Field populations of Oscillatoriales, from fresh and saline lakes and ponds, and from terrestrial habitats, are characterised on the basis of their morphology and morphometry. Fifteen morphotypes are recognized principally from the following characteristics; cross-sectional shape of the trichome, presence or absence of a calyptra on the apical cell, occurrence or otherwise of numerous trichomes within a common sheath, and trichome width distribution. Where possible morphotypes are assigned to traditional species described by earlier investigations of algae in the Ross Sea region and a reassessment is made of the early descriptions, in some cases using material from the identical locations to the original collections. The following traditional species are described; Lyngbya murrayi, Microcoleus vaginatus, Oscillatoria deflexa, O. koettlitzi, O. priestleyi, O. sancta, Phormidium autumnale and P. subproboscidea. Intraspecific morphotypes of M. vaginatus, O. priestleyi and P. autumnale are recognised on the basis of trichome width. A new species and variety of Crinalium (Crow) Winder, Stal & Mur, a genus characterized by flattened trichomes, are described from cryoconite ponds on glaciers. C. glaciale sp. nov. possesses wide, straight trichomes in contrast to C. glaciale var. helicoides nov. var. in which trichomes are narrower and helically coiled.
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