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Sens et usages du territoire médiéval

  • Dominique Iogna-Prat (a1)
Résumé
Résumé

Sur la base du livre de Florian Mazel, L’évêque et le territoire. L'invention médiévale de l'espace ( v e- xiii e siècle), l'article propose de revenir sur le tournant spatial qui a marqué la médiévistique française depuis une trentaine d'années. En regard des historiens du dominium qui postulent, avec les phénomènes de l’incastellamento ou de l’inecclesiamento, une fixation territoriale des hommes à l’âge féodal autour des «pôles» ou des «cellules» de domination que sont le château, l’église, le cimetière ou la paroisse, F. Mazel propose une réflexion à une autre échelle, celle du territoire comme espace d'expression de la souveraineté politique, l’Église, à travers la mise en place d'une spatialité inédite – le diocèse – précédant l’État comme institution qui se réalise à travers une construction territoriale. L'intérêt de l'analyse proposée n'est pas seulement de se concentrer, avec le diocèse, sur une échelle qui fait sens dans une dynamique hiérarchique d'ensemble de la spatialisation ecclésiale, de haut en bas, du local à l'universel, mais aussi et surtout de se demander en quoi les pratiques territoriales de l’Église médiévale permettent le passage à l'espace au sens moderne du terme, homogène et isotrope.

Abstract

Based on Florian Mazel's book L’évêque et le territoire. L'invention médiévale de l'espace ( v e- xiii e siècle), this article seeks to revisit the spatial turn that has marked medieval studies in France over the last thirty years. Historians of dominium in the feudal period draw on the phenomena of incastellamento or inecclesiamento to suggest a territorial anchoring of populations around the “poles” or “cells” of domination, namely the castle, the church, the cemetery, and the parish. Mazel, however, offers a reflection on another scale. He sees territory as a space for the expression of political sovereignty, with the church and its establishment of a new form of spatiality—the diocese—preceding the state as an institution realized through a territorial construction. Through its focus on the diocese, this analysis concentrates on a scale which makes sense within a general hierarchical dynamic of ecclesial spatialization, from top to bottom, from local to universal. But it also and above all enables an interrogation of how the territorial practices of the medieval church made possible the transition to space in the modern—homogeneous and isotropic—sense.

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Annales. Histoire, Sciences Sociales
  • ISSN: 0395-2649
  • EISSN: 1953-8146
  • URL: /core/journals/annales-histoire-sciences-sociales
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