Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-59b7f5684b-hd9dq Total loading time: 0.634 Render date: 2022-10-04T22:55:35.216Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "displayNetworkTab": true, "displayNetworkMapGraph": true, "useSa": true } hasContentIssue true

Article contents

Metabolic and hormonal acclimation to heat stress in domesticated ruminants

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  14 May 2010

U. Bernabucci*
Affiliation:
Dipartimento di Produzioni Animali, Università degli Studi della Tuscia, 01100-Viterbo, Italy
N. Lacetera
Affiliation:
Dipartimento di Produzioni Animali, Università degli Studi della Tuscia, 01100-Viterbo, Italy
L. H. Baumgard
Affiliation:
Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
R. P. Rhoads
Affiliation:
Department of Animal Sciences, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
B. Ronchi
Affiliation:
Dipartimento di Produzioni Animali, Università degli Studi della Tuscia, 01100-Viterbo, Italy
A. Nardone
Affiliation:
Dipartimento di Produzioni Animali, Università degli Studi della Tuscia, 01100-Viterbo, Italy
*
E-mail: bernab@unitus.it
Get access

Abstract

Environmentally induced periods of heat stress decrease productivity with devastating economic consequences to global animal agriculture. Heat stress can be defined as a physiological condition when the core body temperature of a given species exceeds its range specified for normal activity, which results from a total heat load (internal production and environment) exceeding the capacity for heat dissipation and this prompts physiological and behavioral responses to reduce the strain. The ability of ruminants to regulate body temperature is species- and breed-dependent. Dairy breeds are typically more sensitive to heat stress than meat breeds, and higher-producing animals are more susceptible to heat stress because they generate more metabolic heat. During heat stress, ruminants, like other homeothermic animals, increase avenues of heat loss and reduce heat production in an attempt to maintain euthermia. The immediate responses to heat load are increased respiration rates, decreased feed intake and increased water intake. Acclimatization is a process by which animals adapt to environmental conditions and engage behavioral, hormonal and metabolic changes that are characteristics of either acclimatory homeostasis or homeorhetic mechanisms used by the animals to survive in a new ‘physiological state’. For example, alterations in the hormonal profile are mainly characterized by a decline and increase in anabolic and catabolic hormones, respectively. The response to heat load and the heat-induced change in homeorhetic modifiers alters post-absorptive energy, lipid and protein metabolism, impairs liver function, causes oxidative stress, jeopardizes the immune response and decreases reproductive performance. These physiological modifications alter nutrient partitioning and may prevent heat-stressed lactating cows from recruiting glucose-sparing mechanisms (despite the reduced nutrient intake). This might explain, in large part, why decreased feed intake only accounts for a minor portion of the reduced milk yield from environmentally induced hyperthermic cows. How these metabolic changes are initiated and regulated is not known. It also remains unclear how these changes differ between short-term v. long-term heat acclimation to impact animal productivity and well-being. A better understanding of the adaptations enlisted by ruminants during heat stress is necessary to enhance the likelihood of developing strategies to simultaneously improve heat tolerance and increase productivity.

Type
Full Paper
Copyright
Copyright © The Animal Consortium 2010

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Adamowicz, T, Pers, E, Lechniak, D 2005. A new SNP in the 3-UTR of the Hsp70-1 gene in Bos taurus and Bos indicus. Biochemical Genetics 43, 623627.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Al-Katanani, YM, Webb, DW, Hansen, PJ 1999. Factors affecting seasonal variation in 90-day nonreturn rate to first service in lactating Holstein cows in a hot climate. Journal of Dairy Science 82, 26112616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Alvarez, MB, Johnson, JD 1973. Environmental heat exposure on cattle plasma catecholamine and glucocorticoids. Journal of Dairy Science 56, 189194.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Amundson, JL, Mader, TL, Rasby, RJ, Hu, QS 2006. Environmental effects on pregnancy rate in beef cattle. Journal of Animal Science 84, 34153420.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Armstrong, DV 1994. Heat stress interaction with shade and cooling. Journal of Dairy Science 77, 20442050.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Banks, A, Looper, ML, Reiter, S, Starkey, L, Flores, R, Hallford, D, Rosenkrans, C Jr 2007. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms within the promoter region of the bovine heat shock protein 70 gene and associations with pregnancy. Proceeding of American Society of Animal Science, Southern Section Meeting 85 (suppl. 2), 10.Google Scholar
Basiricò, L, Bernabucci, U, Morera, P, Lacetera, N, Nardone, A 2009. Gene expression and protein secretion of apolipoprotein B100 (ApoB100) in transition dairy cows under hot or thermoneutral environments. Italian Journal of Animal Science 8 (suppl. 2), 592594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bauman, DE, Currie, WB 1980. Partitioning of nutrients during pregnancy and lactation: a review of mechanisms involving homeostasis and homeorhesis. Journal of Dairy Science 63, 15141529.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bauman, DE, Vernon, RG 1993. Effects of exogenous bovine somatotropin on lactation. Annual Review of Nutrition 13, 437461.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baumgard, LH, Rhoads, RP 2007. The effects of hyperthermia on nutrient partitioning. In Proceedings of Cornell Nutritional Conference For Feed Manufacturers (ed. T Overton), pp. 93104. Cornell University, New York, NY, USA.Google Scholar
Beede, DK, Collier, RJ 1986. Potential nutritional strategies for intensively managed cattle during thermal stress. Journal of Animal Science 62, 543554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bényei, B, Gaspard, A, Barros, CWC 2001. Changes in embryo production results and ovarian recrudescence during the acclimation to the semiarid tropics of embryo donor Holstein-Frisian cows raised in a temperate climate. Animal Reproduction Science 68, 5768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berman, AJ 2005. Estimates of heat stress relief needs for Holstein dairy cows. Journal of Animal Science 83, 13771384.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bernabucci, U, Calamari, L 1998. Effects of heat stress on bovine milk yield and composition. Zootecnica e Nutrizione Animale 24, 247257.Google Scholar
Bernabucci, U, Bani, P, Ronchi, B, Lacetera, N, Nardone, A 1999. Influence of short and long-term exposure to a hot environment on rumen passage rate and diet digestibility in Friesian heifers. Journal of Dairy Science 82, 967973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bernabucci, U, Lacetera, N, Ronchi, B, Nardone, A 2002a. Markers of oxidative status in plasma and erythrocytes of transition dairy cows during hot season. Journal of Dairy Science 85, 21732179.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bernabucci, U, Lacetera, N, Ronchi, B, Nardone, A 2002b. Effects of the hot season on milk protein fractions in Holstein cows. Animal Research 51, 2533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bernabucci, U, Lacetera, N, Basiricò, L, Ronchi, B, Morera, P, Seren, E, Nardone, A 2006. Hot season and BCS affect leptin secretion of periparturient dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 89 (suppl. 1), 348349.Google Scholar
Bernabucci, U, Lacetera, N, Danieli, PP, Bani, P, Nardone, A, Ronchi, B 2009. Influence of different periods of exposure to hot environment on rumen function and diet digestibility in sheep. International Journal of Biometeorology 53, 387395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Biggers, BG, Geisert, RD, Wetteman, RP, Buchanan, DS 1987. Effect of heat stress on early embryonic development in the beef cow. Journal of Animal Science 64, 15121518.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bligh, J 1976. Introduction to acclimatory adaptation-including notes on terminology. In Environmental physiology of animals (ed. J Bligh, JL Cloudsley-Thompson and AG Macdonald), pp. 219229. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA.Google Scholar
Bocquier, F, Bonnet, M, Faulconnier, Y, Guerre-Millo, M, Martin, P, Chilliard, Y 1998. Effects of photoperiod and feeding level on adipose tissue metabolic activity and leptin synthesis in the ovariectomized ewe. Reproduction Nutrition Development 38, 489498.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bohmanova, J, Misztal, I, Tsuruta, S, Norman, HD, Lawlor, TJ 2005. National genetic evaluation of milk yield for heat tolerance of United States Holsteins. Interbull Bulletin 33, 160162.Google Scholar
Bohmanova, J, Misztal, I, Cole, JB 2007. Temperature humidity indices as indicators of milk production losses due to heat stress. Journal of Dairy Science 90, 19471956.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Boisclair, YB, Wesolowski, SR, Kim, JW, Ehrhardt, RA 2006. Roles of growth hormone and leptin in the periparturient dairy cow. In Ruminant physiology: digestion, metabolism and impact of nutrition on gene expression, immunology and stress (ed. K Sejrsen, T Hvelplund and MO Nielsen), pp. 327346. Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
Bouraoui, R, Lahmar, M, Majdoub, A, Djemali, M, Belyea, R 2002. The relationship of temperature-humidity index with milk production of dairy cows in a Mediterranean climate. Animal Research 51, 479491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brown-Brandl, TM, Eigenberg, RA, Nienaber, JA 2006. Heat stress risk factors of feedlot heifers. Livestock Science 105, 5768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Calamari, L, Mariani, P 1998. Effects of hot environment conditions on the main milk cheesemaking characteristics. Zootecnica e Nutrizione Animale 24, 259271.Google Scholar
Calamari, L, Maianti, MG, Calegari, F, Abeni, F, Stefanini, L 1997. Variazioni dei parametri lattodinamografici nel periodo estivo in bovine in fasi diverse di lattazione. Procceding of Congresso Nazionale S.I.S.Vet, vol. LI, 203204.Google Scholar
Carabano, YJ, Wade, KM, Van Vleck, LD 1990. Genotype by environment interactions for milk and fat production across regions of the United States. Journal of Dairy Science 73, 173180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chebel, RC, Santos, JEP, Reynolds, JP, Cerri, RLA, Juchem, SO, Overton, M 2004. Factors affecting conception rate after artificial insemination and pregnancy loss in lactating dairy cows. Animal Reproduction Science 84, 239255.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cheng, WJ, Li, QL, Wang, CF, Wang, HM, Li, JB, Sun, YM, Zhong, JF 2009. Genetic polymorphism of Hsp70-1 gene and its correlation with resistance to mastitis in Chinese Holstein. Yi Chuan 31, 169174.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chilliard, Y, Ferlay, A, Faulconnier, Y, Bonnet, M, Rouel, J, Bocquier, F 2000. Adipose tissue metabolism and its role in adaptations to undernutrition in ruminants. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 59, 127134.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chirico, J, Jonsson, P, Kjellberg, S, Thomas, G 1997. Summer mastitis experimentally induced by Hydrotaea irritans exposed to bacteria. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 11, 187192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Collier, RJ, Eley, RM, Sharma, AK, Pereira, RM, Buffington, DE 1981. Shade management in subtropical environment for milk yield and composition in Holstein and Jersey cows. Journal of Dairy Science 64, 844849.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Collier, RJ, Beede, DK, Thatcher, WW, Israel, LA, Wilcox, CJ 1982a. Influences of environment and its modification on dairy animal health and production. Journal of Dairy Science 65, 22132227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Collier, RJ, Doelger, SG, Head, HH, Thatcher, WW, Wilcox, CJ 1982b. Effects of heat stress on maternal hormone concentrations, calf birth weight, and postpartum milk yield of Holstein cows. Journal of Animal Science 54, 309319.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Collier, RJ, Baumgard, LH, Lock, AL, Bauman, DE 2005. Physiological limitations, nutrient partitioning. In Yield of farmed species. Constraints and opportunities in the 21st Century (ed. R Sylvester-Bradley and J Wiseman), pp. 351377. Nottingham University Press, Nottingham, UK.Google Scholar
Collier, RJ, Collier, JL, Rhoads, RP, Baumgard, LH 2008. Gene involved in the bovine heat stress response. Journal of Dairy Science 91, 445454.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Coppock, CE, Grant, PA, Portzer, SJ, Charles, DA, Escobosa, A 1982. Lactating dairy cow responses to dietary sodium, chloride, and bicarbonate during hot weather. Journal of Dairy Science 65, 566576.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
De Rensis, F, Scaramuzzi, RJ 2003. Heat stress and seasonal effects on reproduction in the dairy cow – a review. Theriogenology 60, 11391151.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dechow, CD, Goodling, RC 2008. Mortality, culling by sixty days in milk, and production profiles in high- and low-survival Pennsylvania herds. Journal of Dairy Science 91, 46304639.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Devendra, C 1990. Comparative aspects of digestive physiology and nutrition in goats and sheep. In Proceedings of the Satellite Symposium on Ruminant nutrition and physiology, 7th International Symposium on Ruminant Physiology (ed. C Devendra and E Imazumi), pp. 4560. Japan Society of Zootechnical Science, Tokyo, Japan.Google Scholar
Dikmen, S, Martins, L, Pontes, E, Hansen, PJ 2009. Genotype effects on body temperature in dairy cows under grazing conditions in a hot climate including evidence for heterosis. International Journal of Biometeorology 53, 327331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Drackley, JK 1999. Biology of dairy cows during the transition period: the final frontier. Journal of Dairy Science 82, 22592273.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Edwards, JL, Hansen, PJ 1996. Elevated temperature increases heat shock protein 70 synthesis in bovine two-cell embryos and compromises function of maturing oocytes. Biology of Reproduction 55, 341346.Google ScholarPubMed
Edwards, JL, Ealy, AD, Monterroso, VH, Hansen, PJ 1997. Ontogeny of temperature-regulated heat shock protein 70 synthesis in preimplantation bovine embryo. Molecular Reproduction and Development 48, 2533.3.0.CO;2-R>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Favatier, F, Bornman, L, Hightower, LE, Eberhand, G, Polla, BS 1997. Variation in Hsp gene expression and Hsp polymorphism: do they contribute to differential disease susceptibility and stress tolerance? Cell Stress Chaperones 2, 141155.2.3.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Finch, VA, Bennett, IL, Holmes, CR 1982. Sweating response in cattle and its relation to rectal temperature, tolerance of sun and metabolic rate. Journal of Agricultural Science Cambridge 99, 479487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Finocchiaro, R, van Kaam, JBCHM, Portolano, B, Misztal, I 2005. Effect of heat stress on production of Mediterranean dairy sheep. Journal of Dairy Science 88, 18551864.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gaughan, JB, Mader, TL, Holt, SM, Josey, MJ, Rowan, KJ 1999. Heat tolerance of Boran and Tuli crossbred steers. Journal of Animal Science 77, 23982405.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gaughan, JB, Lacetera, N, Valtorta, SE, Khalifa, HH, Hahn, L, Mader, T 2009a. Response of domestic animals to climate challenges. In Biometeorology of adaptation to climate variability and change (ed. KL Ebi, I Burton and GR McGregor), pp. 131170. Springer Science, Heidelberg, Germany.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gaughan, JB, Mader, TL, Holt, SM, Sullivan, ML, Hahn, GL 2009b. Assessing the heat tolerance of 17 beef cattle genotypes. International Journal of Biometeorology, doi:10.1007/s00484-009-0233-4.Google Scholar
Gebremedhin, KG, Wu, B 2001. Sensible and latent heat losses from wet-skin surface and fur layer. ASAE Annual International Meeting, Sacramento, CA. ASAE Paper no. 01-4040. ASABE, St. Joseph, MI, USA.Google Scholar
Giesecke, HW 1985. The effect of stress on udder health of dairy cows. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 52, 175193.Google ScholarPubMed
Gong, WJ, Golic, KG 2004. Genomic deletions of the Drosophila melanogaster Hsp70 genes. Genetics 168, 14671476.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gromadzka, G, Zielinska, J, Ryglewicz, D, Fiszer, U, Czlonkowska, A 2001. Elevated levels of anti-heat shock protein antibodies in patients with cerebral ischemia. Cerebrovascular Diseases 12, 235239.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Grosz, MD, Skow, LC, Stone, RT 1994. An AluI polymorphism at the bovine 70 kD heat shock protein-1 (Hsp70-1) locus. Animal Genetics 25, 196.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hahn, GL 1999. Dynamic responses of cattle to thermal heat load. Journal of Animal Science 77 (suppl. 2), 1020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hahn, GL, Mader, TL, Harrington, JA, Nienaber, JA, Frank, KL 2002. Living with climatic variability and potential global climate change: climatological analyses of impacts on livestock performance. In Proceeding of the 15th Conference on Biometeorology and Aerobiology and the 16th International Congress of Biometeorology, pp. 4548. American Meteorological Society, Boston, MA, USA.Google Scholar
Hansen, PJ 1990. Effects of coat colour on physiological responses to solar radiation in Holsteins. Veterinary Record 127, 333334.Google ScholarPubMed
Hansen, PJ 2004. Physiological and cellular adaptation of zebu cattle to thermal stress. Animal Reproduction Science 82–83, 349360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hansen, PJ 2007. Exploitation of genetic and physiological determinants of embryonic resistance to elevated temperature to improve embryonic survival in dairy cattle during heat stress. Theriogenology 68S, S242S249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hashmi, G, Hashmi, S, Selvan, S, Grewal, P, Gaugler, R 1997. Polymorphism in heat shock protein gene (Hsp70) in entomopathogenic nematodes (rhabditida). Journal of Thermal Biology 22, 143149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Horowitz, M 2001. Heat acclimation: phenotypic plasticity and cues to the underlying molecular mechanisms. Journal of Thermal Biology 26, 357363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Horowitz, M 2002. From molecular and cellular to integrative heat defence during exposure to chronic heat. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A 131, 475483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Horowitz, M, Kaspler, P, Marmary, Y, Oron, Y 1996. Evidence for contribution of effector organ cellular responses to biphasic dynamics of heat acclimation. Journal of Applied Physiology 80, 7785.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
International Commission for Thermal Physiology (ICTP) 2001. Glossary of terms for thermal physiology, 3rd edition. The Japanese Journal of Physiology 51, 245280.Google Scholar
Ingram, DL, Mount, LE 1975. Heat exchange between animal and environment. In Man and animals in hot environments (ed. DL Ingram and LE Mount), pp. 523. Springer-Verlag, New York, Heidelberg, Berlin.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC: AR4), 2007. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 4th Assessment Report. http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/publications_and_data_reports.htm2Google Scholar
Itoh, F, Obara, Y, Rose, MT, Fuse, H, Hashimoto, H 1998. Insulin and glucagons secretion in lactating cows during heat exposure. Journal of Animal Science 76, 21822189.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jin, X, Xiao, C, Tanguay, RM, Yang, L, Wang, F, Chen, M, Fu, X, Wang, R, Deng, J, Deng, Z, Zheng, Y, Wei, Q, Wu, T 2004. Correlation of lymphocyte heat shock protein 70 levels with neurologic deficits in elderly patients with cerebral infarction. The American Journal of Medicine 117, 406411.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Johnson, HD 1980. Depressed chemical thermogenesis and hormonal functions in heat. In Environmental physiology aging, heat and attitude (ed. SM Horvath and MK Yousef), pp. 39. Elsevier North Holland, NY, USA.Google Scholar
Johnson, HD 1987. Bioclimate and livestock. In Bioclimatology and the adaptation of livestock (ed. HD Johnson), pp. 316. Elsevier Science Publisher, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
Johnson, HD, Vanjonack, WJ 1976. Effects of environmental and other stressors on blood hormone patterns in lactating animals. Journal of Dairy Science 59, 16031617.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Johnson, HD, Ragsdale, AC, Berry, IL, Shanklin, MD 1962. Effects of various temperature–humidity combinations on milk production of Holstein cattle. Research Bulletin no. 791. University of Missouri, College of Agriculture, Agricultural Experimental Station, MO, USA.Google Scholar
Johnson, HD, Shanklin, MD, Hahn, L 1987. Productive adaptability of Holstein cows to environmental heat, Part 1. Research Bulletin no. 1060, University of Missouri, College of Agriculture, Agricultural Experimental Station, MO, USA.Google Scholar
Kadim, T, Mahgoub, O, Al-Ajmi, DS, Al-Maqbaly, RS, Al-Mugheiry, SM, Bartolome, DY 2004. The influence of season on quality characteristics of hot-boned beef m. longissimus thoracis. Meat Science 66, 831836.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kadzere, CT, Murphy, MR, Silanikove, N, Maltz, E 2002. Heat stress in lactating dairy cows: a review. Livestock Production Science 77, 5991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kaufman, FL, Mills, DE, Hughson, RL, Peake, GT 1988. Effects of bromocriptine on sweat gland function during heat acclimatization. Hormone Research 29, 3138.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Khalifa, HH, Shalaby, T and Abdel-Khalek, TMM 2005. An approach to develop a biometeorological thermal discomfort index for sheep and goats under Egyptian conditions. In Proceeding of the 17th International Congress of Biometeorology (International Society of Biometeorology), pp. 118–122. Offenbach am Main, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany.Google Scholar
King, VL, Denise, SK, Armstrong, DV, Torabi, M, Wiersma, F 1988. Effects of a hot climate on the performance of first lactation Holstein cows grouped by coat colour. Journal of Dairy Science 71, 10931096.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lacetera, N, Bernabucci, U, Ronchi, B, Nardone, A 1996. Body condition score, metabolic status and milk production of early lactating dairy cows exposed to warm environment. Rivista di Agricoltura Subtropicale e Tropicale 90, 4355.Google Scholar
Lacetera, N, Bernabucci, U, Scalia, D, Ronchi, B, Kuzminsky, G, Nardone, A 2005. Lymphocyte functions in dairy cows in hot environment. International Journal of Biometeorology 50, 105110.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lacetera, N, Bernabucci, U, Scalia, D, Basiricò, L, Morera, P, Nardone, A 2006. Heat stress elicits different response in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from Brown Swiss and Holstein cows. Journal of Dairy Science 89, 46064612.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lee, WC, Wen, HC, Chang, CP, Chen, MY, Lin, MT 2006. Heat shock protein 72 overexpression protects against hyperthermia, circulatory shock and cerebral ischemia during heat stroke. Journal of Applied Physiology 100, 20732082.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Leining, KB, Bourne, RA, Tucker, HA 1979. Prolactin response to duration and wavelength of light in prepubertal bulls. Endocrinology 104, 289294.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lucy, MC 2002. Reproductive loss in farm animals during heat stress. In Proceeding of 15th Conference on Biometeorology and Aerobiology and the 16th International Congress of Biometeorology, pp. 5053. American Meteorological Society, Boston, MA, USA.Google Scholar
Macario, AJ, Conway de Macario, E 2007. Molecular chaperones: multiple functions, pathologies, and potential applications. Frontiers in Bioscience 12, 25882600.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mader, TL, Davis, MS, Brown-Brandl, T 2006. Environmental factors influencing heat stress in feedlot cattle. Journal of Animal Science 84, 712719.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maloyan, A, Horowitz, M 2002. Beta-adrenergic signaling and thyroid hormones affect Hsp72 expression during heat acclimation. Journal of Applied Physiology 93, 107115.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maloyan, A, Palmon, A, Horowitz, M 1999. Heat acclimation increases the basal Hsp72 level and alters its production dynamics during heat stress. American Journal of Physiology – Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 276, R1506R1515.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Marder, J, Eylath, U, Moskovitz, E, Sharir, R 1990. The effect of heat exposure on blood chemistry of the hyperthermic rabbit. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 97, 245247.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mariasegaram, R, Chase, CC Jr, Chaparro, JX, Olson, TA, Brenneman, RA, Niedz, RP 2007. The slick air coat locus maps to chromosome 20 in Senepol-derived cattle. Animal Genetics 38, 5459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mathevon, M, Buhr, MM, Dekkers, JCM 1998. Environmental, management, and genetic factors affecting semen production in Holstein bulls. Journal of Dairy Science 81, 33213330.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mazzi, CM, Ferro, JA, Tiraboschi Ferro, MI, Savino, VJM, Coelho, AAD, Macari, M 2003. Polymorphism analysis of the Hsp70 stress gene in broiler chickens (Gallus gallus) of different breeds. Genetics and Molecular Biology 26, 3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McGuire, MA, Beede, DK, Collier, RJ, Buonomo, FC, Delorenzo, MA, Wilcox, CJ, Huntington, GB, Reynolds, CK 1991. Effect of acute thermal stress and amount of feed intake on concentrations of somatotropin, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF-II and thyroid hormones in plasma of lactating dairy cows. Journal of Animal Science 69, 20502056.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McManus, C, Prescott, E, Paludo, G, Bianchini, E, Louvandini, H, Mariante, A 2009. Heat tolerance in naturalized Brazilian cattle breeds. Livestock Science 120, 256264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Meyerhoeffer, DC, Wettemann, RP, Coleman, SW, Wells, ME 1985. Reproductive criteria of beef bulls during and after exposure to increased ambient temperature. Journal of Animal Science 60, 352357.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mishra, M, Martz, FA, Stanley, RW, Johnson, HD, Campbell, JR, Hilderbrand, E 1970. Effect of diet and ambient temperature-humidity on ruminal pH, oxidation reduction potential, ammonia and lactic acid in lactating cows. Journal of Animal Science 30, 10231028.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mitlöhner, FM, Morrow, JL, Dailey, JW, Wilson, SC, Galyean, ML, Miller, MF, McGlone, JJ 2001. Shade and water misting effects on behaviour, physiology, performance, and carcass traits of heat-stressed feedlot cattle. Journal of Animal Science 79, 23272335.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mitra, R, Christison, GI, Johnson, HD 1972. Effect of prolonged thermal exposure on growth hormone (GH) secretion in cattle. Journal of Animal Science 34, 776786.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Moran, JB 1989. The influence of season and management system on intake and productivity of confined dairy cows in a Mediterranean climate. Animal Production 49, 339344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morange, F 2006. HSFs in development. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology 172, 153169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morse, D, DeLorenzo, MA, Wilcox, CJ, Collier, RJ, Natzke, RP, Bray, DR 1988. Climatic effects on occurrence of clinical mastitis. Journal of Dairy Science 71, 848853.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Muller, CJC, Botha, JA 1993. Effect of summer climatic conditions on different heat tolerance factors in primiparous Friesian and Jersey cows. South African Journal of Animal Science 23, 98103.Google Scholar
Nardone, A 1998. Thermoregulatory capacity among selection objectives in dairy cattle in hot environment. Zootecnica e Nutrizione Animale 24, 297308.Google Scholar
Nardone, A, Valentini, A 2000. The genetic improvement of dairy cows in warm climates. In Livestock production and climatic uncertainty in the Mediterranean. Proceeding of the joint ANPA-EAAP-CHIEAM-FAO symposium (ed. F Guessous, N Rihani and A Ilham), pp. 185191. EAAP publication no. 94, Wageningen Press, Wageningen, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
Nardone, A, Lacetera, N, Ronchi, B, Bernabucci, U 1992. Effects of heat stress on milk production and feed intake in Holstein cows. Produzione Animale 5, 115.Google Scholar
Nardone, A, Lacetera, NG, Bernabucci, U, Ronchi, B 1997. Composition of colostrum from dairy heifers exposed to high air temperatures during late pregnancy and early postpartum period. Journal of Dairy Science 80, 838844.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nardone, A, Ronchi, B, Lacetera, N, Bernabucci, U 2006. Climatic effects on productive traits in livestock. Veterinary Research Communications 30 (suppl. 1), 7581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nardone, A, Ronchi, B, Lacetera, N, Ranieri, MS, Bernabucci, U 2010. Effects of climate changes on animal production and sustainability of livestock systems. Livestock Science 130, 5769.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nichi, M, Bols, PEJ, Zuge, RM, Barnabe, VH, Goovaerts, IGF, Barnabe, RC, Cordata, CNM 2006. Seasonal variation in semen quality in Bos indicus and Bos Taurus bulls raised under tropical conditions. Theriogenology 66, 822828.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Olson, TA, Chase, CC Jr, Lucena, C, Codoy, E, Zuniga, A, Collier, RJ 2006. Effect of hair characteristics on the adaptation of cattle to warm climates. In Proceeding of the 8th World Congress on Genetic applied to Livestock Production, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.Google Scholar
Olsson, K, Dahlborn, K 1989. Fluid balance during heat stress in lactating goats. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Physiology 74, 645659.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pockley, AG, Georgiades, A, Thulin, T, de Faire, U, Frostegard, J 2003. Serum heat shock protein 70 levels predict the development of atherosclerosis in subjects with established hypertension. Hypertension 42, 235238.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pollard, BC, Estheimer, MD, Dwyer, ME, Gentry, PC, Weber, WJ, Lemke, E, Baumgard, LH, Henderson, DA, Crooker, BA, Collier, RJ 2005. The influence of parity, acclimatization to season, and recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) on diurnal patterns of prolactin and growth hormone in Holsteins exposed to heat stress. Journal of Dairy Science 88 (suppl. 1), 121.Google Scholar
Prohászka, Z, Füst, G 2004. Immunological aspects of heat-shock proteins – the optimum stress of life. Molecular Immunology 41, 2944.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Purwanto, BP, Abo, Y, Sakamoto, R, Furumoto, F, Yamamoto, S 1990. Diurnal patterns of heat production and heart rate under thermoneutral conditions in Holstein Friesian cows differing in milk production. Journal of Agricultural Science 114, 139142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ragsdale, AC, Thompson, HJ, Worstell, DM, Brody, S 1953. The effect of humidity on milk production and composition, feed and water consumption and body weight in cattle. Research Bulletin no. 521. University of Missouri College of Agriculture, Agricultural Experimental Station, MO, USA.Google Scholar
Ravagnolo, O, Misztal, I 2000. Genetic component of heat stress in dairy cattle, parameter estimation. Journal of Dairy Science 83, 21262130.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ravagnolo, O, Misztal, I 2002. Effect of heat stress on non-return rate in Holstein cows: genetic analysis. Journal of Dairy Science 85, 30923100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ravagnolo, O, Misztal, I, Hoogenboom, G 2000. Genetic component of heat stress in dairy cattle, development of heat index function. Journal of Dairy Science 83, 21202125.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rhoads, RP, Sampson, JD, Tempelman, RJ, Sipkovsky, S, Coussens, PM, Lucy, MC, Spain, JN, Spiers, DE 2005. Hepatic gene expression profiling during adaptation to a period of chronic heat stress in lactating dairy cows. FASEB Journal 19, A1673.Google Scholar
Rhoads, RP, Obrien, MD, Greer, K, Cole, L, Sanders, S, Wheelock, JB, Baumgard, LH 2008. Consequences of heat stress on the profile of skeletal muscle gene expression in beef cattle. FASEB Journal 22, 1165.1.Google Scholar
Rhoads, ML, Rhoads, RP, VanBaale, MJ, Collier, RJ, Sanders, SR, Weber, WJ, Crooker, BA, Baumgard, LH 2009. Effects of heat stress and plane of nutrition on lactating Holstein cows: I. production, metabolism and aspects of circulating somatotropin. Journal of Dairy Science 92, 19861997.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rhoads, ML, Kim, JW, Collier, RJ, Crooker, BA, Boisclair, YR, Baumgard, LH, Rhoads, RP 2010. Effects of heat stress and nutrition on lactating holstein cows: II. Aspects of hepatic growth hormone responsiveness. Journal of Dairy Science 93, 170179.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Riedel, W, Layka, H, Neeck, G 1998. Secretory pattern of GH, TSH, thyroid hormones, ACTH, cortisol, FSH, and LH in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome following systemic injection of the relevant hypothalamic-releasing hormones. Zeitschrift Fur Rheumatologie 57 (suppl. 2), 8187.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rivera, RJ, Kelley, KL, Erdos, GW, Hansen, PJ 2003. Alterations in ultrastructural morphology of two-cell bovine embryos produced in vitro and in vivo following a physiologically relevant heat shock. Biology of Reproduction 69, 20682077.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ronchi, B, Bernabucci, U, Lacetera, N, Verini Supplizi, A, Nardone, A 1999. Distinct and common effects of heat stress and restricted feeding on metabolic status in Holstein heifers. Zootecnica e Nutrizione Animale 25, 7180.Google Scholar
Ronchi, B, Stradaioli, G, Verini Supplizi, A, Bernabucci, U, Lacetera, N, Accorsi, PA, Nardone, A, Seren, E 2001. Influence of heat stress and feed restriction on plasma progesterone, estradiol-17β, LH, FSH, prolactin and cortisol in Holstein heifers. Livestock Production Science 68, 231241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ross, OA, Curran, MD, Crum, KA, Rea, IM, Barnett, YA, Middleton, D 2003. Increased frequency of the 2437 T allele of the heat shock protein 70-Hom gene in an aged Irish population. Experimental Gerontology 38, 561565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roush, W 1994. Population – the view from Cairo. Science 265, 11641167.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Roy, KS, Prakash, BS 2007. Seasonal variation and circadian rhythmicity of the prolactin profile during the summer months in repeat-breeding Murrah buffalo heifers. Reproduction Fertility and Development 19, 569575.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sano, H, Takahashi, K, Ambo, K, Tsuda, T 1983. Turnover and oxidation rates of blood glucose and heat production in sheep exposed to heat. Journal of Dairy Science 66, 856861.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Scientific Committee on Animal Health and Animal Welfare (SCAHAW) 2001. The welfare of cattle kept for beef production. SANCO.C.2/AH/R22/2000. Retrieved April 25, 2001, from http://ec.europa.eu/food/fs/sc/scah/out54_en.pdfGoogle Scholar
Schneider, PL, Beede, DK, Wilcox, CJ 1988. Nycterohemeral patterns of acid-base status, mineral concentrations and digestive function of lactating cows in natural or chamber heat stress environments. Journal of Animal Science 66, 112125.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schwerin, M, Maak, S, Kalbe, C, Fuerbass, R 2001. Functional promoter variants of highly conserved inducible Hsp70 genes significantly affect stress response. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) – Gene Structure and Expression 1522, 108111.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schwerin, M, Maak, S, Hagendorf, A, Von Lengerken, G, Seyfert, HM 2002. A 3′-UTR variant of the inducible porcine Hsp70.2 gene affects mRNA stability. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1578, 9094.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Senft, RL, Rittenhouse, LR 1985. A model of thermal acclimation in cattle. Journal of Animal Science 61, 297306.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sevi, A, Annicchiarico, G, Albenzio, M, Taibi, L, Muscio, A, Dell’Aquila, S 2001. Effects of solar radiation and feeding time on behaviour, immune response and production of lactating ewes under high ambient temperature. Journal of Dairy Science 84, 629640.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sharma, AK, Rodriguez, LA, Mekonnen, G, Wilcox, CJ, Bachman, KC, Collier, RJ 1983. Climatological and genetic effects on milk composition and yield. Journal of Dairy Science 66, 119126.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shkolnik, A, Silanikove, N 1981. Water economy, energy metabolism and productivity in desert ruminants. In Book-Series TitleNutrition and systems of goat feeding (ed. P Morand-Fehr, A Borbouse and M De Simiance), vol. 1. pp. 236246. ITOVIC-INRA, Tours, France.Google Scholar
Shwartz, G, Rhoads, ML, VanBaale, MJ, Rhoads, RP, Baumgard, LH 2009. Effects of a supplemental yeast culture on heat-stressed lactating Holstein cows. Journal of Dairy Science 92, 935942.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Silanikove, N 1992. Effects of water scarcity and hot environment on appetite and digestion in ruminants: a review. Livestock Production Science 30, 175194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Silanikove, N 1994. The struggle to maintain hydration and osmoregulation in animals experiencing severe dehydration and rapid rehydration: the story of ruminants. Experimental Physiology 79, 281300.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Silanikove, N 2000a. Effects of heat stress on the welfare of extensively managed domestic ruminants. Livestock Production Science 67, 118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Silanikove, N 2000b. The physiological basis of adaptation in goats to harsh environments. Small Ruminant Research 35, 181193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Singh, R, Kølvraa, S, Bross, P, Jensen, UB, Gregersen, N, Tan, Q, Knudsen, C, Rattan, SIS 2006. Reduced heat shock response in human mononuclear cells during aging and its association with polymorphisms in Hsp70 genes. Cell Stress and Chaperones 11, 208215.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sonna, LA, Gaffin, SL, Pratt, RE, Cullivan, ML, Angel, KC, Lilly, CM 2002. Selected contribution: effect of acute heat shock on gene expression by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Journal of Applied Physiology 92, 22082220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Spiers, DE, Spain, JN, Sampson, JD, Rhoads, RP 2004. Use of physiological parameters to predict milk yield and feed intake in heat-stressed dairy cows. Journal of Thermal Biology 29, 759764.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Starkey, L, Looper, ML, Banks, A, Reiter, S, Rosenkrans, C Jr 2007. Identification of polymorphisms in the promoter region of the bovine heat shock protein gene and associations with bull calf weaning weight. American Society of Animal Science, Southern Section Meeting 85 (suppl. 2), 42.Google Scholar
Stott, GH 1981. What is animal stress and how is it measured? Journal of Animal Science 52, 150153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Torlinska, T, Banach, R, Paluszak, J, Gryczka-Dziadecka, A 1987. Hyperthermia effect on lipolytic processes in rat blood and adipose tissue. Acta Physiologica Polonica 38, 361366.Google ScholarPubMed
Turner, HG 1982. Genetic variation of rectal temperature in cows and its relationship to fertility. Animal Production 35, 401412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vernon, RG 1992. Effects of diet on lipolysis and its regulation. Proceeding of Nutrition Society 51, 397408.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vitali, A, Segnalini, M, Bertocchi, L, Bernabucci, U, Nardone, A, Lacetera, N 2009. Seasonal pattern of mortality and relationships between mortality and temperature humidity index in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 92, 37813790.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Waage, S, Sviland, S, Odegaard, SA 1998. Identification of risk factors for clinical mastitis in dairy heifers. Journal of Dairy Science 81, 12751284.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Waddington, CH 1957. The strategy of the genes: a discussion of some aspects of theoretical biology. Ruskin House/George Allen and Unwin Ltd, London, UK.Google Scholar
West, JW 2003. Effects of heat-stress on production in dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science 86, 21312144.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
West, JW, Mullinix, BG, Bernard, JK 2003. Effects of hot, humid weather on milk temperature, dry matter intake, and milk yield of lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 86, 232242.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wetteman, RP, Tucker, HA 1979. Relationship of ambient temperature to serum prolactin in heifers. In Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 146. Academic Press, Inc., New York, NY, USA, pp. 909911.Google Scholar
Wheelock, JB, Rhoads, RP, VanBaale, MJ, Sanders, SR, Baumgard, LH 2010. Effects of heat stress on energetic metabolism in lactating Holstein cows. Journal of Dairy Science 93, 644655.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wolfenson, D, Roth, Z, Meidan, R 2000. Impaired reproduction in heat-stressed cattle: basic and applied aspects. Animal Reproduction Science 60–61, 535547.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wu, T, Ma, J, Chen, S, Sun, Y, Xiao, C, Gao, Y, Wang, R, Poudrier, J, Dargis, M, Currie, RW, Tanguay, MR 2001. Association of plasma antibodies against the inducible Hsp70 with hypertension and harsh working conditions. Cell Stress Chaperones 6, 394401.2.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wu, YR, Wang, CK, Chen, CM, Hsu, Y, Lin, SJ, Lin, YY, Fung, HC, Chang, KH, Lee-Chen, GJ 2004. Analysis of heat-shock protein 70 gene polymorphisms and the risk of Parkinson’s disease. Human Genetics 114, 236241.Google ScholarPubMed
Yalçin, S, Çabuk, M, Bruggeman, V, Babacanoğlu, E, Buyse, J, Decuypere, E, Siegel, PB 2008a. Acclimation to heat during incubation: 1. Embryonic morphological traits, blood biochemistry, and hatching performance. Poultry Science 87, 12191228.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yalçin, S, Çabuk, M, Bruggeman, V, Babacanoğlu, E, Buyse, J, Decuypere, E, Siegel, PB 2008b. Acclimation to heat during incubation: 3. body weight, cloacal temperatures, and blood acid-base balance in broilers to daily high temperatures. Poultry Science 87, 26712677.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yousef, MK 1985. Measurements of heat production and heat loss. In:Book-Series TitleStress physiology in livestock (ed. MK Yousef), vol. 1, pp. 3546. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA.Google Scholar
Yousef, MK 1987. Principle of bioclimatology and adaptation. In Bioclimatology and the adaptation of livestock (ed. HD Johnson), pp. 1729. Elsevier Science Publisher, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
Yunianto, VD, Hayashi, K, Kaneda, S, Ohtsuka, A, Tomita, Y 1997. Effect of environmental temperature on muscle protein turnover and heat production in tube-fed broiler chickens. British Journal of Nutrition 77, 897909.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zhou, F, Wang, F, Li, F, Yuan, J, Zeng, H, Wei, Q, Tanguay, RM, Wu, T 2005. Association of hsp70.2 and hsp-hom gene polymorphisms with risk of acute high-altitude illness in a Chinese population. Cell Stress Chaperones 10, 349356.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zimbelman, RB, Rhoads, RP, Rhoads, ML, Duff, GC, Baumgard, LH, Collier, RJ 2009. A re-evaluation of the impact of temperature humidity index (THI) and black globe humidity index (BGHI) on milk production in high producing dairy cows. Proceedings of the Southwest Nutrition Conference (ed. RJ Collier), pp. 158–169. Retrieved February 2, 2009, from http://cals.arizona.edu/ans/swnmc/Proceedings/2009/14Collier_09.pdf.Google Scholar
Zwald, NR, Weigel, KA, Fikse, WF, Rekaya, R 2003. Identification of factors that cause genotype by environment interaction between herds of Holstein cattle in seventeen countries. Journal of Dairy Science 86, 10091018.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed