Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

Effect of feeding genetically modified Bt MON810 maize to ∼40-day-old pigs for 110 days on growth and health indicators

  • S. G. Buzoianu (a1) (a2), M. C. Walsh (a1), M. C. Rea (a3), J. P. Cassidy (a4), R. P. Ross (a3), G. E. Gardiner (a2) and P. G. Lawlor (a1)...

A total of 72 male weaned pigs were used in a 110-day study to investigate the effect of feeding genetically modified (GM) Bt MON810 maize on selected growth and health indicators. It was hypothesised that in pigs fed Bt maize, growth and health are not impacted compared with pigs fed isogenic maize-based diets. Following a 12-day basal period, pigs (10.7 ± 1.9 kg body weight (BW); ∼40 days old) were blocked by weight and ancestry and randomly assigned to treatments: (1) non-GM maize diet for 110 days (non-GM), (2) GM maize diet for 110 days (GM), (3) non-GM maize diet for 30 days followed by GM maize diet up to day 110 (non-GM/GM) and (4) GM maize diet for 30 days followed by non-GM maize diet up to day 110 (GM/non-GM). BW and daily feed intake were recorded on days 0, 30, 60 and 110 (n = 15). Body composition was determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (n = 10) on day 80. Following slaughter on day 110, organs and intestines were weighed and sampled for histological analysis and urine was collected for biochemical analysis (n = 10). Serum biochemistry analysis was performed on days 0, 30, 60, 100 and 110. Growth performance and serum biochemistry were analysed as repeated measures with time and treatment as main factors. The slice option of SAS was used to determine treatment differences at individual time points. There was no effect of feeding GM maize on overall growth, body composition, organ and intestinal weight and histology or serum biochemistry on days 60 and 100 and on urine biochemistry on day 110. A treatment × time interaction was observed for serum urea (SU; P < 0.05), creatinine (SC; P < 0.05) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST; P < 0.05). On day 30, SU was lower for the non-GM/GM treatment compared with the non-GM, GM and GM/non-GM treatments (P < 0.05). On day 110, SC was higher for the non-GM/GM and GM/non-GM treatments compared with non-GM and GM treatments (P < 0.05). Overall, serum total protein was lower for the GM/non-GM treatment compared with the non-GM/GM treatment (P < 0.05). The magnitude of change observed in some serum biochemical parameters did not indicate organ dysfunction and the changes were not accompanied by histological lesions. Long-term feeding of GM maize to pigs did not adversely affect growth or the selected health indicators investigated.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Effect of feeding genetically modified Bt MON810 maize to ∼40-day-old pigs for 110 days on growth and health indicators
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Effect of feeding genetically modified Bt MON810 maize to ∼40-day-old pigs for 110 days on growth and health indicators
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Effect of feeding genetically modified Bt MON810 maize to ∼40-day-old pigs for 110 days on growth and health indicators
      Available formats
Corresponding author
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

K Aeschbacher , R Messikommer , L Meile , C Wenk 2005. Bt176 corn in poultry nutrition: physiological characteristics and fate of recombinant plant DNA in chickens. Poultry Science 84, 385394.

A Aumaitre , K Aulrich , A Chesson , G Flachowsky , G Piva 2002. New feeds from genetically modified plants: substantial equivalence, nutritional equivalence, digestibility, and safety for animals and the food chain. Livestock Production Science 74, 223238.

N Baum , CC Dichoso , CE Carlton 1975. Blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine: physiology and interpretations. Urology 5, 583588.

L Boone , D Meyer , P Cusick , D Ennulat , AP Bolliger , N Everds , V Meador , G Elliott , D Honor , D Bounous , H Jordan 2005. Selection and interpretation of clinical pathology indicators of hepatic injury in preclinical studies. Veterinary Clinical Pathology 34, 182188.

J Brake , MA Faust , J Stein 2003. Evaluation of transgenic event Bt11 hybrid corn in broiler chickens. Poultry Science 82, 551559.

SW Casteel , JR Turk , RP Cowart , GE Rottinghaus 1993. Chronic toxicity of fumonisin in weanling pigs. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 5, 413417.

EH Chowdhury , H Kuribara , A Hino , P Sultana , O Mikami , N Shimada , KS Guruge , M Saito , Y Nakajima 2003. Detection of corn intrinsic and recombinant DNA fragments and Cry1Ab protein in the gastrointestinal contents of pigs fed genetically modified corn Bt11. Journal of Animal Science 81, 25462551.

MG Custodio , WJ Powers , E Huff-Lonergan , MA Faust , J Stein 2006. Growth, pork quality, and excretion characteristics of pigs fed Bt corn or non-transgenic corn. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 86, 461469.

A Dona , IS Arvanitoyannis 2009. Health risks of genetically modified foods. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 49, 164175.

EFSA2008. Safety and nutritional assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed: the role of animal feeding trials. Food and Chemical Toxicology 46 (Supp 1), S2S70.

NH Fares , AK El-Sayed 1998. Fine structural changes in the ileum of mice fed on delta endotoxin-treated potatoes and transgenic potatoes. Natural Toxins 6, 219233.

A Finamore , M Roselli , S Britti , G Monastra , R Ambra , A Turrini , E Mengheri 2008. Intestinal and peripheral immune response to MON810 maize ingestion in weaning and old mice. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 56, 1153311539.

G Flachowsky , K Aulrich , H Böhme , I Halle 2007. Studies on feeds from genetically modified plants (GMP) – contributions to nutritional and safety assessment. Animal Feed Science and Technology 133, 230.

BG Hammond , R Dudek , JK Lemen , MA Nemeth 2006. Results of a 90-day safety assurance study with rats fed grain from corn borer-protected corn. Food and Chemical Toxicology 44, 10921099.

Y Hyun , GE Bressner , RL Fischer , PS Miller , M Ellis , BA Peterson , EP Stanisiewski , GF Hartnell 2005. Performance of growing–finishing pigs fed diets containing YieldGard Rootworm corn (MON863), a nontransgenic genetically similar corn, or conventional corn hybrids. Journal of Animal Science 83, 15811590.

JJ Kaneko 1980. Clinical biochemistry of domestic animals, 3rd edition. Academic Press, New York, NY, USA.

A Kilic , MT Akay 2008. A three generation study with genetically modified Bt corn in rats: biochemical and histopathological investigation. Food and Chemical Toxicology 46, 11641170.

A Martinez-Poveda , MB Molla-Bauza , FJ del Campo Gomis , LM-C Martinez 2009. Consumer-perceived risk model for the introduction of genetically modified food in Spain. Food Policy 34, 519528.

R Mosenthin , WC Sauer , CF de Lange 1992a. Tracer studies of urea kinetics in growing pigs: I. The effect of intravenous infusion of urea on urea recycling and the site of urea secretion into the gastrointestinal tract. Journal of Animal Science 70, 34583466.

PJ Moughan , MJ Birtles , PD Cranwell , WC Smith , M Pedraza 1992. The piglet as a model animal for studying aspects of digestion and absorption in milk-fed human infants. World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics 67, 40113.

WF Ryan , PB Lynch , JV O'Doherty 2011. Effect of dietary phosphorus on the development of bone mineral density of pigs assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Livestock Science 137, 101107.

M Sanden , MHG Berntssen , Å Krogdahl , G Hemre , AM Bakke-Mckellep 2005. An examination of the intestinal tract of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., parr fed different varieties of soy and maize. Journal of Fish Diseases 28, 317330.

M Schrøder , M Poulsen , A Wilcks , S Kroghsbo , A Miller , T Frenzel , J Danier , M Rychlik , K Emami , A Gatehouse , Q Shu , K-H Engel , I Altosaar , I Knudsen 2007. A 90-day safety study of genetically modified rice expressing Cry1Ab protein (Bacillus thuringiensis toxin) in Wistar rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology 45, 339349.

N Shimada , H Murata , O Mikami , M Yoshioka , KS Guruge , N Yamanaka , Y Nakajima , S Miyazaki 2006. Effects of feeding calves genetically modified corn Bt11: a clinico-biochemical study. The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 68, 11131115.

MD Stonard 1990. Assessment of renal function and damage in animal species. A review of the current approach of the academic, governmental and industrial institutions represented by the animal clinical chemistry association. Journal of Applied Toxicology 10, 267274.

MM Swindle 2007. Swine in the laboratory: surgery, anaesthesia, imaging and experimental techniques in swine, 2nd edition. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA.

M Trabalza-Marinucci , G Brandi , C Rondini , L Avellini , C Giammarini , S Costarelli , G Acuti , C Orlandi , G Filippini , E Chiaradia , M Malatesta , S Crotti , C Antonini , G Amagliani , E Manuali , AR Mastrogiacomo , L Moscati , M Naceur Haouet , A Gaiti , M Magnani 2008. A three-year longitudinal study on the effects of a diet containing genetically modified Bt176 maize on the health status and performance of sheep. Livestock Science 113, 178190.

J van der Meulen , GC Bakker , JG Bakker , H de Visser , AW Jongbloed , H Everts 1997. Effect of resistant starch on net portal-drained viscera flux of glucose, volatile fatty acids, urea, and ammonia in growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science 75, 26972704.

JM Wal , PA Hepburn , LJ Lea , RWR Crevel 2003. Post-market surveillance of GM foods: applicability and limitations of schemes used with pharmaceuticals and some non-GM novel foods. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 38, 98104.

HJ Willis , AL Eldridge , J Beiseigel , W Thomas , JL Slavin 2009. Greater satiety response with resistant starch and corn bran in human subjects. Nutrition Research 29, 100105.

H Younes , C Demigné , S Behr , C Rémésy 1995a. Resistant starch exerts a lowering effect on plasma urea by enhancing urea N transfer into the large intestine. Nutrition Research 15, 11991210.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

  • ISSN: 1751-7311
  • EISSN: 1751-732X
  • URL: /core/journals/animal
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 11
Total number of PDF views: 97 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 256 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 22nd July 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.