infected with bovine immunodeficiency-like virus (FL112). Journal of Comparative Pathology 119: 121134.

T Nagashunmugam , A Velpandi , T Otsuka , M Cartas and A Srinivasan (1992). Analysis of the viral determinants underlying replication kinetics and cellular tropism of human immunodeficiency virus. Pathobiology 60: 234245.

YS Nam , A Petrovic , KS Jeong and S Venkatesan (2001). Exchange of the basic domain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Rev for a polyarginine stretch expands the RNA binding specificity, and a minimal arginine cluster is required for optimal RRE RNA binding affinity, nuclear accumulation, and trans-activation. Journal of Virology 75: 29572971.

H Okamoto , CT Sheline , JL Corden , KA Jones and BM Peterlin (1996). Trans-activation by human immunodeficiency virus Tat protein requires the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 93: 1157511579.

HA Pancio , N Vander Heyden and L Ratner (2000). The C-terminal proline-rich tail of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 Vpx is necessary for nuclear localization of the viral preintegration complex in nondividing cells. Journal of Virology 74: 61626167.

JM Peloponese Jr, Y Collette , C Gregoire , C Bailly , D Campese , EF Meurs , D Olive and EP Loret (1999). Full peptide synthesis, purification, and characterization of six Tat variants. Differences observed between HIV-1 isolates from Africa and other continents. Journal of Biological Chemistry 274: 1147311478.

D Pieniazek , M Rayfield , DJ Hu , J Nkengasong , SZ Wiktor , R Downing , B Biryahwaho , T Mastro , A Tanuri , V Soriano , R Lal and T Dondero (2000). Protease sequences from HIV-1 group M subtypes A-H reveal distinct amino acid mutation patterns associated with protease resistance in protease inhibitor-naive individuals worldwide. HIV Variant Working Group. AIDS 14: 14891495.

V Piguet and D Trono (1999). The Nef protein of primate lentiviruses. Reviews in Medical Virology 9: 111120.

YH Ping and TM Rana (1999). Tat-associated kinase (p-TEFb): a component of transcription preinitiation and elongation complexes. Journal of Biological Chemistry 274: 73997404.

B Polack , I Schwartz , M Berthelemy , C Belloc , G Manand , A Vuillaume , T Baron , MA Gonda and D Levy (1996). Serologic evidence for bovine immunodeficiency virus infection in France. Veterinary Microbiology 48: 165173.

JD Puglisi , L Chen , S Blanchard and AD Frankel (1995). Solution structure of a bovine immunodeficiency virus Tat-TAR peptide-RNA complex. Science 270: 12001203.

L Rasmussen , JK Battles , WH Ennis , K Nagashima and MA Gonda (1990). Characterization of virus-like particles produced by a recombinant baculovirus containing the gag gene of the bovine immunodeficiency-like virus. Virology 178: 435451.

L Rasmussen , J Greenwood and MA Gonda (1992). Expression of bovine immunodeficiency virus. Virology 186: 551561.

A Rubio , M Leal , JA Pineda , A Caruz , F Luque , C Rey , A Sanchez-Quijano and E Lissen (1997). Increase in the frequency of mutation at codon 215 associated with zidovudine resistance in HIV-1-infected antiviral-naive patients from 1989 to 1996. AIDS 11: 11841186.

MJ Saltarelli , R Schoborg , SL Gdovin and JE Clements (1993). The CAEV tat gene trans-activates the viral LTR and is necessary for efficient viral replication. Virology 197: 3544.

RV Schoborg and JE Clements (1996). Definition of the RRE binding and activation domains of the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus Rev protein. Virology 226: 113121.

RV Schoborg , MJ Saltarelli and JE Clements (1994). A Rev protein is expressed in caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV)-infected cells and is required for efficient viral replication. Virology 202: 115.

L Scobie , C Venables , AR Sayers , S Weightman and O Jarrett (2001). Prevalence of bovine immunodeficiency virus infection in cattle in Great Britain. Veterinary Record 149: 459460.

HE Smith , RM Jacobs and B Mallard (1994). Cell-mediated and humoral immunity in sheep exposed to bovine immunodeficiency-like virus. Comparative Immunology Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 17: 2939.

TG Snider , PG Hoyt , BF Jenny , KS Coats , DG Luther , RW Storts , JK Battles and MA Gonda (1997). Natural and experimental bovine immunodeficiency virus infection in cattle. Veterinary Clinics of North America Food Animal Practice 13: 151176.

J Sodroski , WC Goh , C Rosen , K Campbell and WA Haseltine (1986). Role of the HTLV-III/LAV envelope in syncytium formation and cytopathicity. Nature 322: 470474.

MA Sommerfelt (1999). Retrovirus receptors. Journal of General Virology 80: 30493064.

K StCyr Coats , SB Pruett , JW Nash and CR Cooper (1994). Bovine immunodeficiency virus: incidence of infection in Mississippi dairy cattle. Veterinary Microbiology 42: 181189.

K Strebel , D Daugherty , K Clouse , D Cohen , T Folks and MA Martin (1987). The HIV ‘A’ (sor) gene product is essential for virus infectivity. Nature 328: 728738.

DL Suarez and CA Whetstone (1995). Identification of hypervariable and conserved regions in the surface envelope gene in the bovine lentivirus. Virology 212: 728733.

C Sune , AC Goldstrohm , J Peng , DH Price and MA Garcia-Blanco (2000). An in vitro transcription system that recapitulates equine infectious anemia virus tat-mediated inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat activity demonstrates a role for positive transcription elongation factor b and associated proteins in the mechanism of Tat activation. Virology 274: 356366.

R Taube , K Fujinaga , J Wimmer , M Barboric and M Peterlin (1999). Tat transactivation: A model for the regulation of eucaryotic transcriptional elongation. Virology 264: 245253.

R Taube , K Fujinaga , D Irwin , J Wimmer , M Geyer and BM Peterlin (2000). Interactions between equine cyclin T1, Tat, and TAR are disrupted by a leucine-to-valine substitution found in human cyclin T1. Journal of Virology 74: 892899.

LS Tiley , PH Brown , SY Le , JV Maizel , JE Clements and BR Cullen (1990). Visna virus encodes a post-transcriptional regulator of viral structural gene expression. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 87: 74977501.

LS Tiley , MH Malim , HK Tewary , PG Stockley and BR Cullen (1992). Identification of a high-affinity RNA-binding site for the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Rev protein. Proceedings of the National Academy of the Sciences of the United States of America 89: 758762.

U Truyen , CR Parrish , TC Harder and OR Kaaden (1995). There is nothing permanent except change. The emergence of new virus diseases. Veterinary Microbiology 43: 103122.

MJ Van Der Maaten and CA Whetstone (1992). Infection of rabbits with bovine immunodeficiency-like virus. Veterinary Microbiology 30: 125135.

C Venables , R Lysons , M Horigan , D Stagg and M Dawson (1997). Bovine immunodeficiency-like virus: inactivation in milk by pasteurisation. Veterinary Record 140: 275277.

R Walder , L Kalvatchev , F Perez , D Garzaro and M Barrios (2001). Bovine immunodeficiency virus in experimentally infected rabbit: tropism for lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues. Comparative Immunology Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 24: 120.

S Wareing , N Hartaningsih , GE Wilcox and WJ Penhale (1999). Evidence for immunosuppression associated with Jembrana disease virus infection of cattle. Veterinary Microbiology. 68: 179185.

CA Whetstone , MJ Van Der Maaten and JM Miller (1991). A western blot assay for the detection of antibodies to bovine immunodeficiency-like virus in experimentally inoculated cattle, sheep, and goats. Archives of Virology 116: 119131.

GE Wilcox , BJ Chadwick and G Kertayadnya (1995). Recent advances in the understanding of Jembrana disease. Veterinary Microbiology 46: 249255.

D Willbold , U Kruger , R Frank , R Rosin-Arbesfeld , A Gazit , A Yaniv and P Rosch (1993). Sequence-specific resonance assignments of the 1H-NMR spectra of a synthetic, biologically active EIAV Tat protein. Biochemistry 32: 84398445.

D Willbold , R Rosin-Arbesfeld , H Sticht , R Frank and P Rosch (1994). Structure of the equine infectious anemia virus Tat protein. Science 264: 15841587.

D Willbold , AU Metzger , H Sticht , KC Gallert , R Voit , N Dank , P Bayer , G Krauss , RS Goody and P Rosch (1998). Equine infectious anemia virus transactivator is a homeodomain-type protein. Journal of Molecular Biology 277: 749755.

TF Wolfs , PL Nara and J Goudsmit (1993). Genotypic and phenotypic variation of HIV-1: impact on AIDS pathogenesis and vaccination. Chemical Immunology 56: 133.

SM Wright , A Mleczko and KS Coats (2002). Bovine immunodeficiency virus expression in vitro is reduced in the presence of beta-chemokines, MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta and Rantes. Veterinary Research Communications 26: 239250.

L Wu , WA Paxton , N Kassam , N Ruffing , JB Rottman , N Sullivan , H Choe , J Sodroski , W Newman , RA Koup and CR Mackay (1997). CCR5 levels and expression pattern correlate with infectability by macrophage-tropic HIV-1, in vitro. Journal of Experimental Medicine 185: 16811691.

K Yankulov and D Bentley (1998). Transcriptional control: Tat cofactors and transcriptional elongation. Current Biology 8: 447449.

ML Zapp , TJ Hope , TG Parslow and MR Green (1991). Oligomerization and RNA binding domains of the type 1 human immunodeficiency virus Rev protein: a dual function for an arginine-rich binding motif. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 88: 77347738.

MJ Zhang and AI Dayton (1998). Tolerance of diverse amino acid substitutions at conserved positions in the nuclear export signal (NES) of HIV-1 Rev. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 243: 113116.

S Zhang , DL Troyer , S Kapil , L Zheng , G Kennedy , M Weiss , W Xue , C Wood and HC Minocha (1997b). Detection of proviral DNA of bovine immunodeficiency virus in bovine tissues by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and PCR in situ hybridization. Virology 236: 249257.

J Zhang , N Tamilarasu , S Hwang , ME Garber , I Huq , KA Jones and TM Rana (2000). HIV-1 TAR RNA enhances the interaction between Tat and cyclin T1. Journal of Biological Chemistry 275: 3431434319.

Q Zhou , D Chen , E Pierstorff and K Luo (1998). Transcription elongation factor P-TEFb mediates Tat activation of HIV-1 transcription at multiple stages. EMBO Journal 17: 36813691.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Animal Health Research Reviews
  • ISSN: 1466-2523
  • EISSN: 1475-2654
  • URL: /core/journals/animal-health-research-reviews
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords: