Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Food ingredient selection by growing and finishing pigs: effects on performance and carcass quality

  • B. P. Gill (a1), G. E. Onibi (a2) and P. R. English (a2)

Abstract

The aim was to investigate if selection of a balanced diet by growing and finishing pigs from foods differing in protein content is modified by the intrinsic nutrient and chemical properties of the high protein food ingredient offered. The treatments were as follows: a free-choice was offered between milled barley and either soya-bean meal (SBM) or low-glucosinolate rapeseed meal (RSM) or an equal mixture of SBM and RSM (SBM+RSM). In two further treatments (SBM/RSM and RSM/SBM) the protein supplements were changed when pigs reached 50 kg. These were compared with a control diet (CONT) formulated to provide 13-0 MJ digestible energy (DE) and 10 g lysine per kg and containing barley (680 g/kg), SBM (150 g/kg) and RSM (150 g/kg). A total of 72 pigs weighing about 30 kg were randomly allocated to the treatments in groups of six (three boars and three gilts). Pigs were slaughtered at about 90 kg and the chilled carcasses were assessed by measuring subcutaneous fat depths and cross-sections of the eye-muscle at the last rib. Responses from 30 to 90 kg on treatments CONT, SBM, RSM and SBM+RSM were, for food intake 2·57, 2·37, 2·21 and 247 (s.e. 0·08) kg/day (P < 0·05), for growth rate 0·93, 0·87, 0·70 and 0·82 (s.e. 0·05) kg/day (P < 0·05) and for food conversion 2·77, 2·72, 3·17 and 3·01 (s.e. 0·181) kg food per kg growth (P > 0·05) respectively. The amount of protein supplement selected in the diet from 30 to 90 kg on treatments SBM, RSM and SBM+RSM averaged 524, 495 and 483 (s.e.d. 64·9) g/kg respectively. With SBM this proportion decreased with increasing body weight (P < 0·01; R2 = 0·58). Changing RSM to SBM at 50 kg increased preference for the protein supplement and intake of SBM averaged 983 g/kg from 50 to 90 kg. On the other hand, switching from SBM to RSM increased preference for barley and intake of RSM averaged 572 g/kg. There were no significant differences in carcass quality but treatments RSM and SBM/RSM tended to produce increased fat depths. In conclusion, the use of RSM did not give a satisfactory level of -performance under the restricted free-choice feeding environment of this study. Preference and nutrient intake were adversely modified by RSM possibly due to the undesirable effects of antinutritive factors.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 1984. Official methods of analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 14th ed. (ed. Williams, S.). Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Virginia.
Atkinson, T., Fowler, V. R., Garton, G. A. and Lough, A. K. 1972. A rapid method for the accurate determination of lipid in animal tissues. Analyst, London 97: 562568.
Bradford, M. M. V. and Gous, R. M. 1991. The response of growing pigs to a choice of diets differing in protein content. Animal Production 52:185192.
Bradford, M. M. V. and Gous, R. M. 1992. The response of weaner pigs to a choice of foods differing in protein content. Animal Production 55: 227232.
Braude, R. 1967. The effects of changes in feeding patterns on the performance of pigs. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 26: 163181.
Diestre, A. and Kempster, A. J. 1985. The estimation of pig carcass composition from different measurements with special reference to classification and grading. Animal Production 41: 383391.
Eggum, B. O. 1968. Aminosyrekoncentration og Proteinkvalitet, pp. 190. Landokonomisk Forsogslaboratorium, Stougaards Forlag, Kobenhaven.
Evaard, J. M. 1914. The “free-choice” system of feeding swine. Proceedings of the American Society of Animal Production, pp. 5064.
Fenwick, G. R. 1984. Rapeseed meal as an animal feedingstuff: the problems and analysis of glucosinolates. Journal of the Association of Public Analysts 22:117130.
Garcia, J., Hankins, W. G. and Rusiniak, K. W. 1974. Behavioural regulation of the milieu interne in man and rats. Science, New York 185: 824831.
Gill, B. P., Fowler, V. R., Taylor, A. G. and English, P. R. 1992. Response of finishing pigs (50 to 90 kg) to dietary ideal protein. Animal Production 54: 481.
Huisman, J. and Jansman, A. J. M. 1991. Dietary effects and some analytical aspects of antinutritional factors in peas (Pisum sativum), common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and soya beans (Glycine max L.) in monogastric farm animals. A literature review. Nutrition Abstracts and Reviews, series B 61: 900921.
Hutchinson, H. D., Terrill, S. W., Jensen, A. H., Becker, D. E. and Norton, H. W. 1957. Comparison of free-choice and complete rations for growing-finishing pigs on pasture and drylot. Journal of Animal Science 16: 562568.
Kyriazakis, I. and Emmans, G. C. 1991. Diet selection in pigs: dietary choices made by growing pigs following a period of underfeeding with protein. Animal Production 52: 337346.
Kyriazakis, I. and Emmans, G. C. 1992. Selection of a diet by growing pigs given choices between foods differing in contents of protein and rapeseed meal. Appetite 19:121132.
Kyriazakis, I. and Emmans, G. C. 1993. The effect of protein source on the diets selected by pigs given a choice between a low and high protein food. Physiology and Behaviour 53: 683688.
Kyriazakis, I., Emmans, G. C. and Taylor, A. J. 1992. Dietary choices made by growing pigs given foods that differ in protein content and the inclusion level of rapeseed meal. Animal Production 54: 452 (abstr.).
Kyriazakis, I., Emmans, G. C. and Whittemore, C. T. 1990. Diet selection in pigs: choices made by growing pigs given foods of different protein concentrations. Animal Production 51:189199.
Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. 1993. Prediction of the energy values of compound feeding stuffs for farm animals. Summary of the recommendations of a working party sponsored by the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and food, v. 1285, p. 1617.
Moss, R. 1991. Diet selection — an ecological perspective. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 50: 7175.
Partridge, I. G., Low, A. G. and Matte, J. J. 1987. Doublelow rapeseed meal for pigs: ileal apparent digestibility of amino acids in diets containing various proportions of rapeseed meal, fish meal and soya-bean meal. Animal Production 44: 415420.
Rogers, P. J. and Blundell, J. E. 1991. Mechanisms of diet selection: the translation of needs into behaviour. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 50: 6570.
Rose, S. P. and Kyriazakis, I. 1991. Diet selection of pigs and poultry. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 50: 8798.
Ross, M. H., Lustbader, E. and Bras, G. 1976. Dietary practices and growth responses as predictors of longevity. Nature, London 262: 548553.
Sanahuja, J. C. and Harper, A. 1963. Amino acid balance and imbalance. XII. Effect of amino acid balance on self-selection of diet by the rat. Journal of Nutrition 81: 363371.
Smith, C. A. and Dacombe, C. 1987. Rapid method for determining total glucosinolates in rapeseed by measurement of enzymatically released glucose. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 38: 141150.
Smith, C., Van Megen, W., Twaalfhoven, L. and Hitchcock, C. 1980. The determination of trypsin inhibitor levels in foodstuffs. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 31: 341350.
Snedecor, G. W. and Cochran, W. G. 1967. Statistical methods. Iowa State University Press, Iowa.
Vermorel, M., Heaney, R. K. and Fenwick, G. R. 1986. Nutritive value of rapeseed meal: effects of individual glucosinolates. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 37:11971202.
Wahlstrom, R. C. and Libal, G. W. 1973. Performance of swine fed opaque-2 or normal corn free-choice. Journal of Animal Science 36: 898901.
Yen, H. T., Cole, D. J. A. and Lewis, D. 1986. Amino acid requirements of growing pigs. 7. The response of pigs from 25 to 55 kg live weight to dietary ideal protein. Animal Production 43: 141154.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Animal Science
  • ISSN: 1357-7298
  • EISSN: 1748-748X
  • URL: /core/journals/animal-science
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed