Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

The effect of avoparcin on the ileal and faecal digestibility of nitrogen and amino acids in the milk-fed calf

  • P. J. Moughan (a1), E. V. J. Stevens (a1), I. D. Reisima (a1) and J. Rendel (a1)

Abstract

The study aimed to determine the effect of the growth promotant avoparcin on the digestion and absorption of nitrogen and amino acids from pre-ruminant milk-fed calves. Eighteen male Friesian calves, 45 kg live weight, were allocated to three diets: a commercial high-quality milk replacer compound (control); control with 100 mg zinc bacitracin per kg (positive control) and control with 40 mg avoparcin per kg. The diets were given once-daily at a set rate of intake during a 14-day metabolic study. On the 15th day the calves were fed at 2-h intervals and ileal digesta were sampled (8 h after the start of feeding) from the euthanazed animal. Estimates of apparent ileal digestibility were determined by reference to an indigestible marker, with the comparable faecal estimates determined following the total collection of faeces.

There was no significant effect of avoparcin or zinc bacitracin addition on faecal apparent digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen, gross energy and amino acids or on ileal apparent digestibility of nitrogen and amino acids. Neither was there a significant effect of either additive on nitrogen retention, daily urinary urea and total nitrogen excretions or portal and peripheral plasma urea concentrations. Ileal apparent digestibility coefficients determined on the control diet ranged from 0-82 for glycine to 0-96 for phenylalanine, tyrosine and methionine. The ileal measures of apparent digestibility were more variable than the comparable values determined over the entire digestive tract. Measurements on the faeces compared with measurements on digesta at the terminal ileum gave higher values (P < 0·05) of apparent digestibility for nitrogen and 10 of the 16 amino acids.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Association Of Official Analytical Chemists. 1975. Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 12th ed., p. 16. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC.
Badawy, A. M. 1964. Changes in the protein and non-protein nitrogen in the digesta of the sheep. In The Role of the Gastrointestinal Tract in Protein Metabolism (ed. Munro, H. N.), pp. 175185. Blackwell, Oxford.
Blaxter, K. L. and Wood, W. A. 1951. The nutrition of the young Ayrshire calf. 1. The endogenous nitrogen and basal energy metabolism of the calf. British Journal of Nutrition 5: 1125.
Das, T. K. and Waterlow, J. C. 1974. The rate of adaptation of urea cycle enzymes, aminotransferases and glutamic dehydrogenase to changes in dietary protein intake. British Journal of Nutrition 32: 353373.
Davey, A. W. F. 1974. Nutrition of the pre-ruminant calf. Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production 34: 133144.
Edwards, J. R. 1986. Growth-promotion by antibacterial agents. In Laboratory Animals (ed. Ruitenberg, E. J. and Peters, P. W. J.), pp. 291302. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
Emmons, D. B. and Lister, E. E. 1976. Quality of protein in milk replacers for young calves. I. Factors affecting in vitro curd formation by rennet (chymosin, rennin) from reconstituted skim milk powder. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 56: 317325.
Fenton, T. W. and Fenton, M. 1979. An improved procedure for the determination of chromic oxide in feed and feces. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 59: 631634.
Ferris, J. A. and Thomas, J. W. 1974. Relationship of immunoglobulin to dairy calf mortality and influence of herd environment. Journal of Dairy Science 57: 641 (Abstr.).
Guilloteau, P., Patureau-Mlrand, P., Toullec, R. and Pruonaud, J. 1980. Digestion of milk protein and methanol-grown bacteria protein in the preruminant calf. 2. Amino acid composition of ileal digesta and faeces and blood levels of free amino acids. Reproduction Nutrition Developpement 20: 615629.
Guilloteau, P. and Toullec, R. 1980. Digestion of milk protein and methanol-grown bacteria protein in the preruminant calf. 1. Kinetics and balance in the terminal small intestine and faecal balance. Reproduction Nutrition Développement 20: 601613.
Guilloteau, P., Toullec, R., Grongnet, J. F., Patureau-Mirand, P., Prugnaud, J. and Sauvant, D. 1986. Digestion of milk, fish and soya-bean protein in the preruminant calf: flow of digesta, apparent digestibility at the end of the ileum and amino acid composition of ileal digesta. British Journal of Nutrition 55: 571592.
Hellemond, K. K. van and Weerden, E. J. van. 1973. Milk-protein substitutes in rations for veal calves. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 32: 231235.
Holmes, C. W. and Davey, A. W. F. 1976. The energy metabolism of young Jersey and Friesian calves led fresh milk. Animal Production 23: 4353.
Jacobson, N. L. 1969. Energy and protein requirements of the calf. Journal of Dairy Science 52: 13161321.
Jolliffe, I. T. 1972. Discarding variables in a principal component analysis. I. Artificial data. Applied Statistics 21: 160173.
Jolliffe, I. T. 1973. Discarding variables in a principal component analysis. II. Real data. Applied Statistics 22: 2131.
Just, A. 1980. Ileal digestibility of protein: applied aspects. In Current Concepts of Digestion and Absorption in Pigs (ed. Low, A. G. and Partridge, I. G.), pp. 6675. National Institute for Research in Dairying, Reading.
Livingstone, R. M., Fowler, V. R. and McWilliam, R. 1982. The effect of two antibacterial agents in a pig diet on the digestibility of protein and organic matter measured at the terminal ileum and over the whole gut. Animal Production 34: 403404 (Abstr.).
Lodge, G. A. and Lister, E. E. 1973. Effects of increasing the energy value of a whole milk diet for calves. I. Nutrient digestibility and nitrogen retention. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 53: 307316.
MacGregok, R. C. 1983. Growth promoters and their importance in ruminant livestock production. In Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition (ed. Haresign, W.). pp. 163177. Butterworths, London.
MacGregor, R. C. and Armstrong, D. G. 1984. The feed antibiotic Avoparcin and net uptake of amino acids from the small intestine of sheep. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 64: Suppl., pp. 134135.
Mancini, G., Carbonara, A. O. and Herman, J. H. 1965. Immuno chemical quantitation of antigen by single radial immuno-diffusion. Immuno Chemistry 2: 235254.
Mardia, K. V., Kent, J. T. and Bibby, J. M. 1979. Multivariate Analysis. Academic Press. London.
Marsh, W. H., Finglrhut, B. and Miller, H. 1965. Automated and manual direct methods for the determination of blood urea. Clinical Chemistry 11: 624627.
Morrison, D. F. 1986. Multivariate Statistical Methods. McGraw Hill, Singapore.
Moughan, P. J. and Smith, W. C. 1985. Determination and assessment of apparent ileal amino acid digestibility coefficients for the growing pig. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 28: 365370.
Nishimatsu, I. and Kumeno, F. 1965. Nutrition of young dairy calves. I. Study on chromic oxide and polyethylene glycol as index substances of digestion trials with young dairy calves. Journal of Zootechnical Science 36: 544549.
Parker, D. S., MacGregor, R. C., Finlayson, H. J., Stockill, P. and Balios, J. 1984. The effect of including Avoparcin in the diet on cell turnover and enzyme activity in the mucosa of the rat small intestine. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 64: Suppi, pp. 136137.
Radostits, O. M. and Bell, J. M. 1968. Nutrient digestibility by new-born calves fed milk replacer. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 48: 293302.
Rayner, I. H., Smith, P. C. and Reid, J. 1970. Energy supplements to skim-milk for young calves. Proceedings of Australian Society of Animal Production 8: 252257.
Wrong, O. M., Edmonds, C. J. and Chadwick, V. S. 1981. The Large Intestine: Its Role in Mammalian Nutrition and Homeostasis. MTP Press, Lancaster.
Zebrowska, T. 1975. The apparent digestibility of nitrogen and individual amino acids in the large intestine of pigs. Roczniki Nauk Rolniczych, Seria B 97: 117123.

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed