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Multilingualism in Israel

Abstract

Israel's geographical position as a land bridge connecting Europe, Asia, and Africa, its resulting long history of conquest and reconquest, and its status as the point of focus of four major world religions (the birthplace of Judaism and Christianity, and significant to Islam and Baha'i), all assure it a long tradition of complex and ever-changing multilingualism. By the beginning of the Common Era two thousand years ago, a pattern of triglossia had emerged, with Hebrew, Judeo-Aramaic, and Greek all playing meaningful roles (Spolsky 1983). This model of language organization became the norm for the Jewish people during most of their dispersion, with separate defined functions for three languages. Hebrew (actually Hebrew and Talmudic Aramaic) was used for religious and literacy purposes; a Jewish language like Yiddish, Judeo-French, Ladino, or Judeo-Arabic was used for most other community and home functions (Rabin 1981); and one or more “co-territorial vernaculars” was used for communication with non-Jews (Weinreich 1980).

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This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

E. Barkon and E. Avinor . 1995. Academic difficulties and early literacy deprivation: The case of Ethiopians in Israel. Language, Culture and Curriculum. 8.201210.

J. Fellman 1973b. The revival of a classical tongue: Eliezer ben Yehuda and the modern Hebrew language. The Hague: Mouton.

S. B. Saulson (ed.) 1979. Institutionalized language planning. The Hague: Mouton. [Studies in the Sociology of Language.]

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Annual Review of Applied Linguistics
  • ISSN: 0267-1905
  • EISSN: 1471-6356
  • URL: /core/journals/annual-review-of-applied-linguistics
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