Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-55597f9d44-mm7gn Total loading time: 0.41 Render date: 2022-08-11T05:07:24.467Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

Article contents

Growth, blood, carcass and meat quality traits from local pig breeds and their crosses

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  03 October 2019

J. M. Martins*
Affiliation:
Departamento de Zootecnia, Instituto de Ciências Agrárias e Ambientais Mediterrânicas, Universidade de Évora, Pólo da Mitra, Ap. 94, Évora 7006-554, Portugal
R. Fialho
Affiliation:
Instituto de Ciências Agrárias e Ambientais Mediterrânicas, Universidade de Évora, Pólo da Mitra, Ap. 94, Évora 7006-554, Portugal
A. Albuquerque
Affiliation:
Instituto de Ciências Agrárias e Ambientais Mediterrânicas, Universidade de Évora, Pólo da Mitra, Ap. 94, Évora 7006-554, Portugal
J. Neves
Affiliation:
Departamento de Zootecnia, Instituto de Ciências Agrárias e Ambientais Mediterrânicas, Universidade de Évora, Pólo da Mitra, Ap. 94, Évora 7006-554, Portugal
A. Freitas
Affiliation:
Departamento de Zootecnia, Instituto de Ciências Agrárias e Ambientais Mediterrânicas, Universidade de Évora, Pólo da Mitra, Ap. 94, Évora 7006-554, Portugal
J. T. Nunes
Affiliation:
Departamento de Medicina Veterinária, Instituto de Ciências Agrárias e Ambientais Mediterrânicas, Universidade de Évora, Pólo da Mitra, Ap. 94, Évora 7006-554, Portugal
R. Charneca
Affiliation:
Departamento de Medicina Veterinária, Instituto de Ciências Agrárias e Ambientais Mediterrânicas, Universidade de Évora, Pólo da Mitra, Ap. 94, Évora 7006-554, Portugal
*
Get access

Abstract

Contrary to intensive pig production, local pig breeds and their production systems are able to respond to the high criteria and expectations of modern society in regard to some environmental aspects, animal welfare, food quality and healthiness. This study proposes the recovery, study and use of a cross between two local breeds, contributing to animal biodiversity conservation and to the income of local pig producers. This work studied the growth performance and blood, carcass and meat quality traits of Alentejano (AL), Bísaro (BI) and Ribatejano (RI) (AL × BI, BI × AL) castrated male pigs. Raised outdoors, pigs were fed commercial diets ad libitum and killed at ~65 kg (trial 1, n = 10 from each genotype) and ~150 kg BW (trial 2, n = 9 from each genotype). In trial 1, AL and AL × BI attained slaughter weight later than BI and BI × AL pigs, with AL presenting lower average daily gains than the other genotypes (P < 0.001). Alentejano and RI pigs presented higher (P < 0.01) levels of plasma total protein than BI. Overall, carcass traits were affected by genotype, with length (P < 0.01), yield (P = 0.07) and lean cut proportions (P < 0.01) lower in AL than BI, and intermediate values for crossed pigs. Conversely, AL pigs presented higher fat cut proportion (P < 0.01), average backfat thickness (P < 0.001) and ‘zwei punkte’ fat depth (P < 0.01) than BI and RI pigs. Alentejano pigs also presented higher Longissimus lumborum (LL) intramuscular fat (P < 0.05), myoglobin content and ultimate pH (P < 0.01), but lower total collagen (P < 0.05), drip (P < 0.001) and cooking losses (P < 0.01), and shear force (P < 0.001) than all other genotypes. Finally, LL showed a more intense red colour in AL than in BI pigs. In trial 2, AL pigs confirmed to be a slow-growing obese breed with lower bone and lean cut proportions than BI, and higher LL intramuscular fat, richer colour, lower water loss and higher tenderness. In both trials, RI pigs grew faster, with higher lean and lower fat cut proportions and backfat thickness, and with overall LL characteristics comparable to those observed in AL pigs. This work demonstrates some clear differences between AL and BI breeds while showing that their crosses present intermediate characteristics in most studied traits. These data on RI pigs can be useful to breeders’ associations and farmers in order to consider the use of these crosses as an option or complement to pure line breeding.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
© The Animal Consortium 2019 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

AOAC 2011. Official methods of analysis of AOAC international. 18th edition, The Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Gaithersburg, MD, USA.Google Scholar
Bee, G, Guex, G and Herzog, W 2004. Free-range rearing of pigs during the winter: adaptations in muscle fiber characteristics and effects on adipose tissue composition and meat quality traits. Journal of Animal Science 82, 12061218.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bergstra, T, Hogeveen, H, Kuiper, WE, Lansink, AGJMO and Stassen, EN 2017. Attitudes of Dutch Citizens toward Sow Husbandry with regard to animals, humans, and the environment. Anthrozoös 30, 195211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bidner, BS, Ellis, M, Brewer, MS, Campion, D, Wilson, ER and McKeith, FK 2004. Effect of ultimate pH on the quality characteristics of pork. Journal of Muscle Foods 15, 139154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brewer, MS, Zhu, LG, Bidner, B, Meisinger, DJ and McKeith, FK 2001. Measuring pork color: effects of bloom time, muscle, pH and relationship to instrumental parameters. Meat Science 57, 169176.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Čandek-Potokar, M, Lukač, NB, Tomažin, U, Škrlep, M and Nieto, R 2019. Analytical review of productive performance of local pig breeds. In European local pig breeds – diversity and performance (ed. Candek-Potokar, M and Linan, RMN), pp. 281303. IntechOpen, London, UK.Google Scholar
Carey, GB 1997. The swine as a model for studying exercise-induced changes in lipid metabolism. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 29, 14371443.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Charneca, R and Nunes, JLT 2013. Fatty and lean piglets establish early differenciation in DNA, RNA and protein retain: comparative trial on Alentejano breed vs. crossbred piglets. Acta Agriculturae Slovenica Supplement 4, 5355.Google Scholar
Christensen, LB 2003. Drip loss sampling in porcine m. longissimus dorsi. Meat Science 63, 469477.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Christensen, M, Grunert, K, Bonneau, M, Arnau, J, Trienekens, J, Oksbjerg, N, Greef, Kd, Petersen, B and Karlsson, AH 2008. Improving the quality of pork and pork products (EU project). In 54th International Conference of Meat Science and Technology, 10–15 August 2008, Cape Town, South Africa, pp 3.Google Scholar
Coma, J, Zimmerman, DR and Carrion, D 1995. Relationship of rate of lean tissue growth and other factors to concentration of urea in plasma of pigs. Journal of Animal Science 73, 36493656.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dalla Bona, M, Schiavon, S, Carraro, L and Gallo, L 2016. Growth performance, carcass traits and meat quality of growing pigs on different feeding regimes slaughtered at 145 kg BW. Italian Journal of Animal Science 15, 419427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dobao, MT, Rodrigañez, J, Silio, L, Toro, MA, de Pedro, E and de Siles, JLG 1987. Crecimiento y características de canal en cerdos Ibéricos, Duroc-Jersey x Ibérico y Jiaxing x Ibérico. Investigación agraria. Producción y sanidad animales 2, 923.Google Scholar
Essén-Gustavsson, B, Karlsson, A, Lundström, K and Enfält, AC 1994. Intramuscular fat and muscle fibre lipid contents in halothane-gene-free pigs fed high or low protein diets and its relation to meat quality. Meat Science 38, 269277.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
FAO 2011. Biodiversity for food and agriculture. FAO & Platform for Agrobiodiversity Research (PAR), Rome, Italy.Google Scholar
Faucitano, L 1998. Preslaughter stressors effects on pork: a review. Journal of Muscle Foods 9, 293303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fernandez, X, Monin, G, Talmant, A, Mourot, J and Lebret, B 1999. Influence of intramuscular fat content on the quality of pig meat. 1. Composition of the lipid fraction and sensory characteristics of m. longissimus lumborum. Meat Science 53, 5965.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Folch, J, Lees, M and Stanley, GHS 1957. A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipides from animal tissues. Journal of Biological Chemistry 226, 497509.Google ScholarPubMed
Font-i-Furnols, M and Guerrero, L 2014. Consumer preference, behavior and perception about meat and meat products: an overview. Meat Science 98, 361371.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Freitas, AB 2014. A raça suína Alentejana: passado, presente e futuro. In Las razas porcinas Iberoamericanas: un enfoque etnozootécnico (ed. Silva Filha, OL), pp. 5580. Instituto Federal Baiano, Salvador, Brasil.Google Scholar
Gago, A 1989. Los lipidos de los tejidos adiposos del cerdo Ibérico en relacion con su genética, alimentacion y manejo. In I Colloque sur la Production Porcine en Europe Méditérranéenne, 14–16 Novembre 1989, Ajaccio, France, pp 9.Google Scholar
Grave, MM 2015. Características da carcaça em suínos de raça Alentejana e cruzados Large White x Landrace terminados em montanheira. Master of Science, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade de Lisboa / School of Agriculture, University of Lisbon, Lisboa, Portugal.Google Scholar
Gregory, NG and Grandin, T 1998. Animal welfare and meat science. CABI Publishing, New York, NY, USA.Google Scholar
Hocquette, JF, Gondret, F, Baéza, E, Médale, F, Jurie, C and Pethick, DW 2010. Intramuscular fat content in meat-producing animals: development, genetic and nutritional control, and identification of putative markers. Animal 4, 303319.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Honikel, KO 1987. How to measure the water-holding capacity of meat? Recommendation of standardized methods. In Evaluation and control of meat quality in pigs (ed. Tarrant, PV, Eikelenboom, G and Monin, G), pp. 129142. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Honikel, KO 1998. Reference methods for the assessment of physical characteristics of meat. Meat Science 49, 447457.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Huff-Lonergan, E and Lonergan, SM 2005. Mechanisms of water-holding capacity of meat: the role of postmortem biochemical and structural changes. Meat Science 71, 194204.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
INRA 1984. L’ alimentation des animaux monogastriques: porc, lapin, volailles. INRA, Paris, France.Google Scholar
Lebret, B, Dourmad, JY, Mourot, J, Pollet, PY and Gondret, F 2014. Production performance, carcass composition, and adipose tissue traits of heavy pigs: Influence of breed and production system. Journal of Animal Science 92, 35433556.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lebret, B, Ecolan, P, Bonhomme, N, Méteau, K and Prunier, A 2015. Influence of production system in local and conventional pig breeds on stress indicators at slaughter, muscle and meat traits and pork eating quality. Animal 9, 14041413.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Leite, A, Oliveira, A, Amorim, A, Gonçalves, A, Paulos, K, Pereira, E, Rodrigues, S and Teixeira, A 2015. Qualidade da Carne. In Porco Bísaro – Qualidade da carcaça e da carne (ed. Fernandes, A and Teixeira, A), pp. 8196. Quinta do Bísaro, Bragança, Portugal.Google Scholar
Lingaas, F, Brun, E, Aarskaug, T and Havre, G 1992. Biochemical blood parameters in pigs. 2. Estimates of heritability for 20 blood parameters. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics 109, 281290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
MAM 2015. Ministério da Agricultura e do Mar, Portaria nº55/2015 de 27 de fevereiro. In Diário da República, 1ª série – N.º 41-27 de fevereiro, pp. 12171222. INCM, Ministério da Agricultura e do Mar, Lisboa, Portugal.Google Scholar
Martins, JM, Neves, J, Freitas, AB and Nunes, J 2007. Effects of body weight on some blood plasma parameters of pigs from the Alentejano breed. In Options Méditerranéennes, Series A (ed. Audiot, A, Casabianca, F and Monin, G), pp. 123128. CIHEAM/INRA/SEAE, Zaragoza, Spain.Google Scholar
Martins, JM, Neves, JA, Freitas, A and Tirapicos, JL 2012. Effect of long-term betaine supplementation on chemical and physical characteristics of three muscles from the Alentejano pig. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 92, 21222127.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Martins, JM, Neves, JA, Freitas, A and Tirapicos, JL 2015. Rearing system and oleic acid supplementation effect on carcass and lipid characteristics of two muscles from an obese pig breed. Animal 9, 17211730.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mayoral, AI, Dorado, M, Guillén, MT, Robina, A, Vivo, JM, Vázquez, C and Ruiz, J 1999. Development of meat and carcass quality characteristics in Iberian pigs reared outdoors. Meat Science 52, 315324.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McNeel, RL, Ding, ST, Smith, EO and Mersmann, HJ 2000. Effect of feed restriction on adipose tissue transcript concentrations in genetically lean and obese pigs. Journal of Animal Science 78, 934942.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Merck 2016. The Merck veterinary manual. 11th edition, Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA.Google Scholar
Miranda do Vale, J 1949. Suínos. In Gado Bissulco (ed. Miranda do Vale, J), pp. 3578. Livraria Sá da Costa, Lisboa, Portugal.Google Scholar
Muñoz, M, Bozzi, R, García, F, Núñez, Y, Geraci, C, Crovetti, A, García-Casco, J, Alves, E, Škrlep, M, Charneca, R, Martins, JM, Quintanilla, R, Tibau, J, Kušec, G, Djurkin-Kušec, I, Mercat, MJ, Riquet, J, Estellé, J, Zimmer, C, Razmaite, V, Araujo, JP, Radović, Č, Savić, R, Karolyi, D, Gallo, M, Čandek-Potokar, M, Fontanesi, L, Fernández, AI and Óvilo, C 2018. Diversity across major and candidate genes in European local pig breeds. PLoS ONE 13, e0207475.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Muriel, E, Ruiz, J, Ventanas, J, Petrón, MJ and Antequera, T 2004. Meat quality characteristics in different lines of Iberian pigs. Meat Science 67, 299307.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Neves, JA, Sabio, E, Freitas, A and Almeida, JAA 1996. Déposition des lipides intramusculaires dans le porc Alentejano. L’effet du niveau nutritif pendant la croissance et du régime alimentaire pendant l’engraissement. Produzione Animale 9, 9397.Google Scholar
Porter, V 1993. Spain and Portugal. In Pigs: a handbook to the breeds of the world (ed. Porter, V and Mountfield, TJ), pp. 137140. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY, USA.Google Scholar
Pugliese, C and Sirtori, F 2012. Quality of meat and meat products produced from southern European pig breeds. Meat Science 90, 511518.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rehfeldt, C and Kuhn, G 2006. Consequences of birth weight for postnatal performance and carcass quality in pigs as related to myogenesis. Journal of Animal Science 84, E113E123.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Santos Silva, J 2012. Production systems and sustainable management of pigs in the Mediterranean region. In 7th International Symposium on the Mediterranean Pig (ed. De Pedro, EJ and Cabezas, AB), pp. 99107. CIHEAM, Zaragoza, Spain.Google Scholar
Santos e Silva, J, Ferreira-Cardoso, J, Bernardo, A and de Costa, JSP 2000a. Conservation and development of the Bísaro pig. Characterization and zootechnical evaluation of the breed for production and genetic management. In Quality of meat and fat in pigs as affected by genetics and nutrition (ed. Wenk, C, Fernández, A and Dupuis, M), pp. 8592. EEAP and Wageningen Pers, Zurich, Switzerland.Google Scholar
Santos e Silva, J, Ferreira-Cardoso, J, Silva, S, Bernardo, A, Ferrand, N, Pereira, A and de Costa, JSP 2000b. Detection of crosses in the Bísaro breed and impact of halothane gene on carcass and meat quality. In 51st Annual Meeting of the European Association for Animal Production, 21–24 August 2000, The Hague, The Netherlands, pp 7.Google Scholar
Serrano, MP 2008. A study of factors that influence growth performance and carcass and meat quality of Iberian pigs reared under intensive management. PhD, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid/Technical University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain.Google Scholar
Van Oeckel, MJ, Warnants, N and Boucqué, CV 1999. Pork tenderness estimation by taste panel, Warner–Bratzler shear force and on-line methods. Meat Science 53, 259267.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wu, G, Bazer, FW, Davis, TA, Jaeger, LA, Johnson, GA, Kim, SW, Knabe, DA, Meininger, CJ, Spencer, TE and Yin, Y-L 2007. Important roles for the arginine family of amino acids in swine nutrition and production. Livestock Science 112, 822.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Supplementary material: File

Martins et al. supplementary material

Tables S1-S5

Download Martins et al. supplementary material(File)
File 123 KB

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Growth, blood, carcass and meat quality traits from local pig breeds and their crosses
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Growth, blood, carcass and meat quality traits from local pig breeds and their crosses
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Growth, blood, carcass and meat quality traits from local pig breeds and their crosses
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *