Skip to main content Accessibility help

Future consequences and challenges for dairy cow production systems arising from climate change in Central Europe – a review

  • M. Gauly (a1), H. Bollwein (a2), G. Breves (a3), K. Brügemann (a4), S. Dänicke (a5), G. Daş (a1), J. Demeler (a6), H. Hansen (a7), J. Isselstein (a8), S. König (a4), M. Lohölter (a5), M. Martinsohn (a7), U. Meyer (a5), M. Potthoff (a9), C. Sanker (a1), B. Schröder (a3), N. Wrage (a8), B. Meibaum (a3), G. von Samson-Himmelstjerna (a6), H. Stinshoff (a2) and C. Wrenzycki (a2)...


It is well documented that global warming is unequivocal. Dairy production systems are considered as important sources of greenhouse gas emissions; however, little is known about the sensitivity and vulnerability of these production systems themselves to climate warming. This review brings different aspects of dairy cow production in Central Europe into focus, with a holistic approach to emphasize potential future consequences and challenges arising from climate change. With the current understanding of the effects of climate change, it is expected that yield of forage per hectare will be influenced positively, whereas quality will mainly depend on water availability and soil characteristics. Thus, the botanical composition of future grassland should include species that are able to withstand the changing conditions (e.g. lucerne and bird's foot trefoil). Changes in nutrient concentration of forage plants, elevated heat loads and altered feeding patterns of animals may influence rumen physiology. Several promising nutritional strategies are available to lower potential negative impacts of climate change on dairy cow nutrition and performance. Adjustment of feeding and drinking regimes, diet composition and additive supplementation can contribute to the maintenance of adequate dairy cow nutrition and performance. Provision of adequate shade and cooling will reduce the direct effects of heat stress. As estimated genetic parameters are promising, heat stress tolerance as a functional trait may be included into breeding programmes. Indirect effects of global warming on the health and welfare of animals seem to be more complicated and thus are less predictable. As the epidemiology of certain gastrointestinal nematodes and liver fluke is favourably influenced by increased temperature and humidity, relations between climate change and disease dynamics should be followed closely. Under current conditions, climate change associated economic impacts are estimated to be neutral if some form of adaptation is integrated. Therefore, it is essential to establish and adopt mitigation strategies covering available tools from management, nutrition, health and plant and animal breeding to cope with the future consequences of climate change on dairy farming.


Corresponding author



Hide All
Aguilar, I, Misztal, I, Tsuruta, S 2009. Genetic components of heat stress for dairy cattle with multiple lactations. Journal of Dairy Science 92, 57025711.
Aguilar, I, Tsuruta, S, Misztal, I 2010. Computing options for multiple-trait test-day random regression models while accounting for heat tolerance. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics 127, 235241.
Aharoni, Y, Brosh, A, Harari, Y 2005. Night feeding for high-yielding dairy cows in hot weather: effects on intake, milk yield and energy expenditure. Livestock Production Science 92, 207219.
Altizer, S, Dobson, A, Hosseini, P, Hudson, P, Pascual, M, Rohani, P 2006. Seasonality and the dynamics of infectious diseases. Ecology Letters 9, 467484.
Armstrong, DV 1994. Heat stress interaction with shade and cooling. Journal of Dairy Science 77, 20442050.
Atadie-Dias, R, Mahon, G, Dore, G 2008. EU Cattle Population in December 2007 and Production Forecasts for 2008. Eurostat, Statistics in Focus: 49/2008. Retrieved March 11, 2011, from
Attebery, JT, Johnson, HD 1969. Effects of environmental temperature, controlled feeding and fasting on rumen motility. Journal of Animal Science 29, 734737.
Avendano-Reyes, L, Alvarez-Valenzuela, FD, Correa-Calderon, A, Saucedo-Quintero, JS, Robinson, PH, Fadel, JG 2006. Effect of cooling Holstein cows during the dry period on postpartum performance under heat stress conditions. Livestock Science 105, 198206.
Barash, H, Silanikove, N, Shamay, A, Ezra, E 2001. Interrelationships among ambient temperature, day length, and milk yield in dairy cows under a Mediterranean climate. Journal of Dairy Science 84, 23142320.
Bäurle, H, Windhorst, HW 2010. Structural changes in German dairy farming from 1992 to 2007 [in German: Strukturwandlungen in der deutschen Milchkuhhaltung zwischen den Jahren 1992 und 2007]. The Lower Saxony Competence Centre for the Food Industry. Weiße Reihe ISPA, 33.
Beatty, DT, Barnes, A, Taylor, E, Maloney, SK 2008. Do changes in feed intake or ambient temperature cause changes in cattle rumen temperature relative to core temperature? Journal of Thermal Biology 33, 1219.
Beatty, DT, Barnes, A, Taylor, E, Pethick, D, McCarthy, M, Maloney, SK 2006. Physiological responses of Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle to prolonged, continuous heat and humidity. Journal of Animal Science 84, 972985.
Beede, DK, Collier, RJ 1986. Potential nutritional strategies for intensively managed cattle during thermal stress. Journal of Animal Science 62, 543554.
Benyo, Z, Andreas, G, Clare, LB, Clausen, BE, Offermanns, S 2006. Nicotinic acid-induced flushing is mediated by activation of epidermal Langerhans cells. Molecular Pharmacology 70, 18441849.
Bergman, EN, Reid, RS, Murray, MG, Brockway, JM, Whitelaw, FG 1965. Interconversions and production of volatile fatty acids in the sheep rumen. Biochemical Journal 97, 5358.
Berman, A 2005. Estimates of heat stress relief needs for Holstein dairy cows. Journal of Animal Science 83, 13771384.
Berman, A 2006. Extending the potential of evaporative cooling for heat-stress relief. Journal of Dairy Science 89, 38173825.
Berman, A, Folman, Y, Kaim, M, Mamen, M, Herz, Z, Wolfenson, D, Arieli, A, Graber, Y 1985. Upper critical temperatures and forced ventilation effects for high-yielding dairy cows in a subtropical climate. Journal of Dairy Science 68, 14881495.
Bernabucci, U, Bani, P, Ronchi, B, Lacetera, N, Nardone, A 1999. Influence of short- and long-term exposure to a hot environment on rumen passage rate and diet digestibility by Friesian heifers. Journal of Dairy Science 82, 967973.
Bernabucci, U, Lacetera, N, Danieli, PP, Bani, P, Nardone, A, Ronchi, B 2009. Influence of different periods of exposure to hot environment on rumen function and diet digestibility in sheep. International Journal of Biometeorology 53, 387395.
Bloor, JMG, Pichon, P, Falcimagne, R, Leadley, P, Soussana, J-F 2010. Effects of warming, summer drought, and CO2 enrichment on aboveground biomass production, flowering phenology, and community structure in an upland grassland ecosystem. Ecosystems 13, 888900.
Bohmanova, J, Misztal, I, Cole, JB 2007. Temperature-humidity indices as indicators of milk production losses due to heat stress. Journal of Dairy Science 90, 19471956.
Bohmanova, J, Misztal, I, Tsuruta, S, Norman, HD, Lawlor, TJ 2005. National genetic evaluation of milk yield for heat tolerance of United States Holsteins. Interbull Bulletin 33, 160162.
Bohmanova, J, Misztal, I, Tsuruta, S, Norman, HD, Lawlor, TJ 2008. Short Communication: genotype by environment interaction due to heat stress. Journal of Dairy Science 91, 840846.
Boonkum, W, Misztal, I, Duangjinda, M, Pattarajinda, V, Tumwasorn, S, Sanpote, J 2011. Genetic effects of heat stress on milk yield of Thai Holstein crossbreds. Journal of Dairy Science 94, 487492.
Bouraoui, R, Lahmar, M, Majdoub, A, Djemali, M, and Belyea, R 2002. The relationship of temperature-humidity index with milk production of dairy cows in a Mediterranean climate. Animal Research 51, 479491.
Brody, S, Dale, HE, Steward, RE 1955. Interrelations between temperatures of rumen (at various depths), rectum, blood, and environmental air, and the effects of an antipyretic, feed and water consumption. Research Bulletin (University of Missouri Agricultural Experiment Station) 593.
Brouček, J, Mihina, Š, Ryba, Š, Tongel, P, Kišac, P, Uhrinčať, M, Hanus, A 2006. Effects of high air temperatures on milk efficiency in dairy cows. Czech Journal of Animal Science 51, 93101.
Broucek, J, Ryba, S, Mihina, S, Uhrincat, M, Kisac, P 2007. Impact of thermal-humidity index on milk yield under conditions of different dairy management. Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences 16, 329344.
Brown-Brandl, LM, Eigenberg, RA, Nienaber, JA, Hahn, GL 2005. Dynamic response indicators of heat stress in shaded and non-shaded feedlot cattle – Part 1: Analyses of indicators. Biosystems Engineering 90, 451462.
Brügemann, K, Gernand, E, König v. Borstel, U, König, S 2012. Defining and evaluating heat stress thresholds in different dairy cow production systems. Archives Animal Breeding 55, 1324.
Caldeira, MC, Ryel, RJ, Lawton, JH, Pereira, JS 2001. Mechanisms of positive biodiversity–production relationships: insights provided by d13C analysis in experimental Mediterranean grassland plots. Ecology Letters 4, 439443.
Cammack, KM, Mesa, H, Lamberson, WR 2006. Genetic variation in fertility of heat-stressed male mice. Theriogenology 66, 21952201.
Cammack, KM, Antoniou, E, Hearne, L, Lamberson, WR 2009. Testicular gene expression in male mice divergent for fertility after heat stress. Theriogenology 71, 651661.
Cassady, RB, Myers, RM, Legates, JE 1953. The effect of exposure to high ambient temperature on spermatogenesis in the dairy bull. Journal of Dairy Science 36, 1419.
Charlier, J, Demeler, J, Höglund, J, von Samson-Himmelstjerna, G, Dorny, P, Vercruysse, J 2009. Ostertagia ostertagi in first-season grazing cattle in Belgium, Germany and Sweden: general levels of infection and related management practices. Veterinary Parasitology 171, 9198.
Charlier, J, Höglund, J, von Samson-Himmelstjerna, G, Dorny, P, Vercruysse, J 2010. Gastrointestinal nematode infections in adult dairy cattle: impact on production, diagnosis and control. Veterinary Parasitology 164, 7079.
Chebel, RC, Santos, JE, Reynolds, JP, Cerri, RL, Juchem, SO, Overton, M 2004. Factors affecting conception rate after artificial insemination and pregnancy loss in lactating dairy cows. Animal Reproduction Science 84, 239255.
Chen, S, Bai, Y, Lin, G, Huang, J, Han, X 2007. Isotopic carbon composition and related characters of dominant species along an environmental gradient in Inner Mongolia, China. Journal of Arid Environments 71, 1228.
Christopherson, RJ, Kennedy, PM 1983. Effect of the thermal environment on digestion in ruminants. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 63, 477496.
Ciais, P, Reichstein, M, Viovy, N, Granier, A, Ogee, J, Allard, V, Aubinet, M, Buchmann, N, Bernhofer, C, Carrara, A, Chevallier, F, De Noblet, N, Friend, AD, Friedlingstein, P, Grunwald, T, Heinesch, B, Keronen, P, Knohl, A, Krinner, G, Loustau, D, Manca, G, Matteucci, G, Miglietta, F, Ourcival, JM, Papale, D, Pilegaard, K, Rambal, S, Seufert, G, Soussana, JF, Sanz, MJ, Schulze, ED, Vesala, T, Valentini, R 2005. Europe-wide reduction in primary productivity caused by the heat and drought in 2003. Nature 437, 529533.
Cleland, EE, Chiariello, NR, Loarie, SR, Mooney, HA, Field, CB 2006. Diverse responses of phenology to global changes in a grassland ecosystem. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103, 1374013744.
Collier, RJ, Dahl, GE, Van Baale, MJ 2006. Major advances associated with environmental effects on dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science 89, 12441253.
Coop, RL, Kyriazakis, I 1999. Nutrition–parasite interaction. Veterinary Parasitology 84, 187204.
Coppock, CE 1985. Energy nutrition and metabolism of the lactating dairy cow. Journal of Dairy Science 68, 34033410.
De Boeck, HJ, Lemmens, CMHM, Zavalloni, C, Gielen, B, Malchair, S, Carnol, M, Merckx, R, Van den Berge, J, Ceulemans, R, Nijs, I 2008. Biomass production in experimental grasslands of different species richness during three years of climate warming. Biogeosciences 5, 585594.
De la Sota, RL, Burke, JM, Risco, CA, Moreira, F, DeLorenzo, MA, Thatcher, WW 1998. Evaluation of timed insemination during summer heat stress in lactating dairy cattle. Theriogenology 49, 761770.
Di Costanzo, A, Spain, JN, Spiers, DE 1997. Supplementation of nicotinic acid for lactating Holstein cows under heat stress conditions. Journal of Dairy Science 80, 12001206.
Dikmen, S, Hansen, PJ 2009. Is the temperature-humidity index the best indicator of heat stress in lactating dairy cows in a subtropical environment? Journal of Dairy Science 92, 109116.
Dikmen, S, Martins, L, Pontes, E, Hansen, PJ 2009. Genotype effects on body temperature in dairy cows under grazing conditions in a hot climate including evidence for heterosis. International Journal of Biometeorology 53, 327331.
Dillon, P 2006. Achieving high dry-matter intake from pasture with grazing dairy cows. In Fresh herbage for dairy cattle (ed. A Elgersma, J Dijkstra and S Tamminga), pp. 126. Springer, Dordrecht.
Diskin, MG, Morris, DG 2008. Embryonic and early foetal losses in cattle and other ruminants. Reproduction in Domestic Animals 43 (suppl. 2), 260267.
Dutra, LH, Molento, MB, Naumann, CRC, Biondo, AW, Fortes, FS, Savio, D, Malone, JB 2009. Mapping risk of bovine fasciolosis in the south of Brazil using Geographic Information Systems. Veterinary Parasitology 169, 7681.
DWD 2011. Regional Climate Change – Climate Models in Comparison [in German: Regionaler Klimawandel – Klimamodelle im Vergleich]. Germany's National Meteorological Service. Retrieved October 10, 2011, from
Ehlers, W, Goss, M 2003. Water dynamics in plant production. CABI Publishing, Wallingford.
Erb, R, Wilbur, JW, Hilton, JH 1940. Some factors affecting breeding efficiency in dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science 23, 549.
Fernandes, CE, Dode, MA, Pereira, D, Silva, AE 2008. Effects of scrotal insulation in Nellore bulls (Bos taurus indicus) on seminal quality and its relationship with in vitro fertilizing ability. Theriogenology 70, 15601568.
Fitzgerald, JB, Brereton, AJ, Holden, NM 2009. Assessment of the adaptation potential of grass-based dairy systems to climate change in Ireland – the maximised production scenario. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 149, 244255.
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) 2006. Livestock's long shadow – environmental issues and options, p. 416. FAO, Rome.
Fox, NJ, White, PCL, McClean, CJ, Marion, G, Evans, A, Hutchings, MR 2011. Predicting impacts of climate change on Fasciola hepatica risk. PLoS ONE 6, e16126. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0016126.
Frame, J, Charlton, JFL, Laidlaw, AS 1998. Temperate forage legumes, 327pp. CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon.
Gale, P, Drew, T, Phipps, LP, David, G, Wooldridge, M 2009. The effect of climate change on the occurrence and prevalence of livestock diseases in Great Britain: a review. Journal of Applied Microbiology 106, 14091423.
Gaughan, JB, Mader, TL, Holt, SM 2008. Cooling and feeding strategies to reduce heat load of gain-feed beef cattle in intensive housing. Livestock Science 113, 226233.
Gengler, WR, Martz, FA, Johnson, HD, Krause, GF, Hahn, L 1970. Effect of temperature on food and water intake and rumen fermentation. Journal of Dairy Science 53, 434437.
Grubb, JA, Dehority, BA 1975. Effects of an abrupt change in ration from all roughage to high concentrate upon rumen microbial numbers in sheep. Applied Microbiology 30, 404412.
Hammami, H, Rekik, B, Bastin, C, Soyeurt, H, Bastin, J, Stoll, J, Gengler, N 2008. Genotype × environment interaction for milk yield in Holsteins using Luxembourg and Tunisian populations. Journal of Dairy Science 91, 36613671.
Hansen, PJ 2007. Exploitation of genetic and physiological determinants of embryonic resistance to elevated temperature to improve embryonic survival in dairy cattle during heat stress. Theriogenology 68 (suppl. 1), 242249.
Hayes, RC, Dear, BS, Li, GD, Virgona, JM, Conyers, MK, Hackney, BF, Tidd, J 2010. Perennial pastures for recharge control in temperate drought-prone environments. Part 1: productivity, persistence and herbage quality of key species. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 53, 283302.
Her, E, Wolfenson, D, Flamenbaum, I, Folman, Y, Kaim, M, Berman, A 1988. Thermal, productive and reproductive response of high yielding cows exposed to short-term cooling in summer. Journal of Dairy Science 71, 10851092.
Hoffmann, I 2010. Climate change and the characterization, breeding and conservation of animal genetic resources. Animal Genetics 41 (suppl. 1), 3246.
Holden, NM, Brereton, AJ, Fitzgerald, JB 2008. Impact of climate change on Irish agricultural production systems. In Climate change – refining the impacts for Ireland (ed. Environmental Protection Agency), pp. 82131. Environmental Protection Agency, Wexford.
Holter, JB, Young, AJ 1992. Methane prediction in dry and lactating Holstein cows. Journal of Dairy Science 75, 21652175.
Hossel, J 2002. Identifying and costing agricultural responses under climate change scenarios (ICARUS). Final Project Report of MAFF Project CC0357, ADAS Ltd, Wolverhampton.
Hudson, PJ, Cattadori, IM, Boag, B, Dobson, AP 2006. Climate disruption and parasite-host dynamic: patterns and processes associated with warming and the frequency of extreme climatic events. Journal of Helminthology 80, 175182.
Hungate, RE 1966. The rumen and its microbes. Academic Press, New York.
Ineson, P, Benham, DG, Poskitt, J, Harrison, AF, Taylor, K, Woods, C 1998a. Effects of climate change on nitrogen dynamics in upland soils. 2. A soil warming study. Global Change Biology 4, 153161.
Ineson, P, Taylor, K, Harrison, AF, Poskitt, J, Benham, DG, Tipping, E, Woof, C 1998b. Effects of climate change on nitrogen dynamics in upland soils. 1. A transplant approach. Global Change Biology 4, 143152.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 2007. Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.
Jannes, PC, Spiessens, C, Van der Auwera, I, D'Hooghe, T, Verhoeven, G, Vanderschueren, D 1998. Male subfertility induced by acute scrotal heating affects embryo quality in normal female mice. Human Reproduction 13, 372375.
Kadzere, CT, Murphy, MR, Silanikove, N, Maltz, E 2002. Heat stress in lactating dairy cows: a review. Livestock Production Science 77, 5991.
Kaiser, HM, Riha, SJ, Wilks, DS 1993. A farm-level analysis of economic and agronomic impacts of gradual climate warming. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 75, 387398.
Kao, RR, Leathwick, DM, Roberts, MG, Sutherland, IA 2000. Nematode parasites of sheep: a survey of epidemiological parameters and their application in a simple model. Parasitology 121, 85103.
Karabinus, DS, Vogler, CJ, Saacke, RG, Evenson, DP 1997. Chromatin structural changes in sperm after scrotal insulation of Holstein bulls. Journal of Andrology 18, 549555.
Kelley, RO, Martz, FA, Johnson, HD 1967. Effects of environmental temperature on ruminal volatile fatty acid levels with controlled feed intake. Journal of Dairy Science 50, 531533.
Kendall, PE, Verkerk, GA, Webster, JR, Tucker, CB 2007. Sprinklers and shade cool cows and reduce insect-avoidance behavior in pasture-based dairy systems. Journal of Dairy Science 90, 36713680.
Kendall, PE, Nielsen, PP, Webster, JR, Verkerk, GA, Littlejohn, RP, Matthews, RW 2006. The effects of providing shade to lactating dairy cows in a temperate climate. Livestock Science 103, 148157.
Kenyon, F, Sargison, ND, Skuce, PJ, Jackson, F 2009. Sheep helminth parasitic disease in south eastern Scotland arising as a possible consequence of climate change. Veterinary Parasitology 163, 293297.
Khongdee, S, Chaiyabutr, N, Hinch, G, Markvichitr, K, Vajrabukka, C 2006. Effects of evaporative cooling on reproductive performance and milk production of dairy cows in hot wet conditions. International Journal of Biometeorology 50, 253257.
Köhler, IH, Poulton, PR, Auerswald, K, Schnyder, H 2010. Intrinsic water-use efficiency of temperate seminatural grassland has increased since 1857: an analysis of carbon isotope discrimination of herbage from the Park Grass Experiment. Global Change Biology 16, 15311541.
Kyriazakis, I, Houdijk, J 2006. Immunonutrition: nutritional control of parasites. Small Ruminant Research 62, 7982.
Larson, KL, DeJonge, CJ, Barnes, AM, Jost, LK, Evenson, DP 2000. Sperm chromatin structure assay parameters as predictors of failed pregnancy following assisted reproductive techniques. Human Reproduction 15, 17171722.
Lassen, B, Busch, G 2009. Development perspectives for milk production in different regions of Lower Saxony: an agribenchmark dairy-project. Report from vTI-Agrarökonomie, Braunschweig [in German: Entwicklungsperspektiven der Milchproduktion in verschiedenen Regionen Niedersachsens: ein agribenchmark dairy-Projekt. Arbeitsberichte aus der vTI-Agrarökonomie, Braunschweig].
Legrand, AL, von Keyserlingk, MAG, Weary, DM 2009. Preference and usage of pasture versus free-stall housing by lactating dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science 92, 36513658.
Leser, TD, Amenuvor, JZ, Jensen, TK, Lindecrona, RH, Boye, M, Møller, K 2002. Culture-independent analysis of gut bacteria: the pig gastrointestinal tract microbiota revisited. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 68, 673690.
Lesschen, JP, van den Berg, M, Westhoek, HJ, Witzke, HP, Oenema, O 2011. Greenhouse gas emission profiles of European livestock sectors. Animal Feed Science and Technology 166–167, 1628.
Leva, PE, Valtorta, SE, Fornasero, LV 1996. Milk production decline during summer in Argentina: present situation and expected effects of global warming. Proceedings of 14th International Congress of Biometeorology, Ljubljana, Slovenia, Part 2, vol. 2, pp. 395–401.
Lippke, H 1975. Digestibility and volatile fatty acids in steers and wethers at 21 and 32 C ambient temperature. Journal of Dairy Science 58, 18601864.
Liu, YX, Zhou, X, Li, DQ, Cui, QW, Wang, GL 2010. Association of ATP1A1 gene polymorphism with heat tolerance traits in dairy cattle. Genetics and Molecular Research 9, 891896.
Liu, ZL, Chen, P, Li, JM, Lin, SB, Wang, DM, Zhu, LP, Yang, DP 2008. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) moderate negative responses of heat-stressed cows. Livestock Science 118, 255261.
Lu, CD 1989. Effects of heat stress on goat production. Small Ruminant Research 2, 151162.
Lüscher, A, Fuhrer, J, Newton, PCD 2005. Global atmospheric change and its effect on managed grassland systems. In Grassland – a global resource (ed. DA McGilloway), pp. 251264. Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen.
Mader, TL, Frank, KL, Harrington, JA, Hahn, GL 2009. Potential climate change effects on warm-season livestock production in the Great Plains. Climate Change 97, 529541.
Malone, JB, Gommes, R, Hansen, J, Yilma, JM, Slingenberg, J, Snijders, F, Nachtergaele, F, Ataman, E 1998. A geographic information system on the potential distribution and abundance of Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica in east Africa based on Food and Agriculture Organization databases. Veterinary Parasitology 78, 87101.
Martinsohn, M, Hansen, H 2012. The impact of climate change on the economics of dairy farming – a review and evaluation. German Journal of Agricultural Economics 61, 8095.
Martz, FA, Payna, CP, Matches, AG, Belyea, RL, Warren, WP 1990. Forage intake, ruminal dry matter disappearance and ruminal blood volatile fatty acids for steers in 18 and 32°C temperatures. Journal of Dairy Science 73, 12801287.
Mas-Coma, S, Bargues, MD, Valero, MA 2005. Fascioliasis and other plant-borne trematode zoonoses. International Journal for Parasitology 35, 12551278.
Mas-Coma, S, Bargues, MD, Valero, MA 2007. Plant-borne trematode zoonoses: fascioliasis and fasciolopsiasis. In Food-borne parasitic zoonoses (ed. KD Murell and B Fried), pp. 293334. Springer, New York, USA.
Mayer, DG, Davison, TM, McGowan, MR, Young, BA, Matschoss, AL, Hall, AB, Goodwin, PJ, Jonsson, NN, Gaughan, JB 1999. Extent and economic effect of heat loads on dairy cattle production in Australia. Australian Veterinary Journal 77, 804808.
McDowell, RE, Moody, EG, Van Soest, PJ, Lehmann, RP, Ford, GL 1969. Effect of heat stress on energy and water utilization of lactating cows. Journal of Dairy Science 52, 188194.
Meyer, MJ, Smith, JF, Harner, JP, Shirley, JE, Titgemeyer, EC, Brouk, MJ 2002. Performance of lactating dairy cattle in three different cooling systems. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 18, 341345.
Meyer, U, Stahl, W, Flachowsky, G 2006. Investigations on the water intake of growing bulls. Livestock Science 103, 186191.
Meyer, U, Everinghoff, M, Gadeken, D, Flachowsky, G 2004. Investigations on the water intake of lactating dairy cows. Livestock Production Science 90, 117121.
Miaron, JOO, Christopherson, RJ 1992. Effect of prolonged thermal exposure on heat production, reticular motility, rumen-fluid and -particulate passage-rate constants, and apparent digestibility in steers. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 72, 809819.
Michel, JF 1955. Parasitological significance of bovine grazing behaviour. Nature 175, 10881089.
Milam, KZ, Coppock, CE, West, JW, Lanham, JK, Nave, DH, Labore, JM, Stermer, RA, Brasington, CF 1986. Effects of drinking-water temperature on production responses in lactating Holstein cows in summer. Journal of Dairy Science 69, 10131019.
Misztal, A, Zarzycki, J 2010. Evapotranspiration from grassland with contact to groundwater. Grassland Science in Europe 15, 6971.
Molee, A, Bundasak, B, Kuadsantiat, P, Mernkrathoke, P 2011. Suitable percentage of Holstein in crossbred dairy cattle in climate change situation. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 10, 828831.
Moore, KJ, Jung, HJG 2001. Lignin and fiber digestion. Journal of Range Management 54, 420430.
Moran, D, Topp, K, Wall, E, Wreford, A 2009. Climate change impacts on the livestock sector. Draft Final Report AC 0307, SAC Commercial Ltd, SAC Research.
Morgan, ER, Wall, R 2009. Climate change and parasitic disease: farmer mitigation? Trends in Parasitology 25, 308313.
Morison, JIL, Lawlor, DW 1999. Interactions between increasing CO2 concentration and temperature on plant growth. Plant, Cell and Environment 22, 659682.
Morris, CA 2007. A review of genetic resistance to disease in Bos taurus cattle. The Veterinary Journal 174, 481491.
Myneni, RB, Keeling, CD, Tucker, CJ, Asrar, G, Nemani, RR 1997. Increased plant growth in the northern high latitudes from 1981 to 1991. Nature 386, 698702.
Nardone, A, Ronchi, B, Lacetera, N, Bernabucci, U 2006. Climatic effects on productive traits in livestock. Veterinary Research Communications 30 (suppl. 1), 7581.
Nardone, A, Ronchi, B, Lacetera, N, Ranieri, MS, Bernabucci, U 2010. Effects of climate changes on animal production and sustainability of livestock systems. Livestock Science 130, 5769.
National Research Council (NRC) 1971. National Research Council: a guide to environmental research on animals. National Academy of Sciences, Washington.
Nikkhah, A, Furedi, CJ, Kennedy, AD, Scott, SL, Wittenberg, KM, Crow, GH, Plaizier, JC 2011. Morning vs. evening feed delivery for lactating dairy cows. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 91, 113122.
Niklaus, P, Wardle, D, Tate, K 2006. Effects of plant species diversity and composition on nitrogen cycling and the trace gas balance of soils. Plant and Soil 282, 8398.
Novak, P, Vokralova, J, Broucek, J 2009. Effects of the stage and number of lactation on milk yield of dairy cows kept in open barn during high temperatures in summer months. Archiv für Tierzucht 52, 574586.
O'Brien, MD, Rhoads, RP, Sanders, SR, Duff, GC, Baumgard, LH 2010. Metabolic adaptations to heat stress in growing cattle. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 38, 8694.
O'Connor, LJ, Walkden-Brown, SW, Kahn, LP 2006. Ecology of the free-living stages of major trichostrongylid parasites of sheep. Veterinary Parasitology 142, 115.
Olesen, JE, Bindi, M 2002. Consequences of climate change for European agricultural productivity, land use and policy. European Journal of Agronomy 16, 239262.
Olson, TA, Lucena, C, Chase, CC Jr, Hammond, C 2003. Evidence of a major gene influencing hair length and heat tolerance in Bos taurus cattle. Journal of Animal Science 81, 8090.
Ominski, KH, Kennedy, AD, Wittenberg, KM, Nia, SAM 2002. Physiological and production responses to feeding schedule in lactating dairy cows exposed to short-term, moderate heat stress. Journal of Dairy Science 85, 730737.
Osterburg, B, Isermeyer, F, Lassen, B, Röder, N 2010. Impact of economic and political drivers on grassland use in the EU. Grassland Science in Europe 15, 1428.
Owensby, CE, Coyne, PI, Ham, JM, Auen, LM, Knapp, AK 1993. Biomass production in a tallgrass prairie ecosystem exposed to ambient and elevated CO2. Ecological Applications 3, 644653.
Parsons, DJ, Armstrong, AC, Turnpenny, JR, Matthews, AM, Cooper, K, Clark, JA 2001. Integrated models of livestock systems for climate change studies. 1. Grazing systems. Global Change Biology 7, 93112.
Pascual, M, Dobson, A 2005. Seasonal patterns of infectious disease. PLoS Medicine 2, e5. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0020005.
Paul, C, Murray, AA, Spears, N, Saunders, PT 2008. A single, mild, transient scrotal heat stress causes DNA damage, subfertility and impairs formation of blastocysts in mice. Reproduction 136, 7384.
Perring, MP, Cullen, BR, Johnson, IR, Hovenden, MJ 2010. Modelled effects of rising CO2 concentration and climate change on native perennial grass and sown grass-legume pastures. Climate Research 42, 6578.
Polley, L, Thompson, RCA 2009. Parasite zoonoses and climate change: molecular tools for tracking shifting boundaries. Trends in Parasitology 25, 285291.
Purwanto, BP, Harada, M, Yamamoto, S 1996. Effect of drinking-water temperature on heat balance and thermoregulatory responses in dairy heifers. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 47, 505512.
Rausch, RL, George, JC, Brower, HK 2007. Effect of climatic warming on the Pacific walrus, and potential modification of the helminth fauna. The Journal of Parasitology 93, 12471251.
Ravagnolo, O, Misztal, I 2000. Genetic component of heat stress in dairy cattle, parameter estimation. Journal of Dairy Science 83, 21262130.
Ravagnolo, O, Misztal, I 2002. Effect of heat stress on nonreturn rate in Holsteins: fixed-model analyses. Journal of Dairy Science 8, 31013106.
Ravagnolo, O, Misztal, I, Hoogenboom, G 2000. Genetic component of heat stress in dairy cattle, development of heat index function. Journal of Dairy Science 83, 21202125.
Reiczigel, J, Solymosi, N, Könyves, L, Maróti-Agóts, A, Kern, A, Bartyik, J 2009. Examination of heat stress caused milk production loss by the use of temperature-humidity indices. Magyar Állatorvosok Lapja 131, 137144.
Royal, M, Darwash, AO, Flint, APE, Webb, R, Woolliams, JA, Lamming, GE 2000. Declining fertility in dairy cattle: changes in traditional and endocrine parameters of fertility. Animal Science 70, 487501.
Sakkas, D, Urner, F, Bizzaro, D, Manicardi, G, Bianchi, PG, Shoukir, Y, Campana, A 1998. Sperm nuclear DNA damage and altered chromatin structure: effect on fertilization and embryo development. Human Reproduction 13 (Suppl. 4), 1119.
Sardans, J, Peñuelas, J, Estiarte, M 2006. Warming and drought alter soil phosphatase activity and soil P availability in a Mediterranean shrubland. Plant and Soil 289, 227238.
Schierenbeck, S, Reinhardt, F, Reents, R, Simianer, H, König, S 2010. Identification of informative cooperator herds for progeny testing based on yield deviations. Journal of Dairy Science 94, 20712082.
Schindler, U, Steidl, J, Müller, L, Eulenstein, F, Thiere, J 2007. Drought risk to agricultural land in Northeast and Central Germany. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 170, 357362.
Schneider, PL, Beede, DK, Wilcox, CJ 1988. Nycterohemeral patterns of acid-base status, mineral concentrations and digestive function of lactating cows in natural or chamber heat stress environments. Journal of Animal Science 66, 112125.
Schütz, KE, Rogers, AR, Cox, NR, Webster, JR, Tucker, CB 2011. Dairy cattle prefer shade over sprinklers: effects on behaviour and physiology. Journal of Dairy Science 94, 273283.
Segerson, K, Dixon, BL 1999. Climate change and agriculture: the role of farmer adaptation. In The impact of climate change on the United States economy (ed. R Mendelsohn and JE Neumann), pp. 7593. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Seo, SN, Mendelsohn, R 2008. Measuring impacts and adaptations to climate change: a structural Ricardian model of African livestock management. Agricultural Economics 38, 151165.
Setchell, BP 1998. The Parkes Lecture: heat and the testis. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 114, 179194.
Silanikove, N 1992. Effects of water scarcity and hot environment on appetite and digestion in ruminants: a review. Livestock Production Science 30, 175194.
Skinner, J, Louw, G 1966. Heat stress and spermatogenesis in Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle. Journal of Applied Physiology 21, 17841790.
Smith, TR, Chapa, A, Willard, S, Herndon, C Jr, Williams, RJ, Crouch, J, Riley, T, Pogue, D 2006a. Evaporative tunnel cooling of dairy cows in the southeast. I: effects on body temperature and respiration rate. Journal of Dairy Science 89, 39043914.
Smith, TR, Chapa, A, Willard, S, Herndon, C Jr, Williams, RJ, Crouch, J, Riley, T, Pogue, D 2006b. Evaporative tunnel cooling of dairy cows in the southeast: II: impact on lactation performance. Journal of Dairy Science 89, 39153923.
Solymosi, N, Torma, C, Kern, A, Maróti-Agóts, Á, Barcza, Z, Könyves, L, Berke, O, Reiczigel, J 2010. Changing climate in Hungary and trends in the annual number of heat stress days. International Journal of Biometeorology 54, 423431.
Soussana, J-F, Lüscher, A 2007. Temperate grasslands and global atmospheric change: a review. Grass and Forage Science 62, 127134.
St-Pierre, NR, Cobanov, B, Schnitkey, G 2003. Economic losses from heat stress by US livestock industries. Journal of Dairy Science 86, 5277.
Sutter, F, Beever, DE 2000. Energy and nitrogen metabolism in Holstein–Friesian cows during early lactation. Animal Science 70, 503514.
Tajima, K, Nonaka, I, Higuchi, K, Takusari, N, Kurihara, M, Takenaka, A, Mitsumori, M, Kajikawa, H, Aminov, RI 2007. Influence of high temperature and humidity on rumen bacterial diversity in Holstein heifers. Anaerobe 13, 5764.
Topp, CFE, Wreford, A, Tolkamp, BJ, Wu, L, Moran, D 2010. Impacts of climate change on the grazing period, and the conserved feeding costs of grazing systems in the UK. Grassland Science in Europe 15, 3638.
Tsialtas, JT, Handley, LL, Kassioumi, MT, Veresoglou, DS, Gagianas, AA 2001. Interspecific variation in potential water-use efficiency and its relation to plant species abundance in a water-limited grassland. Functional Ecology 15, 605614.
Tucker, CBA, Rogers, AR, Schütz, KE 2008. Effect of solar radiation on dairy cattle behaviour, use of shade and body temperature in a pasture-based system. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 109, 141154.
Uyeno, Y, Sekiguchi, Y, Tajima, K, Takenaka, A, Kurihara, M, Kamagata, Y 2010. An rRNA-based analysis for evaluating the effect of heat stress on the rumen microbial composition of Holstein heifers. Anaerobe 16, 2733.
Van Arendonk, JAM, Liinamo, AE 2003. Dairy cattle production in Europe. Theriogenology 59, 563569.
Van Dijk, J, Sargison, ND, Kenyon, F 2010. Climate change and infectious disease: helminthological challenges to farmed ruminants in temperate regions. Animal 4, 377392.
Van Dijk, J, David, GP, Baird, G, Morgan, ER 2008. Back to the future: developing hypotheses on the effects of climate change on ovine parasitic gastroenteritis from historical data. Veterinary Parasitology 158, 7384.
Van Soest, PJ 1965. Symposium on factors influencing the voluntary intake of herbage by ruminants: voluntary intake in relation to chemical composition and digestibility. Journal of Animal Science 24, 834843.
Vogler, CJ, Saacke, RG, Bame, JH, Dejarnette, JM, McGilliard, ML 1991. Effects of scrotal insulation on viability characteristics of cryopreserved bovine semen. Journal of Dairy Science 74, 38273835.
Von Keyserlingk, MAG, Rushen, J, de Passille, AM, Weary, DM 2009. The welfare of dairy cattle – key concepts and the role of science. Journal of Dairy Science 92, 41014111.
Waller, PJ, Rudby-Martin, L, Ljungström, BL, Rydzik, A 2004. The epidemiology of abomasal nematodes of sheep in Sweden, with particular reference to over-winter survival strategies. Veterinary Parasitology 122, 207220.
Walter, K, Löpmeier, F-J 2010. The feeding and husbandry of high performance cows, Part 5. High performance cows and climate changes [in German: Fütterung und Haltung von Hochleistungskühen, 5. Hochleistungskühe und Klimawandel]. Agriculture and Forestry Research 1, 1734.
Walters, AH, Saacke, RG, Pearson, RE, Gwazdauskas, FC 2006. Assessment of pronuclear formation following in vitro fertilization with bovine spermatozoa obtained after thermal insulation of the testis. Theriogenology 65, 10161028.
Walters, AH, Eyestone, WE, Saacke, RG, Pearson, RE, Gwazdauskas, FC 2004. Sperm morphology and preparation method affect bovine embryonic development. Journal of Andrology 25, 554563.
Walters, AH, Eyestone, WE, Saacke, RG, Pearson, RE, Gwazdauskas, FC 2005a. Bovine embryo development after IVF with spermatozoa having abnormal morphology. Theriogenology 63, 19251937.
Walters, AH, Saacke, RG, Pearson, RE, Gwazdauskas, FC 2005b. The incidence of apoptosis after IVF with morphologically abnormal bovine spermatozoa. Theriogenology 64, 14041421.
Warren, WP, Martz, FA, Asay, KH, Hilderbrand, ES, Payne, CG, Vogt, JR 1974. Digestibility and rate of passage by steers fed tall fescue, alfalfa and orchardgrass hay in 18 and 32°C ambient temperatures. Journal of Animal Science 39, 9396.
Weaver, HJ, Hawdon, JM, Hoberg, EP 2010. Soil-transmitted helminthiases: implications of climate change and human behaviour. Trends in Parasitology 26, 574581.
Weldy, JR, Mcdowell, RE, Van Soest, PJ, Bond, J 1964. Influence of heat stress on rumen acid levels and some blood constituents in cattle. Journal of Animal Science 23, 147153.
West, JW 1999. Nutritional strategies for managing the heat-stressed dairy cow. Journal of Animal Science 77, 2135.
West, JW 2003. Effects of heat-stress on production in dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science 86, 21312144.
West, JW, Mullinix, BG, Bernard, JK 2003. Effects of hot, humid weather on milk temperature, dry matter intake, and milk yield of lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 86, 232242.
Wildeus, S, Entwistle, KW 1983. Spermiogram and sperm reserves in hybrid Bos indicus × Bos taurus bulls after scrotal insulation. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 69, 711716.
Wilson, JR, Ng, TT 1975. Influence of water stress on parameters associated with herbage quality of Panicum maximum var. trichoglume. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 26, 127136.
Wilson, JR, Deinum, B, Engels, FM 1991. Temperature effects on anatomy and digestibility of leaf and stem of tropical and temperate forage species. Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science 39, 3148.
Wolfenson, D, Flamenbaum, I, Berman, A 1988. Hyperthermia and body energy store effects on estrous behavior, conception rate, and corpus luteum function in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 71, 34973504.
Wu, XH, Zhang, SQ, Xu, XJ, Huang, YX, Steinmann, P, Utzinger, J, Wang, TP, Xu, J, Zheng, J, Zhou, XN 2008. Effect of floods on the transmission of schistosomiasis in the Yangtze River valley, People's Republic of China. Parasitology International 57, 271276.
Yaeram, J, Setchell, BP, Maddocks, S 2006. Effect of heat stress on the fertility of male mice in vivo and in vitro. Reproduction, Fertility and Development 18, 647653.
Yang, GJ, Utzinger, J, Sun, LP, Hong, QB, Vounatsou, P, Tanner, M, Zhou, XN 2007. Effect of temperature on the development of Schistosoma japonicum within Oncomelania hupensis, and hibernation of O. hupenensis. Parasitology Research 100, 695700.
Zähner, M, Schrader, L, Hauser, R, Langhans, W, Wechsler, B 2004. The influence of climatic conditions on physiological and behavioural parameters in dairy cows kept in open stables. Animal Science 78, 139147.
Zhou, XN, Lv, S, Yang, GJ, Kristensen, TK, Bergquist, NR, Utzinger, J, Malone, JB 2009. Spatial epidemiology in zoonotic parasitic diseases: insights gained at the 1st International Symposium on Geospatial Health in Lijiang, China, 2007. Parasites and Vectors 2, 10pp.
Zhou, XN, Yang, GJ, Yang, K, Wang, XH, Hong, QB, Sun, LP, Malone, JB, Kristensen, TK, Bergquist, NR, Utzinger, J 2008. Potential impact of climate change on schistosomiasis transmission in China. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 78, 188194.
Zimbelman, RB, Baumgard, LH, Collier, RJ 2010. Effects of encapsulated niacin on evaporative heat loss and body temperature in moderately heat-stressed lactating Holstein cows. Journal of Dairy Science 93, 23872394.
Zwald, NR, Weigel, KA, Fikse, WF, Rekaya, R 2003. Identification of factors that cause genotype by environment interaction between herds of Holstein cattle in seventeen countries. Journal of Dairy Science 86, 376382.


Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Future consequences and challenges for dairy cow production systems arising from climate change in Central Europe – a review

  • M. Gauly (a1), H. Bollwein (a2), G. Breves (a3), K. Brügemann (a4), S. Dänicke (a5), G. Daş (a1), J. Demeler (a6), H. Hansen (a7), J. Isselstein (a8), S. König (a4), M. Lohölter (a5), M. Martinsohn (a7), U. Meyer (a5), M. Potthoff (a9), C. Sanker (a1), B. Schröder (a3), N. Wrage (a8), B. Meibaum (a3), G. von Samson-Himmelstjerna (a6), H. Stinshoff (a2) and C. Wrenzycki (a2)...


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.