Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Review: Early life predisposing factors for biting in pigs

  • A. Prunier (a1), X. Averos (a2), I. Dimitrov (a3), S. A. Edwards (a4), E. Hillmann (a5), M. Holinger (a6), V. Ilieski (a7), R. Leming (a8), C. Tallet (a1), S. P. Turner (a9), M. Zupan (a10) and I. Camerlink (a11)...

Abstract

The pig industry faces many animal welfare issues. Among these, biting behaviour has a high incidence. It is indicative of an existing problem in biters and is a source of physical damage and psychological stress for the victims. We categorize this behaviour into aggressive and non-aggressive biting, the latter often being directed towards the tail. This review focusses specifically on predisposing factors in early life, comprising the prenatal and postnatal periods up to weaning, for the expression of aggressive and non-aggressive biting later in life. The influence of personality and coping style has been examined in a few studies. It varies according to these studies and, thus, further evaluation is needed. Regarding the effect of environmental factors, the number of scientific papers is low (less than five papers for most factors). No clear influence of prenatal factors has been identified to date. Aggressive biting is reduced by undernutrition, cross-fostering and socialization before weaning. Non-aggressive biting is increased by undernutrition, social stress due to competition and cross-fostering. These latter three factors are highly dependent on litter size at birth. The use of familiar odours may contribute to reducing biting when pigs are moved from one environment to another by alleviating the level of stress associated with novelty. Even though the current environment in which pigs are expressing biting behaviours is of major importance, the pre-weaning environment should be optimized to reduce the likelihood of this problem.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Review: Early life predisposing factors for biting in pigs
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Review: Early life predisposing factors for biting in pigs
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Review: Early life predisposing factors for biting in pigs
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is unaltered and is properly cited. The written permission of Cambridge University Press must be obtained for commercial re-use or in order to create a derivative work.

Corresponding author

Footnotes

Hide All
a

Present address: Department of Animal Sciences, FIBL Research Institute of Organic Agriculture, Frick 5070, Switzerland.

Footnotes

References

Hide All
Algers, B 1984. Animal health in fladeck rearing of weaned piglets. Zentralblatt Fur Veterinarmedizin Reihe a-Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series a-Animal Physiology Pathology and Clinical Veterinary Medicine 31, 113.
Algers, B and Jensen, P 1991. Teat stimulation and milk producion during early lactation in sows: effect of continuous noise. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 71, 5160.
Andersen, IL, Andenæs, H, Bøe, KE, Jensen, P and Bakken, M 2000. The effects of weight asymmetry and resource distribution on aggression in groups of unacquainted pigs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 68, 107120.
Anil, L, Anil, SS, Deen, J, Baidoo, SK and Wheaton, JE 2005. Evaluation of well-being, productivity, and longevity of pregnant sows housed in groups in pens with an electronic sow feeder or separately in gestation stalls. American Journal of Veterinary Research 66, 16301638.
Baxter, EM, Rutherford, KMD, D’Eath, RB, Arnott, G, Turner, SP, Sandoe, P, Moustsen, VA, Thorup, F, Edwards, SA and Lawrence, AB 2013. The welfare implications of large litter size in the domestic pig II: management factors. Animal Welfare 22, 219238.
Beattie, VE, Breuer, K, O’Connell, NE, Sneddon, IA, Mercer, JT, Rance, KA, Sutcliffe, MEM and Edwards, SA 2005. Factors identifying pigs predisposed to tail biting. Animal Science 80, 307312.
Beattie, VE, O’Connell, NE and Moss, BW 2000. Influence of environmental enrichment on the behaviour, performance and meat quality of domestic pigs. Livestock Production Science 65, 7179.
Bell, AW and Ehrhardt, RA 2002. Regulation of placental nutrient transport and implications for fetal growth. Nutrition Research Reviews 15, 211230.
Benard, M, Schuitmaker, TJ and Buning, TD 2014. Scientists and Dutch pig farmers in dialogue about tail biting: unravelling the mechanism of multi-stakeholder Learning. Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Ethics 27, 431452.
Blowey, RW 2003. Anal biting in pigs. Veterinary Record 152, 667667.
Boe, K 1993. The effect of age at weaning and post-weaning environment on the behavior of pigs. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section a-Animal Science 43, 173180.
Bolhuis, JE, Schouten, WGP, Schrama, JW and Wiegant, VM 2005a. Individual coping characteristics, aggressiveness and fighting strategies in pigs. Animal Behaviour 69, 10851091.
Bolhuis, JE, Schouten, WGP, Schrama, JW and Wiegant, VM 2005b. Behavioural development of pigs with different coping characteristics in barren and substrate-enriched housing conditions. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 93, 213228.
Bolhuis, JE, Schouten, WGP, Schrama, JW and Wiegant, VM 2006. Effects of rearing and housing environment on behaviour and performance of pigs with different coping characteristics. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 101, 6885.
Bracke, MBM, Lauwere, CCD, Wind, SMM and Zonerland, JJ 2013. Attitudes of Dutch pig farmers towards tail biting and tail docking. Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Ethics 26, 847868.
Brunberg, E, Wallenbeck, A and Keeling, LJ 2011. Tail biting in fattening pigs: associations between frequency of tail biting and other abnormal behaviours. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 133, 1825.
Brunton, PJ 2013. Effects of maternal exposure to social stress during pregnancy: consequences for mother and offspring. Reproduction 146, R175R189.
Camerlink, I, Farish, M, D’Eath, R, Arnott, G, & Turner, SP 2018. Long term benefits on social behaviour after early life socialization of piglets. Animals, 8, 192.
Camerlink, I, Turner, SP, Farish, M, & Arnott, G 2019. Advantages of social skills for contest resolution. Royal Society Open Science, 6, 181456.
Chaloupková, H, Illmann, G, Bartos, L and Spinka, M 2007. The effect of preweaning housing on the play and agonistic behaviour of domestic pigs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 103, 2534.
Colson, V, Martin, E, Orgeur, P and Prunier, A 2012. Influence of housing and social changes on growth, behaviour and cortisol in piglets at weaning. Physiology and Behavior 107, 5964.
Colson, V, Orgeur, P, Foury, A and Mormede, P 2006. Consequences of weaning piglets at 21 and 28 days on growth, behaviour and hormonal responses. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 98, 7088.
Couret, D, Otten, W, Puppe, B, Prunier, A and Merlot, E 2008. Behavioural, endocrine and immune responses to repeated social stress in pregnant gilts. Animal 3, 118127.
Cox, LN and Cooper, JJ 2001. Observations on the pre- and post-weaning behaviour of piglets reared in commercial indoor and outdoor environments. Animal Science 72, 7586.
D’Eath, RB 2005. Socialising piglets before weaning improves social hierarchy formation when pigs are mixed post-weaning. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 93, 199211.
D’Eath, RB, Arnott, G, Turner, SP, Jensen, T, Lahrmann, HP, Busch, ME, Niemi, JK, Lawrence, AB and Sandoe, P 2014. Injurious tail biting in pigs: how can it be controlled in existing systems without tail docking? Animal 8, 14791497.
D’Eath, RB and Burn, CC 2002. Individual differences in behaviour: a test of ‘coping style’ does not predict resident-intruder aggressiveness in pigs. Behaviour 139, 11751194.
D’Eath, RB and Lawrence, AB 2004. Early life predictors of the development of aggressive behaviour in the domestic pig. Animal Behaviour 67, 501509.
Day, JEL, Burfoot, A, Docking, CM, Whittaker, X, Spoolder, HAM and Edwards, SA 2002. The effects of prior experience of straw and the level of straw provision on the behaviour of growing pigs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 76, 189202.
de Groot, J, Ruis, MAW, Scholten, JW, Koolhaas, JM and Boersma, WJA 2001. Long-term effects of social stress on antiviral immunity in pigs. Physiology & Behavior 73, 145158.
de Jonge, FH, Bokkers, EAM, Schouten, WGP and Helmond, FA 1996. Rearing piglets in a poor environment: developmental aspects of social stress in pigs. Physiology & Behavior 60, 389396.
De Passillé, AMB and Rushen, J 1989. Suckling and teat disputes by neonatal piglets. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 22, 2338.
Desire, S, Turner, SP, D’Eath, RB, Doeschl-Wilson, AB, Lewis, CRG and Roehe, R 2015. Analysis of the phenotypic link between behavioural traits at mixing and increased long-term social stability in group-housed pigs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 166, 5262.
Diaz, JAC, Manzanilla, EG, Diana, A and Boyle, LA 2018. Cross-fostering implications for pig mortality, welfare and performance. Frontiers in Veterinary Science 5, 110. doi: 10.3389/fvets.2018.00123.
Douglas, SL, Edwards, SA, Sutcliffe, E, Knap, PW and Kyriazakis, I 2013. Identification of risk factors associated with poor lifetime growth performance in pigs. Journal of Animal Science 91, 41234132.
Drickamer, LC, Arthur, RD and Rosenthal, TL 1999. Predictors of social dominance and aggression in gilts. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 63, 121129.
Edwards, S 2003. Environmental and genetic influences on the development of adverse behaviour in pigs. Final report for DEFRA project AW0126. Retrieved on 1 March 2019 from http://randd.defra.gov.uk/Default.aspx?Menu=Menu&Module=More&Location=None&ProjectID=8900&FromSearch=Y&Status=3&Publisher=1&SearchText=pig.
Edwards, SA 2002. Perinatal mortality in the pig: environmental or physiological solutions? Livestock Production Science 78, 312.
EFSA 2007. Scientific report on the risks associated with tail biting in pigs and possible means to reduce the need for tail docking considering the different housing and husbandry systems. EFSA Journal 611, 1100.
Finkemeier, MA, Langbein, J and Puppe, B 2018. Personality research in mammalian farm animals: concepts, measures, and relationship to welfare. Frontiers in Veterinary Science 5, 115. doi: 10.3389/fvets.2018.00131.
Forkman, B, Furuhaug, IL and Jensen, P 1995. Personality, coping paterns, and agression in piglets. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 45, 3142.
Foxcroft, GR, Dixon, WT, Novak, S, Putman, CT, Town, SC and Vinsky, MDA 2006. The biological basis for prenatal programming of postnatal performance in pigs. Journal of Animal Science 84 (suppl. E), E105E112.
Foxcroft, GR and Town, SC 2004. Prenatal programming of postnatal performance – the unseen cause of variance. Advances in Pork Production, 15, 269279.
Fraser, D 1987. Attraction to blood as a factor in tail-biting by pigs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 17, 6168.
Fraser, D and Rushen, J 1987. Aggressive behavior. Veterinary Clinics of North America-Food Animal Practice 3, 285305.
Fraser, D and Rushen, J 1992. Colostrum intake by newborn piglets. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 72, 113.
Frei, D, Wurbel, H, Wechsler, B, Gygax, L, Burla, JB and Weber, R 2018. Can body nosing in artificially reared piglets be reduced by sucking and massaging dummies? Applied Animal Behaviour Science 202, 2027.
Fuentes, M, Otal, J, Hevia, ML, Quiles, A and Fuentes, FC 2012. Effect of olfactory stimulation during suckling on agonistic behavior in weaned pigs. Journal of Swine Health and Production 20, 2533.
Gabor, TM, Hellgren, EC, Van den Bussche, RA and Silvy, NJ 1999. Demography, sociospatial behaviour and genetics of feral pigs (Sus scrofa) in a semi-arid environment. Journal of Zoology 247, 311322.
Gaccioli, F and Lager, S 2016. Placental nutrient transport and intrauterine growth restriction. Frontiers in Physiology 7, 18. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2016.00040.
Giroux, S, Robert, S and Martineau, GP 2000. The effects of cross-fostering on growth rate and post-weaning behavior of segregated early-weaned piglets. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 80, 533538.
Gundlach, H 1968. Maternal care, pre- and postnatal, behavioral ontogeny, and circadian activity of the European wild boar (Sus scrofa L). Zeitschrift fur Tierpsychologie 25, 955995.
Hansen, LL, Hagelso, AM and Madsen, A 1982. Behavioral results and perforamnce of bacon pigs fed ad-libitum from one or several feeders. Applied Animal Ethology 8, 307333.
Haussmann, MF, Carroll, JA, Weesner, GD, Daniels, MJ, Matteri, RL and Lay, DC 2000. Administration of ACTH to restrained, pregnant sows alters their pigs hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Journal of Animal Science 78, 23992411.
Heim, G, Mellagi, APG, Bierhals, T, Souza, LPD, Fries, HCCD, Piuco, P, Seidel, E, Bernardi, ML, Wentz, I and Bortolozzo, FP 2012. Effects of cross-fostering within 24 h after birth on pre-weaning behaviour, growth performance and survival rate of biological and adopted piglets. Livestock Science 150, 121127.
Herpin, P, Damon, M and Le Dividich, J 2002. Development of thermoregulation and neonatal survival in pigs. Livestock Production Science 78, 2545.
Hessing, MJC, Hagelso, AM, Vanbeek, JAM, Wiepkema, PR, Schouten, WGP and Krukow, R 1993. Individual behavioral characteristics in pigs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 37, 285295.
Hillmann, E, von Hollen, F, Bunger, B, Todt, D and Schrader, L 2003. Farrowing conditions affect the reactions of piglets towards novel environment and social confrontation at weaning. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 81, 99109.
Hohenshell, LM, Cunnick, JE, Ford, SP, Kattesh, HG, Zimmerman, DR, Wilson, ME, Matteri, RL, Carroll, JA and Lay, DC 2000. Few differences found between early- and late-weaned pigs raised in the same environment. Journal of Animal Science 78, 3849.
Hosp, H, Rzezniczek, M, Weber, R and Hillmann, E 2014. Effects of artificial rearing on the behaviour of piglets after regrouping. In Internationalen Arbeitstagung Angewandte Ethologie bei Nutztieren der Deutschen Veterinärmedizinischen Gesellschaft e.V. (DVG) (ed. Erhard, M, Pollmann, U, Reiter, K and Waiblinger, S). Kuratorium für Technik und Bauwesen in der Landwirtschaft, Freiburg/Breisgau, Germany.
Jacobs, C, De Keuster, T and Simoens, P 2003. Assessing the pathological extent of aggressive behaviour in dogs – A review of the literature. Veterinary Quarterly 25, 5360.
Janczak, AM, Pedersen, LJ and Bakken, M 2003. Aggression, fearfulness and coping styles in female pigs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 81, 1328.
Jensen, P and Recen, B 1989. When to wean – observations from free-ranging domestic pigs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 23, 4960.
Jensen, P and Redbo, I 1987. Behavior during nest leaving in free-ranging domestic pigs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 18, 355362.
Kanaan, VT, Pajor, EA, Lay, DC , Jr., Richert, BT and Garner, JP 2008. A note on the effects of co-mingling piglet litters on pre-weaning growth, injuries and responses to behavioural tests. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 110, 386391.
Kirkden, RD, Broom, DM and Andersen, IL 2013. Piglet mortality: management solutions. Journal of Animal Science 91, 33613389.
Klein, S, Patzkewitschl, D, Reese, S and Erhard, M 2016. Effects of socializing piglets in lactation on behaviour, including tail-biting, in growing and finishing pigs. Tieraerztliche Praxis Ausgabe Grosstiere Nutztiere 44, 141150.
Koolhaas, JM, Korte, SM, De Boer, SF, Van Der Vegt, BJ, Van Reenen, CG, Hopster, H, De Jong, IC, Ruis, MAW and Blokhuis, HJ 1999. Coping styles in animals: current status in behavior and stress-physiology. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 23, 925935.
Korte, SM, Koolhaas, JM, Wingfield, JC and McEwen, BS 2005. The Darwinian concept of stress: benefits of allostasis and costs of allostatic load and the trade-offs in health and disease. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 29, 338.
Kranendonk, G, Hopster, H, Fillerup, M, Ekkel, ED, Mulder, EJH and Taveme, MAM 2006. Cortisol administration to pregnant sows affects novelty-induced locomotion, aggressive behaviour, and blunts gender differences in their offspring. Hormones and Behavior 49, 663672.
Kranendonk, G, Hopster, H, van Eerdenburg, F, van Reenen, K, Fillerup, M, de Groot, J, Korte, M and Taverne, M 2005. Evaluation of oral administration of cortisol as a model for prenatal stress in pregnant sows. American Journal of Veterinary Research 66, 780790.
Kranendonk, G, Mulder, EJH, Parvizi, N and Taverne, MAM 2008. Prenatal stress in pigs: experimental approaches and field observations. Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes 116, 413422.
Kutzer, T, Buenger, B, Kjaer, JB and Schrader, L 2009. Effects of early contact between non-littermate piglets and of the complexity of farrowing conditions on social behaviour and weight gain. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 121, 1624.
Ladewig, J, Kloeppel, P and Kallweit, E 1984. A case of reverses cannibalism: the piglets damaging the sow. Annales de la Recherche Vétérinaire 15, 275277.
Lammers, GJ and Schouten, WGP 1985. Effect of pen size on the development of agonistic behavior in piglets. Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science 33, 305307.
Lawrence, AB, Terlouw, EMC and Illius, AW 1991. Individual differences in behavioral responses of pigs exposed to non-social and social challenges. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 30, 7386.
Lay, DC , Jr., Kattesh, HG, Cunnick, JE, Daniels, MJ, Kranendonk, G, McMunn, KA, Toscano, MJ and Roberts, MP 2011. Effect of prenatal stress on subsequent response to mixing stress and a lipopolysaccharide challenge in pigs. Journal of Animal Science 89, 17871794.
Lechner, M, Langbein, F and Reiner, G 2015. Necrosis and cannibalism – an overview. Tieraerztliche Umschau 70, 505514.
Lewis, E, Boyle, LA, O’Doherty, JV, Lynch, PB and Brophy, P 2006. The effect of providing shredded paper or ropes to piglets in farrowing crates on their behaviour and health and the behaviour and health of their dams. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 96, 117.
Maes, D, Pluym, L and Peltoniemi, O 2016. Impact of group housing of pregnant sows on health. Porcine Health Management 2, 17.
Marchant-Forde, JN, Lay, DC , Jr., McMunn, KA, Cheng, HW, Pajor, EA and Marchant-Forde, RM 2014. Postnatal piglet husbandry practices and well-being: the effects of alternative techniques delivered in combination. Journal of Animal Science 92, 11501160.
Martin, JE, Ison, SH and Baxter, EM 2015. The influence of neonatal environment on piglet play behaviour and post-weaning social and cognitive development. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 163, 6979.
McGlone, JJ 1985. A quantitative ethogram of aggressive and submissive behaviours in recently regrouped pigs. Journal of Animal Science 61, 559565.
Meese, GB and Ewbank, R 1972. Note on instability of dominace hierarchy and variations in level of aggression withing groups of fattening pigs. Animal Production 14, 359362.
Meese, GB and Ewbank, R 1973. Establisment and nature of dominance hierarchy in domesticated pigs. Animal Behaviour 21, 326334.
Melotti, L, Oostindjer, M, Bolhuis, JE, Held, S and Mendl, M 2011. Coping personality type and environmental enrichment affect aggression at weaning in pigs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 133, 144153.
Merlot, E, Quesnel, H and Prunier, A 2013. Prenatal stress, immunity and neonatal health in farm animal species. Animal 12, 20162025.
Moinard, C, Mendl, M, Nicol, CJ and Green, LE 2003. A case control study of on-farm risk factors for tail biting in pigs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 81, 333355.
Norring, M, Valros, A, Munksgaard, L, Puumala, M, Kaustell, KO and Saloniemi, H 2006. The development of skin, claw and teat lesions in sows and piglets in farrowing crates with two concrete flooring materials. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section a-Animal Science 56, 148154.
Noyes, L 1976. A behavioural comparison of gnotobiotic with normal neonate pigs, indicating stress in the former. Applied Animal Ethology 2, 113121.
Ocepek, M, Newberry, RC and Andersen, IL 2017. Trade-offs between litter size and offspring fitness in domestic pigs subjected to different genetic selection pressures. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 193, 714.
Oostindjer, M, Bolhuis, JE, Simon, K, van den Brand, H and Kemp, B 2011. Perinatal flavour learning and adaptation to being weaned: all the pig needs is smell. PLOS ONE 6, 17. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0025318.
Oostindjer, M, Bolhuis, JE, van den Brand, H, Roura, E and Kemp, B 2010. Prenatal flavor exposure affects growth, health and behavior of newly weaned piglets. Physiology & Behavior 99, 579586.
Otten, W, Kanitz, E, Tuchscherer, M and Nurnberg, G 2001. Effects of prenatal restraint stress on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical and sympatho-adrenomedullary axis in neonatal pigs. Animal Science 73, 279287.
Parois, S, Larzul, C and Prunier, A 2017. Associations between the dominance status and sexual development, skin lesions or feeding behaviour of intact male pigs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 187, 1522.
Peden, RSE, Turner, SP, Boyle, LA and Camerlink, I 2018. The translation of animal welfare research into practice: the case of mixing aggression between pigs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 204, 19.
Pedersen, LJ, Studnitz, M, Jensen, KH and Giersing, AM 1998. Suckling behaviour of piglets in relation to accessibility to the sow and the presence of foreign litters. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 58, 267279.
Pend, W, Jenny, B, Torgerson, P, Spring, P, Kuemmerlen, D and Sidler, X 2017. Effect of herd health management on the prevalence of Postpartum Dysgalaktie Syndrome (PPDS) and the treatment incidence. Schweizer Archiv Fur Tierheilkunde 159, 109116.
Petersen, HH, Nielsen, EO, Hassing, AG, Ersboll, AK and Nielsen, JP 2008. Prevalence of clinical signs of disease in Danish finisher pigs. Veterinary Record 162, 377382.
Poore, KR and Fowden, AL 2003. The effect of birth weight on hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis function in juvenile and adult pigs. Journal of Physiology-London 547, 107116.
Prunier, A, Mounier, AM and Hay, M 2005. Effects of castration, tooth resection, or tail docking on plasma metabolites and stress hormones in young pigs. Journal of Animal Science 83, 216222.
Quiniou, N, Dagorn, J and Gaudré, D 2002. Variation of piglets’ birth weight and consequences on subsequent performance. Livestock Production Science 78, 6370.
Rizvi, S, Nicol, CJ and Green, LE 1998. Risk factors for vulva biting in breeding sows in south-west England. Veterinary Record 143, 654658.
Robert, S and Martineau, GP 2001. Effects of repeated cross-fosterings on preweaning behavior and growth performance of piglets and on maternal behavior of sows. Journal of Animal Science 79, 8893.
Ruis, MAW, Brake, JHAT, Burgwal, JAVD, Jong, ICD, Blokhuis, HJ and Koolhaas, JM 2000. Personalities in female domesticated pigs: behavioural and physiological indications. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 66, 3147.
Rutherford, KMD, Baxter, EM, D’Eath, RB, Turner, SP, Arnott, G, Roehe, R, Ask, B, Sandoe, P, Moustsen, VA, Thorup, F, Edwards, SA, Berg, P and Lawrence, AB 2013. The welfare implications of large litter size in the domestic pig I: biological factors. Animal Welfare 22, 199218.
Rutherford, KMD, Donald, RD, Arnottt, G, Rooke, JA, Dixon, L, Mehers, JJM, Turnbull, J and Lawrence, AB 2012. Farm animal welfare: assessing risks attributable to the prenatal environment. Animal Welfare 21, 419429.
Rutherford, KMD, Robson, SK, Donald, RD, Jarvis, S, Sandercock, DA, Scott, EM, Nolan, AM and Lawrence, AB 2009. Pre-natal stress amplifies the immediate behavioural responses to acute pain in piglets. Biology Letters 5, 452454.
Rzezniczek, M, Gygax, L, Wechsler, B and Weber, R 2015. Comparison of the behaviour of piglets raised in an artificial rearing system or reared by the sow. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 165, 5765.
Salazar, LC, Ko, HL, Yang, CH, Llonch, L, Manteca, X, Camerlink, I and Llonch, P 2018. Early socialisation as a strategy to increase piglets’ social skills in intensive farming conditions. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 206, 2531.
Salmon, H, Berri, M, Gerdts, V and Meurens, F 2009. Humoral and cellular factors of maternal immunity in swine. Developmental and Comparative Immunology 33, 384393.
Sambraus, HH 1985. Mouth-based anomalous syndromes. In World animal science, A5, ethology of farm animals. A comprehensive study of the behavioural features of common farm animals (ed. Fraser, AF), pp. 391422. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Nertherlands.
Sandercock, DA, Gibson, IF, Rutherford, KMD, Donald, RD, Lawrence, AB, Brash, HM, Scott, EM and Nolan, AM 2011. The impact of prenatal stress on basal nociception and evoked responses to tail-docking and inflammatory challenge in juvenile pigs. Physiology & Behavior 104, 728737.
Sauber, TE, Stahly, TS and Nonnecke, BJ 1999. Effect of level of chronic immune system activation on the lactational performance of sows. Journal of Animal Science 77, 19851993.
Scheffler, K, Stamer, E, Traulsen, I and Krieter, J 2016a. Relationship between behavioural tests and agonistic interactions at different age levels in pigs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 177, 1924.
Scheffler, K, Stamer, E, Traulsen, I and Krieter, J 2016b. Estimation of genetic parameters for agonistic behaviour of pigs at different ages. Journal of Agricultural Science 154, 732741.
Schroëder-Petersen, D and Simonsen, H 2001. Tail biting in pigs. Veterinary Journal 162, 196210.
Simonsen, HB 1990. Behaviour and distribution of fattening pigs in the multi-activity pen. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 27, 311324.
Sinisalo, A, Niemi, JK, Heinonen, M and Valros, A 2012. Tail biting and production performance in fattening pigs. Livestock Science 143, 220225.
Skok, J, Prevolnik, M, Urek, T, Mesarec, N and Skorjanc, D 2014. Behavioural patterns established during suckling reappear when piglets are forced to form a new dominance hierarchy. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 161, 4250.
Statham, P, Green, L and Mendl, M 2011. A longitudinal study of the effects of providing straw at different stages of life on tail-biting and other behaviour in commercially housed pigs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 134, 100108.
Stookey, JM and Gonyou, HW 1994. The effects of regrouping on behavioral and production parameters in finishing swine. Journal of Animal Science 72, 28042811.
Straw, BE, Dewey, CE and Burgi, EJ 1998. Patterns of crossfostering and piglet mortality on commercial US and Canadian swine farms. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 33, 8389.
Taylor, NR, Main, DCJ, Mendl, M and Edwards, SA 2010. Tail-biting a new perspective. Veterinary Journal 186, 137147.
Telkänranta, H, Swan, K, Hirvonen, H and Valros, A 2014. Chewable materials before weaning reduce tail biting in growing pigs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 157, 1422.
Turner, SP, Farnworth, MJ, White, IMS, Brotherstone, S, Mendl, M, Knap, P, Penny, P and Lawrence, AB 2006. The accumulation of skin lesions and their use as a predictor of individual aggressiveness in pigs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 96, 245259.
Ursinus, WW, Reenen, CGV, Reimert, I and Bolhuis, JE 2014a. Tail biting in pigs: blood serotonin and fearfulness as pieces of the puzzle? PLOS ONE 9, e107040.
Ursinus, WW, Wijnen, HJ, Bartels, AC, Dijvesteijn, N, van Reenen, CG and Bolhuis, JE 2014b. Damaging biting behaviors in intensively kept rearing gilts: the effect of jute sacks and relations with production characteristics. Journal of Animal Science 92, 51935202.
Valros, A and Heinonen, M 2015. Save the pig tail. Porcine Health Management 1, 2.
Van de Weerd, HA, Docking, CM, Day, JEL and Edwards, SA 2005. The development of harmful social behaviour in pigs with intact tails and different enrichment backgrounds in two housing systems. Animal Science 80, 289298.
Van Putten, G and Vandeburgwal, JA 1990. Vulva biting in group-housed sows: preliminary report. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 26, 181186.
van Staaveren, N, Teixeira, DL, Hanlon, A and Boyle, LA 2017. Pig carcass tail lesions: the influence of record keeping through an advisory service and the relationship with farm performance parameters. Animal 11, 140146.
Vanheukelom, V, Driessen, B, Maenhout, D and Geers, R 2011. Peat as environmental enrichment for piglets: the effect on behaviour, skin lesions and production results. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 134, 4247.
Wattanakul, W, Sinclair, AG, Stewart, AH, Edwards, SA and English, PR 1997b. Performance and behaviour of lactating sows and piglets in crate and multisuckling systems: a study involving European White and Manor Meishan genotypes. Animal Science 64, 339349.
Wattanakul, W, Stewart, AH, Edwards, SA and English, PR 1997a. Effects of grouping piglets and changing sow location on suckling behaviour and performance. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 55, 2135.
Weary, DM, Pajor, EA, Bonenfant, M, Fraser, D and Kramer, DL 2002. Alternative housing for sows and litters Part 4. Effects of sow-controlled housing combined with a communal piglet area on pre- and post-weaning behaviour and performance. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 76, 279290.
Weary, DM, Pajor, EA, Bonenfant, M, Ross, SK, Fraser, D and Kramer, DL 1999. Alternative housing for sows and litters: 2. Effects of a communal piglet area on pre- and post-weaning behaviour and performance. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 65, 123135.
Webster, S and Dawkins, M 2000. The post-weaning behaviour of indoor-bred and outdoor-bred pigs. Animal Science 71, 265271.
Weiler, U, Isernhagen, M, Stefanski, V, Ritzmann, M, Kress, K, Hein, C and Zols, S 2016. Penile Injuries in Wild and Domestic Pigs. Animals, 6, 25.
Williams, NH, Stahly, TS and Zimmerman, DR 1997. Effect of level of chronic immune system activation on the growth and dietary lysine needs of pigs fed from 6 to 112 kg. Journal of Animal Science 75, 24812496.
Worobec, EK, Duncan, IJH and Widowski, TM 1999. The effects of weaning at 7, 14 and 28 days on piglet behaviour. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 62, 173182.
Zebunke, M, Repsilber, D, Nuernberg, G, Wittenburg, D and Puppe, B 2015. The backtest in pigs revisited – an analysis of intra-situational behaviour. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 169, 1725.
Zonderland, JJ, Kemp, B, Bracke, MBM, den Hartog, LA and Spoolder, HAM 2011a. Individual piglets’ contribution to the development of tail biting. Animal 5, 601607.
Zonderland, JJ, Schepers, F, Bracke, MBM, den Hartog, LA, Kemp, B and Spoolder, HAM 2011b. Characteristics of biter and victim piglets apparent before a tail-biting outbreak. Animal 5, 767775.
Zupan, M, Janczak, AM, Framstad, T and Zanella, AJ 2012. The effect of biting tails and having tails bitten in pigs. Physiology & Behavior 106, 638644.

Keywords

Review: Early life predisposing factors for biting in pigs

  • A. Prunier (a1), X. Averos (a2), I. Dimitrov (a3), S. A. Edwards (a4), E. Hillmann (a5), M. Holinger (a6), V. Ilieski (a7), R. Leming (a8), C. Tallet (a1), S. P. Turner (a9), M. Zupan (a10) and I. Camerlink (a11)...

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed